Strumigenys reliquia

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Strumigenys reliquia
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Attini
Genus: Strumigenys
Species: S. reliquia
Binomial name
Strumigenys reliquia
(Ward, 1988)

Pyramica reliquia casent0005676 profile 1.jpg

Pyramica reliquia casent0005676 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

Known from a riparian woodland litter-sample.

Identification

Bolton (2000) - A member of the Strumigenys ohioensis-group. Grouped here with Strumigenys ohioensis, reliquia is easily separated from that species by the following characters:

reliquia ohioensis
MI 16-18; SI 83-87. MI 21-25; SI 67-74.
Tooth 2 on mandible much shorter than tooth 1 (basal). Tooth 1 (basal) and 2 on mandible subequal in length.
Diastema present on mandible between basal lamella and first (basal) tooth, diastema longer than length of first tooth. No diastema on mandible between basal lamella and first (basal) tooth.
Hairs on lateral clypeal margin filiform, not J –shaped nor strongly curved posteriorly. Hairs on lateral clypeal margin narrowly spatulate, conspicuously J-shaped and strongly curved posteriorly.
Hairs on clypeal dorsum elongate, fine, elevated. Hairs on clypeal dorsum short, arched, mostly decumbent.
Flagellate hair present on hind tibia and basitarsus. Flagellate hair absent from hind tibia, present on basitarsus.

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Nearctic Region: United States (type locality).
Strumigenys reliquia Distribution.png

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Biology

Strumigenys were once thought to be rare. The development and increased use of litter sampling methods has led to the discovery of a tremendous diversity of species. Many species are specialized predators (e.g. see Strumigenys membranifera and Strumigenys louisianae). Collembola (springtails) and other tiny soil arthropods are typically favored prey. Species with long linear mandibles employ trap-jaws to sieze their stalked prey (see Dacetine trap-jaws). Larvae feed directly on insect prey brought to them by workers. Trophallaxis is rarely practiced. Most species live in the soil, leaf litter, decaying wood or opportunistically move into inhabitable cavities on or under the soil. Colonies are small, typically less than 100 individuals but in some species many hundreds. Moist warm habitats and micro-habitats are preferred. A few better known tramp and otherwise widely ranging species tolerate drier conditions. Foraging is often in the leaf litter and humus. Workers of many species rarely venture above ground or into exposed, open areas. Individuals are typically small, slow moving and cryptic in coloration. When disturbed individuals freeze and remain motionless. Males are not known for a large majority of species.

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • reliquia. Smithistruma reliquia Ward, 1988: 117, fig. 7 (w.) U.S.A. Combination in Pyramica: Bolton, 1999: 1673; in Strumigenys: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 126. See also: Bolton, 2000: 110.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

Bolton (2000) - TL 2.1-2.2, HL 0.58-0.62, HW 0.38-0.40, CI 65-67, ML 0.09-0.10, MI 16-18, SL 0.33-0.34, SI 83-87, PW 0.24-0.26, AL 0.58-0.61 (3 measured).

First (basal) tooth on mandible much shorter than second; diastema between basal lamella and basal tooth longer than length of basal tooth. Anterior clypeal margin evenly smoothly convex; clypeal dorsum densely reticulate-punctate. Eye with 3-4 ommatidia in longest row. Propodeal dorsum with punctate sculpture partially effaced. Entirety of body pilosity simple and fine, filiform to flagellate; without spatulate, spoon-shaped or other bizarre pilosity anywhere. Hairs on anterior clypeal margin shallowly curved away from midline; on lateral margins inclined anterolaterally or feebly recurved; on clypeal dorsum fine hairs elevated, subdecumbent to suberect at least in their apical halves. Leading edge of scape with most hairs curved toward apex of scape but one or two of the longer hairs, close to the subbasal bend, curved toward the base of the scape. Dorsolateral margin of head with 2 long fine laterally projecting flagellate hairs; one apicoscrobal, the other anterior to this. Cephalic ground-pilosity curved-filiform, very fine; close to occipital margin with a transverse row of 4 more erect hairs that are longer and even finer, subflagellate or looped. Dorsal alitrunk with pronotal and mesonotal pairs of long flagellate hairs. Long curved sinuous to flagellate hairs also present on waist segments and first gastral tergite. Dorsal (outer) surface of hind tibia and basitarsus with projecting long flagellate hairs.

Type Material

Bolton (2000) - Holotype worker and paratype workers, U.S.A. California, Yolo Co., 4 km. E Yolo, 15 m., 4.iv.1986, sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood), riparian woodland, #8266-5 (P. S. Ward); paratype workers, same locality, 8.v.1986, #715 (S. Shattuck) (Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History, Museum of Comparative Zoology, National Museum of Natural History) [examined].

References

  • Baroni Urbani, C. and De Andrade, M.L. 2007. The ant tribe Dacetini: limits and constituent genera, with descriptions of new species. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale “G. Doria”. 99:1-191.
  • Bolton, B. 1999. Ant genera of the tribe Dacetonini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Nat. Hist. 3 33: 1639-1689 (page 1673, Combination in Pyramica)
  • Bolton, B. 2000. The ant tribe Dacetini. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute. 65:1-1028. (page 110, description of worker)
  • Ward, P. S. 1988. Mesic elements in the western Nearctic ant fauna: taxonomic and biological notes on Amblyopone, Proceratium, and Smithistruma (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 61: 102-124 (page 117, fig. 7 worker described)