Pristomyrmex eduardi

AntWiki - Where Ant Biologists Share Their Knowledge
Jump to: navigation, search
Pristomyrmex eduardi
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Pristomyrmex
Species: P. eduardi
Binomial name
Pristomyrmex eduardi
Forel, 1914

Pristomyrmex eduardi casent0908956 p 1 high.jpg

Pristomyrmex eduardi casent0908956 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Nothing is known about the biology of Pristomyrmex eduardi.

Identification

Wang (2003) - Worker. Masticatory margin of mandible with five teeth; pronotum unarmed; eyes with three to four ommatidia in the largest row. Its two close relatives are Pristomyrmex quindentatus, from Indonesia, and Pristomyrmex occultus, from Indonesia and Malaysia. Pristomyrmex eduardi can be separated from P. quindentatus and P. occultus because it lacks pronotal armaments and possesses smaller eyes (EL = 0.07, with three to four ommatidia in the longest row) in the workers.

A member of the Quadridens species group

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Indo-Australian Region: Indonesia (type locality).

Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

The biology of most Pristomyrmex species is poorly known. From Wang (2003): Most species of Pristomyrmex dwell in the rainforest, foraging as predators or scavengers. An Asian species, Pristomyrmex punctatus, however, occurs in open and disturbed habitats (e.g., bare hills, agricultural areas, and beaches). These ants prefer to nest in soil, litter, or rotten wood; in rotten parts of living trees; in dead standing trees; or around plant roots.

Pristomyrmex is of great interest because it exhibits several unusual biological and evolutionary phenomena. The absence of morphologically normal queens and reproduction primarily by unmated workers in P. punctatus {=P. pungens) is a highly unusual life history in the Formicidae. Ergatoid queens, a special wingless female caste morphologically intermediate between the queen and the worker, are present in at least four species: Pristomyrmex punctatus, Pristomyrmex africanus, Pristomyrmex wheeleri, and Pristomyrmex mandibularis; two of them (P. africanus and P. wheeleri) possess both queen and ergatoid queen castes.

Simulating death, slowness of movement, and nocturnal foraging has been recorded in Pristomyrmex (Donisthorpe, 1946; Taylor, 1965; Weber, 1941). Colony size varies greatly among species, ranging from about a dozen to several thousand workers (Donisthorpe, 1946; Itow et al, 1984; Mann, 1919; Taylor, 1965, 1968).

Castes

Known only from the worker holotype.

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • eduardi. Pristomyrmex eduardi Forel, 1914d: 232 (footnote) (w.) INDONESIA (Sumatra). See also: Wang, M. 2003: 440.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

Wang (2003) - TL 2.9, HL 0.77, HW 0.74, CI 96, SL 0.68, SI 92, EL 0.07, PW 0.50, AL 0.78 (n = 1).

Mandibles smooth and shining, except for a few longitudinal rugae. Masticatory margin of mandible with five teeth arranged as the strongest apical + the second strongest preapical + a diastema + three small denticles of similar size; the length of diastema is about equal to the distance covered by three small denticles. Basal margin of mandible lacking a toothlike prominence. Clypeus depressed, with a short median carina that does not reach the anterior clypeal margin but runs through the frontal area. Anterior clypeal margin with five toothlike prominences; the median three somewhat truncated. Ventral center of clypeus with a prominent tooth. Frontal carinae strong, extending to the level of the posterior margins of eyes and forming the dorsal margins of the shallow scrobes. Frontal lobes weak. Eye small, with three to four ommatidia in the longest row. Occipital margin in full-face view feebly concave. Pronotum unarmed, lacking a pair of teeth or spines. Propodeum armed with a pair of acute short spines. Metapleural lobes prominent and rounded. Petiole in profile view with a fairly long anterior peduncle; the anterodorsal angle of the node high, and its dorsum sloping downward posteriorly. Postpetiole in profile with a rounded dorsum. Dorsum of head with coarse rugoreticulum, except for a smooth, median longitudinal strip. Dorsum of alitrunk, as well as two sides of pronotum, with developed rugoreticulum. Petiole and postpetiole smooth and shining. Gaster unsculptured. Dorsal surfaces of head and alitrunk with numerous erect or suberect short hairs. Two pairs of the similar hairs present on the dorsum of petiolar node and three pairs on the dorsum of postpetiole. First gastral tergite lacking erect or suberect hairs. A few pairs of forward-projecting hairs present near the anterior clypeal margin. Scapes and tibiae with some erect to suberect short hairs. Color reddish-brown.

Type Material

Holotype worker. Sumatra Oriental, Bah Boelian (M. v. Buttel) Musee d'Histoire Naturelle Genève [examined].

References

  • Forel, A. 1914d. Formicides d'Afrique et d'Amérique nouveaux ou peu connus. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 50: 211-288 (page 232, (footnote) worker described)
  • Wang, M. 2003. A Monographic Revision of the Ant Genus Pristomyrmex (Hymenoptera:Formicidae). Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 157(6): 383-542 (page 440, see also)