Pupal cocoons

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Presence and absence of pupal cocoons in ants.

Subfamily Cocoons Source Notes
Aenictinae Absent Brady & Ward, 2005
Aenictogitoninae Uncertain Brady & Ward, 2005
Agroecomyrmecinae Uncertain
Amblyoponinae Present Brady & Ward, 2005 Reported as absent in Amblyopone (Mann, 1919) but this is an exception as most Amblyopone species (and close relatives) have cocoons (Brady & Ward, 2005)
Aneuretinae Present
Cerapachyinae Present Brady & Ward, 2005
Dolichoderinae Absent
Dorylinae Absent Brady & Ward, 2005
Ecitoninae Polymorphic Brady & Ward, 2005 Present in Eciton, Labidus and Nomamyrmex, absent in Neivamyrmex (Brady & Ward, 2005)
Ectatomminae Present Brady & Ward, 2005
Formicinae Polymorphic Absent in nest weaving species, sporadically absent in Lasius and Formica, absent in Prenolepis and Nylanderia (Trager, 1984)
Heteroponerinae Uncertain
Leptanillinae Absent Masuko, 1990 Anomalomyrmini uncertain
Leptanilloidinae Uncertain Brady & Ward, 2005
Martialinae Uncertain
Myrmeciinae Present Brady & Ward, 2005
Myrmicinae Absent
Paraponerinae Present Brady & Ward, 2005
Ponerinae Polymorphic Absent in Hypoponera (Taylor, 1967) and most Ponera (Baroni Urbani et al., 1992), present in Ponera coarctata
Proceratiinae Absent Emery, 1910; Taylor, 1965
Pseudomyrmecinae Absent

Distribution of pupal cocoons across the ant subfamilies

Colour codes: Uncertain, Present, Absent, Polymorphic. See Phylogeny of Formicidae for details on the relationships among subfamilies.



Martialinae




Leptanillinae





Amblyoponinae



Proceratiinae




Ponerinae




Agroecomyrmecinae



Paraponerinae









Cerapachyinae



Leptanilloidinae





Aenictinae



Cerapachyinae



Ecitoninae




Aenictogitoninae



Dorylinae









Formicinae



Myrmicinae





Ectatomminae



Heteroponerinae







Myrmeciinae



Pseudomyrmecinae





Aneuretinae



Dolichoderinae









References

  • Baroni Urbani, C. (1989) Phylogeny and behavioural evolution in ants, with a discussion of the role of behaviour in evolutionary processes. Ethology Ecology & Evolution, 1, 137-168.
  • Bolton, B. (1990) Army ants reassessed: the phylogeny and classification of the doryline section (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Journal of Natural History, 24, 1339-1364.
  • Brady, S.G. & Ward, P.S. (2005) Morphological phylogeny of army ants and other dorylomorphs (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology, 30, 593–618.
  • Brown, W.L., Jr, Gotwald. W.H. & Levieux, J. (1970) A new genus of ponerine ants from West Africa with ecological notes. Psyche, 77, 259- 275.
  • Emery. C. (1910) Hymcnoptera Fam. Formicidae Subfam. Dorylinae. In: Genera Insectorurn (ed. by P. Wytsman), Fasc. 102, 34 pp., 1 pl. L. Desmet-Verteneuil Impr., Bruxelles.
  • Gotwald, W.H., Jr (1982) Army ants. Social Insects (ed. by H. R. Hermann), Vol. IV, pp. 157-254. Academic Press, New York.
  • Mann, W.M. (1919) The ants of the British Solomon Islands. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, 63,273-391.
  • Masuko, K. (1990) Behavior and ecology of the enigmatic ant Leptanilla japonica Baroni Urbani (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Leptanillinae). Insects Sociaux, 37, 31-57.
  • Rettenmeyer, C.W. (1963) Behavioral studies of army ants. University of Kansas Science Bulletin, 44, 281–465.
  • Taylor, R.W. (1965) A monographic revision of the rare tropicopolitan ant genus Probolomyrmex Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 117, 345-365.
  • Taylor, R.W. (1967) A monographic revision of the ant genus Ponera Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pacific Insects Monograph, 13, 112 pp.
  • Trager, J.C. (1984) A revision of the genus Paratrechina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the continental United States. Sociobiology, 9, 51-162.
  • Wheeler, W.M. (1915) On the presence and absence of cocoons among ants, the nest spinning habits of the larvae and the significance of the black cocoons among certain Australian species. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 8, 323-342.
  • Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. (1976) Ant larvae: review and synthesis. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Washington 7, v + 108 pp.