Prenolepis naoroji

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Prenolepis naoroji
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Lasiini
Genus: Prenolepis
Species: P. naoroji
Binomial name
Prenolepis naoroji
Forel, 1902

Prenolepis naoroji antweb1008047 p 1 high.jpg

Prenolepis naoroji antweb1008047 d 1 high.jpg

Synonyms

This species is relatively common in the northern India and can be found on trees, fallen trunks, and occasionally on ground. P. naroji, was mostly collected by beating on vegetation, indicating that it is an arboreal forager. (Bharti and Wachkoo 2012)

Identification

Williams and LaPolla (2016) - Compound eyes very large (REL > 30, REL2 > 34) and strongly convex, extending well beyond the lateral margins of the head; covered in very long, erect macrosetae; faint blue cuticular iridescence. Quite variable in color across its large range.

Most similar species. Prenolepis angularis, Prenolepis jerdoni, Prenolepis subopaca.

This species and P. angularis are the only two Prenolepis species to have a light blue cuticular iridescence. Prenolepis naoroji has very large compound eyes (REL > 30; REL2 > 34) similar to those of P. jerdoni and P. subopaca, but the latter two have elongate petioles and do not have a cuticular iridescence.

Bharti and Wachkoo (2012) - The workers of Prenolepis naoroji are identified easily by the long scapes and setae, and bulging eyes. However, there is a considerable variation in size and color patterns.

Prenolepis of India

  • Scapes short, surpassing posterior margin of head by less than half their length (SI: 101.51-109.68), ocelli present . . . . . Prenolepis fisheri
  • Scapes very long, surpassing posterior margin of head by about half their length (SI: 153.85-182.35), ocelli absent . . . . . Prenolepis naoroji

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Much like Prenolepis imparis, this species also has a wide distribution, appears relatively often in collections, and is quite variable in color. Its range extends from India and China and down to Malaysia and Indonesia.

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Indo-Australian Region: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines.
Oriental Region: India (type locality), Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam.
Palaearctic Region: China (type locality).

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Biology

Castes

Worker

Queen

Male

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • naoroji. Prenolepis naoroji Forel, 1902d: 290 (w.) INDIA.
    • [Misspelled as navrojii by Collingwood, 1970: 379.]
    • Bharti & Wachkoo, 2012d: 124 (q.m.).
    • Status as species: Bingham, 1903: 331; Wu, J. & Wang, 1992: 1313; Bolton, 1995b: 364; Wu, J. & Wang, 1995: 138; Xu, 1995c: 338 (in key); Zhou, 2001b: 172; Bharti & Wachkoo, 2012d: 122 (redescription).
    • Senior synonym of longiventris, magnocula: Williams & LaPolla, 2016: 234.
  • longiventris. Prenolepis longiventris Zhou, 2001b: 173, 241, fig. 343 (w.) CHINA.
    • Junior synonym of naoroji: Williams & LaPolla, 2016: 234.
  • magnocula. Prenolepis magnocula Xu, 1995c: 339, figs. 4-6 (w.) CHINA.
    • Junior synonym of naoroji: Williams & LaPolla, 2016: 234.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

Bharti and Wachkoo (2012) - 78.67-89.23; SI 153.85-182.35 (n = 20).

Head. Head broadly oval, longer than broad, broader posteriorly than in front, occipital margin straight with rounded corners, sides convex. Anterior margin of clypeus broad, with a slight medial emargination; longitudinally carinate in the middle. Mandibles with 6 teeth on the masticatory margin, counting from apex 3rd and 5th teeth are reduced. Eyes round, large and bulging; ocelli absent. Antennae remarkably long, scapes extending about 1/2 of their length beyond occipital margin of head, flagellum filiform. Frontal carina feeble, short and diverging.

Mesosoma. Mesosoma rather long, strongly constricted in the middle; in side view convexity formed by pronotum and mesonotum together, is sub equal to propodeal convexity; declivous face obliquely truncate.

Petiole. Petiole low with shallow emargination, less compressed anteroposteriorly than in Prenolepis fisheri, triangular in profile, inclined forward, with posterior face longer than anterior face.

Gaster. Gaster elongate and gibbous.

Sculpture and pilosity. Cuticular surface smooth and shining; devoid of pubescence. Remarkably long setae of varying lengths cover the whole insect, denser on gaster and longest on head, reaching up to 0.41 mm.

Color. Castaneous to dark piceous brown; mesosoma, mandibles, antennae and legs lighter.

Williams and LaPolla (2016) - (n=38): CMC: 12–17; EL: 0.22–0.29; EW: 0.21–0.24; HL: 0.62–0.81; HLA: 0.32–0.39; HLP: 0.19–0.24; HW: 0.54–0.70; IOD: 0.40–0.48; LF1: 0.22–0.26; LF2: 0.11–0.14; LHT: 1.01– 1.22; MMC: 1–2; MTW: 0.35–0.47; MW: 0.21–0.29; PDH: 0.26–0.35; PMC: 2–4; PrCL: 0.40–0.50; PrCW: 0.21– 0.26; PrFL: 0.73–1.00; PrFW: 0.14–0.24; PTH: 0.35–0.37; PTL: 0.32–0.38; PTW: 0.19–0.28; PW: 0.42–0.53; SL: 0.95–1.29; TL: 2.53–3.97; WF1: 0.06–0.07; WF2: 0.04–0.06; WL: 0.87–1.27; BLI: 146–187; CI: 83–94; EPI: 155– 188; FLI: 184–223; HTI: 153–184; PetHI: 128–132; PetWI: 68–75; PrCI: 46–53; PrFI: 17–24; REL: 31–38; REL2: 34–45; REL3: 50–61; SI: 153–194.

Light to dark brown with head and gaster sometimes darker than mesosoma and cuticle having a faint blue iridescence; cuticle of head and mesosoma smooth and shiny; cuticle of mesopleuron smooth or very lightly reticulate; cuticle of gaster lightly reticulate; abundant decumbent setae on scapes and legs; abundant long, erect macrosetae on head, mesosoma, and gaster; head slightly longer than broad and oval in shape with indistinct posterolateral corners and a convex posterior margin; compound eyes very large (REL > 30; REL2 > 34) and strongly convex, surpassing the lateral margin in full-face view; torulae overlap with the posterior border of the clypeus; clypeus strongly medially convex and without prominent anterolateral lobes; mandibles with 6–7 teeth (usually 6) on the masticatory margin; ectal surface of mandibles with light longitudinal striations; in profile view, propodeum is domed with a rounded dorsal face; dorsal apex of petiole scale is sharply angled and forward-inclined.

Queen

Bharti and Wachkoo (2012) - Measurements: HL 0.97; HW 1.08; WL 1.8; SL 1.21. Indices: CI 111.34; SI 112.08 (n = 1).

As in worker, with modifications expected for caste and the following differences: overall color darker than in workers, with head and gastral dorsum brown; mesosoma with lighter reddish brown patches especially on scutum and propodeal declivity. Entire body punctured, but more pronounced on head followed by mesosoma; setae of varying lengths cover entire body but longer ones restricted to head and shorter, denser ones on gaster, with only a few on mesosoma; pubescence most abundant on gaster. Mandibles 6-toothed. Mesosoma without any constriction, very robust, with raised scutellum interrupting the regular convexity above, propodeal declivity very steep. Petiole broad, strongly compressed anteroposteriorly and lower than in workers, its dorsal border deeply emarginated. Gaster short and gibbous.

Male

Bharti and Wachkoo (2012) - Measurements: HL 0.63-0.65; HW 0.67-0.71; WL 1.2-1.24; SL 0.35-0.38. Indices: CI 104.69-109.52; SI 52.24-55.07 (n = 3).

Head. Head about as broad as long; eyes large and bulging beyond head outline in full-frontal view; three prominent ocelli present. Antennae 13 segmented, filiform, scapes short, failing to reach the posterior margin of head. Clypeus carinate in middle, roughly rectangular with entire anterior margin. Mandibles slender, curved strap like, the apex simple and acute without any teeth or denticles.

Mesosoma. Mesosoma enlarged to accommodate flight muscles, not constricted; pronotum small; scutum punctate, scutellum raised; declivity steep.

Petiole. Petiole broad, very low, with apex slightly emarginated.

Gaster. Gaster elongated.

Genitalia. Parameres elongated, roughly triangular, slightly bent inward at apices, covered with long setae; cuspi with short peg-like teeth and bent toward digiti; digiti straight and long, about 3 times as long as cuspi with round dorsum, covered by short peg-like teeth and bent towards each other apically; penis valve projecting.

Vestiture. Setae of varying lengths cover entire body; pubescence most abundant on gaster with terminalia especially setose.

Color. Blackish, darker than corresponding workers and queens.

Type Material

Williams and LaPolla (2016) - Holotype worker, India (Musee d'Histoire Naturelle Genève: CASENT0911042) [examined].

References