Strongylognathus testaceus

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Strongylognathus testaceus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Strongylognathus
Species: S. testaceus
Binomial name
Strongylognathus testaceus
(Schenck, 1852)

Strongylognathus testaceus casent0103240 profile 1.jpg

Strongylognathus testaceus casent0103240 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

Synonyms

This species is a slave maker and is only found in nests with its host, Tetramorium caespitum. It occurs in a range of habitats including steppe habitats and pine forests in Russia (Zryanin & Zryanina, 2007).

At a Glance • Slave-maker  
 

Identification

Yellowish brown. Head rectangular with pronounced occipital emargination and postero-lateral angles. Body shining with long fine pale hairs present also on appendages. Sculpture variable, with longitudinal striae present or more or less effaced on head and alitrunk. Length: 2.0-3.6 mm (Collingwood 1979).

Distribution

Pyrenees to Ukraine, North Italy to Sweden (Collingwood 1979).

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Georgia, Germany (type locality), Greece, Hungary, Iberian Peninsula, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Distribution based on AntMaps

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Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Collingwood (1979) - This species occurs only in the nests of its host Tetramorium caespitum. Workers and brood of both host and parasite are present but only the sexuals of Strongylognathus are developed, the original Tetramorium queen as well as the adoptive Strongylognathus queen usually being found present together.

S. testaceus workers are normally greatly outnumbered by Tetramorium workers. Observations on this and related species suggest that neighbouring nests of the host species are raided to recruit more Tetramorium pupae to the colony which is often very populous with up to 20,000 individuals. Alatae are present in July and August.

Castes

Queen

Male

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • testaceus. Eciton testaceum Schenck, 1852: 117 (w.q.m.) GERMANY. Combination in Strongylognathus: Mayr, 1853d: 390. Senior synonym of emarginatus: Mayr, 1853d: 390; of diveri: Brown, 1955c: 113. See also: Baroni Urbani, 1971c: 151; Kutter, 1977c: 166; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 156; Sanetra, Güsten & Schulz, 1999: 343.
  • emarginatus. Myrmus emarginatus Schenck, 1853: 188 (w.) GERMANY. Junior synonym of testaceus: Mayr, 1853d: 390.
  • diveri. Strongylognathus diveri Donisthorpe, 1936c: 113, figs. 1, 2, 7 (w.) GREAT BRITAIN. Junior synonym of testaceus: Brown, 1955c: 113.

Description

References

  • Atanassov, N.; Dlussky, G. M. 1992. Fauna of Bulgaria. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Fauna Bûlg. 22: 1-310 (page 156, see also)
  • Baroni Urbani, C. 1971c. Catalogo delle specie di Formicidae d'Italia (Studi sulla mirmecofauna d'Italia X). Mem. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 50: 5-287 (page 151, see also)
  • Brown, W. L., Jr. 1955c. The identity of the British Strongylognathus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Soc. Br. Entomol. 5: 113-114 (page 113, Senior synonym of diversi)
  • Kutter, H. 1977c. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Insecta Helv. Fauna 6: 1-298 (page 166, see also)
  • Mayr, G. 1853e. Ueber die Abtheilung der Myrmiciden, und eine neue Gattung derselben. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ver. Wien 3: 387-394 (page 390, Combination in Stronglyognathus)
  • Mayr, G. 1853e. Ueber die Abtheilung der Myrmiciden, und eine neue Gattung derselben. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ver. Wien 3: 387-394 (page 390, Senior synonym of emarginatus)
  • Sanetra, M.; Güsten, R.; Schulz, A. 1999. On the taxonomy and distribution of Italian Tetramorium species and their social parasites (Hymenoptera Formicidae). Mem. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 77: 317-357 (page 343, see also)
  • Schenck, C. F. 1852. Beschreibung nassauischer Ameisenarten. Jahrb. Ver. Naturkd. Herzogthum Nassau Wiesb. 8: 1-149 (page 117, worker, queen, male described)
  • Zryanin, V.A. and Zryanina, T.A. 2007. Novye dannye o faune murav’ev Srednego Povolzh’ya. Uspekhi Sovremennoj Biologii. 127:226-240. [in Russian]