Stigmacros

AntWiki - Where Ant Biologists Share Their Knowledge
Jump to: navigation, search
Stigmacros
Stigmacros punctatissima
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Melophorini
Genus: Stigmacros
Forel, 1905
Type species
Acantholepis (Acrostigma) froggatti, now Stigmacros froggatti
Diversity
48 species
(Species Checklist)

Stigmacros punctatissima psw8215-2 profile 1.jpg

Stigmacros punctatissima

Stigmacros punctatissima psw8215-2 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Synonyms
Evolutionary Relationships
Formicinae

Myrmelachistini
  (2 genera)




Lasiini
  (10 genera)




Melophorini


Melophorus
  (92 species)



Stigmacros
  (48 species)






Myrmecorhynchus
  (3 species)




Lasiophanes
  (6 species)



Notostigma
  (2 species)







Notoncus
  (6 species)



Pseudonotoncus
  (2 species)





Prolasius
  (20 species)



Teratomyrmex
  (3 species)









Formicini
  (8 genera)





Gesomyrmex, Oecophylla



Plagiolepidini
  (9 genera)





Gigantiops, Myrmoteras, Santschiella



Camponotini
  (8 genera)








Based on Ward et al. 2016.

Stigmacros is only known to occur in Australia. Species are general predators and forage on the ground, in leaf litter and arboreally on trees and shrubs. Most nest in the soil, usually under or between rocks, although a few are known to nest under bark or in dead wood on living trees. They can be relatively common with 4 or 5 species being found together at some sites.

Identification

The antennae are 11 segmented (including the scape). The propodeum armed with one or more pairs of spines, teeth or protuberances. The top of the petiole is usually rounded or angula, but in some it is armed with a pair of spines.

Most species of Stigmacros can be recognised by their small overall size and distinct spines on the propodeum and top of the petiole. However, some have the propodeal spines reduced and the top of the petiole rounded. These ants look very similar to the dolichoderine genus Ochetellus or smaller species of Prolasius in overall body shape, especially in having the rear face of the propodeum straight or concave. However, Stigmacros can be distinguished from these as they have 11 segmented antennae.

Keys including this Genus

Keys to Species in this Genus

Distribution

Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps

Biology

Castes

Head of worker Side of worker Top of worker

Worker of Stigmacros from Queensland.

Morphology

Worker Morphology

 • Antennal segment count 11 • Antennal club gradual • Palp formula 6,4 • Total dental count 4-5 • Spur formula 1 simple, 1 simple • Eyes present • Scrobes absent • Sting absent (from literature)

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • STIGMACROS [Formicinae: Lasiini]
    • Stigmacros Forel, 1905b: 179 [as subgenus of Acantholepis]. Replacement name for Acrostigma Forel, 1902h: 477. [Junior homonym of †Acrostigma Emery, 1891a: 149.]
    • Stigmacros raised to genus: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 696.
    • Stigmacros senior synonym of Campostigmacros, Chariostigmacros, Cyrtostigmacros, Hagiostigmacros, Pseudostigmacros: Taylor & Brown, D.R. 1985: 145.
  • ACROSTIGMA [junior homonym, see Stigmacros]
    • Acrostigma Forel, 1902h: 477 [as subgenus of Acantholepis]. Type-species: Acantholepis (Acrostigma) froggatti, by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 158. [Junior homonym of †Acrostigma Emery, 1891a: 149, above.]
    • Stigmacros Forel, 1905b: 179, replacement name for Acrostigma Forel.
  • CAMPOSTIGMACROS [junior synonym of Stigmacros]
    • Campostigmacros McAreavey, 1957: 25 [as subgenus of Stigmacros]. Type-species: Acantholepis aemula, by original designation.
    • Campostigmacros junior synonym of Stigmacros: Taylor & Brown, D.R. 1985: 145.
  • CHARIOSTIGMACROS [junior synonym of Stigmacros]
    • Chariostigmacros McAreavey, 1957: 23 [as subgenus of Stigmacros]. Type-species: Stigmacros (Chariostigmacros) hirsuta, by original designation.
    • Chariostigmacros junior synonym of Stigmacros: Taylor & Brown, D.R. 1985: 145.
  • CYRTOSTIGMACROS [junior synonym of Stigmacros]
    • Cyrtostigmacros McAreavey, 1957: 35 [as subgenus of Stigmacros]. Type-species: Acantholepis (Acrostigma) australis, by original designation.
    • Cyrtostigmacros junior synonym of Stigmacros: Taylor & Brown, D.R. 1985: 145.
  • HAGIOSTIGMACROS [junior synonym of Stigmacros]
    • Hagiostigmacros McAreavey, 1957: 19 [as subgenus of Stigmacros]. Type-species: Stigmacros barretti, by original designation.
    • Hagiostigmacros junior synonym of Stigmacros: Taylor & Brown, D.R. 1985: 145.
  • PSEUDOSTIGMACROS [junior synonym of Stigmacros]
    • Pseudostigmacros McAreavey, 1957: 24 [as subgenus of Stigmacros]. Type-species: Stigmacros (Pseudostigmacros) inermis, by original designation.
    • Pseudostigmacros junior synonym of Stigmacros: Taylor & Brown, D.R. 1985: 145.

References

  • Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. (page 51, Stigmacros in Formicinae, Plagiolepidini)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 99, Stigmacros in Formicinae, Lasiini)
  • Dlussky, G. M.; Fedoseeva, E. B. 1988. Origin and early stages of evolution in ants. Pp. 70-144 in: Ponomarenko, A. G. (ed.) Cretaceous biocenotic crisis and insect evolution. Moskva: Nauka, 232 pp. (page 77, Stigmacros incertae sedis in Formicinae)
  • Donisthorpe, H. 1943h. A list of the type-species of the genera and subgenera of the Formicidae. [concl.]. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 11(10): 721-737 (page 728, Stigmacros in Formicinae, Myrmelachistini)
  • Emery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183: 1-302 (page 34, Stigmacros in Formicinae, Myrmelachistini; Stigmacros as genus)
  • Forel, A. 1905e. Miscellanea myrmécologiques II (1905). Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 49: 155-185 (page 179, Stigmacros as subgenus of Acantholepis; replacement name for Acrostigma Forel, 1902j: 477)
  • Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 249, Stigmacros in Camponotinae, Plagiolepidini; Stigmacros as subgenus of Acantholepis)
  • Hölldobler, B.; Wilson, E. O. 1990. The ants. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, xii + 732 pp. (page 18, Stigmacros in Formicinae, Prenolepidini (error))
  • McAreavey, J. 1957. Revision of the genus Stigmacros Forel. Mem. Natl. Mus. Vic. 21: 7-64 (page 7, Stigmacros as genus; Stigmacros in Formicinae, Plagiolepidini)
  • Taylor, R. W.; Brown, D. R. 1985. Formicoidea. Zool. Cat. Aust. 2:1- 149: 1-149, 30 (page 145, Stigmacros senior synonym of Campostigmacros, Chariostigmacros, Cyrtostigmacros, Hagiostigmacros, and Pseudostigmacros)
  • Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1970b. Ant larvae of the subfamily Formicinae: second supplement. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 63: 648-656 (page 651, Stigmacros in Formicinae, Brachymyrmecini)
  • Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1985b. A simplified conspectus of the Formicidae. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 111: 255-264 (page 258, Stigmacros in Formicinae, Brachymyrmecini)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1910b. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. (page 143, Stigmacros as subgenus of Acantholepis)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1911g. A list of the type species of the genera and subgenera of Formicidae. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 21: 157-175 (page 158, Type-species: Acantholepis (Acrostigma) froggatti by subsequent designation)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 696, Stigmacros as genus; Stigmacros in Formicinae, Plagiolepidini)