Queen and Male Morphology

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This page defines terms of the mesosoma of queens and males, and serves as a complement to the Morphological Terms page, given that the latter focuses on worker morphology.

Note that since the publication of Boudinot (2015), one term should be definitively added to the list: "parapsides". The "parapsis" is the area delimited medially by the parapsidal line and laterally by the parascutal carina; the anteroposterior length of this area depends strictly on the length of the parapsidal line. Wheeler (1910: The Ants) appears to have been the first to use this term for the mesoscutum of alate Formicidae, and the term should be in general usage given its adoption by Snodgrass (1935: Principles of Insect Morphology; 1956: Anatomy of the Honey Bee) and the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (concept ID: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000695).

Queen and Male Mesosomata

Boudinot 2015. Figure 2.

AsII = abdominal sternum II, Lcpmsp = lateral coxal articular process of the mesopleuron, Lcpmtp = lateral coxal articular process of the metapleuron, Mcpmsp = medial coxal articular process of the mesopectus, Mcpmtp = medial coxal articular process of the metapectus, Msd = mesodiscrimen, Msp = mesopectus, Mscf = mesocoxal foramen, Mspfp = mesoprefurcal pit, Mtcf = metacoxal foramen, Mtp = metapectus, Mtpfp = metaprefurcal pit, Prn = pronotum, Vlmspl = ventrolateral mesopectal line.

Boudinot 2015. Figure 1.

Anep = anepisternum, Ax = axilla, Axu = axillula, Ktep = katepisternum, Lmpl = lower metapleuron, Mepm = mesepimeron, Msmtps = mesometapleural suture, Msnt = mesonotum, Mspp = mesopleural pit, Mssctla = mesoscutellar arm, Mssctld = mesoscutellar disc, Mssctm = mesoscutum, Mtsctt = metascutellar trouch, Mtpds = metapleuropropodeal suture, Not = notaulus, Oms = oblique mesopleural sulcus, Pl = parapsidal line, Ppd = propodeum, Ppdl = propodeal lobe, Ppdsp = propodeal spiracle, Prax = preaxilla, Prnt = pronotum, Prntl = pronotal lobe, Psc = parascutellar carina, Saa = subalar area, Scscs = scutoscutellar suture, Spsc = spiracular sclerite, Sss = scutoscutellar sulcus, Tg = tegulum, Tscl = transscutal line, Umpl = upper metapleuron.


  • Boudinot, B.E. 2015. Contributions to the knowledge of Formicidae (Hymenoptera, Aculeata): a new diagnosis of the family, the first global male-based key to subfamilies, and a treatment of early branching lineages. European Journal of Taxonomy. 120:1-62. doi:10.5852/ejt.2015.120