Pseudoneoponera sublaevis

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Pseudoneoponera sublaevis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Ponerinae
Tribe: Ponerini
Genus: Pseudoneoponera
Species: P. sublaevis
Binomial name
Pseudoneoponera sublaevis
(Emery, 1887)

Pachycondyla sublaevis casent0901977 p 1 high.jpg

Pachycondyla sublaevis casent0901977 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels


This species occurs in Australian Eucalyptus forests, and nests in the ground (Peeters et al., 1991).

At a Glance • Gamergate  



Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Australasian Region: Australia (type locality).

Check distribution from AntMaps.

Distribution based on specimens

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The above specimen data are provided by AntWeb. Please see Pseudoneoponera sublaevis for further details


P. sublaevis reproduces via gamergates, but only a single worker in the colony is mated and performs all reproduction in the colony (Ito & Higashi, 1991; Peeters et al., 1991). Workers in a colony are organized in a strict linear hierarchy determined by age and by ritualized dominance displays (Higashi et al., 1994).

Colonies are exceptionally small (9±2.5 workers, sample of 12 colonies) (Peeters et al., 1991).



The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • sublaevis. Bothroponera sublaevis Emery, 1887b: 442 (w.) AUSTRALIA. Wheeler, W.M. 1918c: 299 (l.); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1952c: 621 (l.); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1971c: 387 (l.). Combination in Pachycondyla (Bothroponera): Emery, 1901a: 45; in Bothroponera: Taylor & Brown, D.R. 1985: 22; in Pachycondyla: Brown, in Bolton, 1995b: 310; in Bothroponera: Joma & Mackay, 2013: 2; in Pseudoneoponera: Schmidt & Shattuck, 2014: 135. Current subspecies: nominal plus kurandensis, murina, reticulata (unresolved junior homonym), rubicunda.

Type Material



  • Brown, W. L., Jr. 1995a. [Untitled. Taxonomic changes in Pachycondyla attributed to Brown.] Pp. 302-311 in: Bolton, B. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. (page 310, combination in Pachycondyla)
  • Emery, C. 1887f. Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte terza. Formiche della regione Indo-Malese e dell'Australia (continuazione e fine). [part]. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 25[=(2)(5): 433-448 (page 442, worker described)
  • Emery, C. 1901b. Notes sur les sous-familles des Dorylines et Ponérines (Famille des Formicides). Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 45: 32-54 (page 45, Combination in Pachycondyla (Bothroponera))
  • Ito F & Higashi S. 1991. A linear dominance hierarchy regulating reproduction and polyethism of the queenless ant Pachycondyla sublaevis. Naturwissenschaften 78: 80–82.
  • Peeters, C., S. Higashi & F. Ito 1991. Reproduction in ponerine ants without queens: monogyny and exceptionally small colonies in the Australian Pachycondyla sublaevis. Ethology, Ecology & Evolution, 3: 145-152. PDF
  • Schmidt, C.A. & Shattuck, S.O. 2014. The higher classification of the ant subfamily Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a review of ponerine ecology and behavior. Zootaxa. 3817, 1–242 (doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3817.1.1)
  • Taylor, R. W.; Brown, D. R. 1985. Formicoidea. Zool. Cat. Aust. 2:1- 149: 1-149, 30 (page 22, Combination in Bothroponera)
  • Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1952c. The ant larvae of the subfamily Ponerinae - Part II. Am. Midl. Nat. 48: 604-672 (page 621, larva described)
  • Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1971c. The larvae of the ant genus Bothroponera (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 73: 386-394 (page 387, larva described)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1918c. A study of some ant larvae, with a consideration of the origin and meaning of the social habit among insects. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 57: 293-343 (page 299, larva described)