Surface Sculpturing

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The following definitions are derived from R. A. Harris. 1979. A glossary of surface sculpturing. California Department of Food and Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology, 28, 1-31.

Entries in green indicate that though the word is otherwise correct, it is not a preferred term for surface sculpture.

See also Morphological Terms and Surface Sculpturing II

Harris1970Plate1.jpg    Harris1970Plate2.jpg
Fig. 1, Substrigulate. Fig. 2, Finely Strigulate. Fig. 3, Substrigulate to Finely Strigulate. Fig. 4, Strigate or Costulate. Fig. 5, Strigate. Fig. 6, Strigate or Costulate.     Fig. 7, Costulate. Fig. 8, Costate. Fig. 9, Costate. Fig. 10, Porcate. Fig. 11, Broadly Strigate (or Tranversely Carinate) and Axially Sulcate. Fig. 12, Strigate-Rugose.
Harris1970Plate3.jpg     Harris1970Plate4.jpg
Fig. 13, Scabriculous. Fig. 14, Scabrous. Fig. 15, Rugose. Fig. 16, Carinate-Rugose. Fig. 17, Confused-Rugulose. Fig. 18, Rugulose.     Fig. 19, Scabriculous to Areolate. Fig. 20, Rugulose-Lacunose. Fig. 21, Areolate-Rugose. Fig. 22, Areolate-Rugose. Fig. 23, Areolate-Rugulose to Punctate. Fig. 24, Areolate.
Harris1970Plate5.jpg     Harris1970Plate6.jpg
Fig. 25, Alveolate. Fig. 26, Areolate. Fig. 27, Foveate-Reticulate. Fig. 28, Scrobiculate. Fig. 29, Densely Foveolate. Fig. 30, Punctate-Recticulate above, Punetulate-Reticulate below.     Fig. 31, Punctate. Fig. 32, Punctate or Foveolate. Fig. 33, Puncticulate. Fig. 34, Foveolate to Sparsely Foveolate to Fovealate. Fig. 35, Foveolate above, Punctate below. Fig. 36, Foveolate-Puncticuiate.
Harris1970Plate7.jpg     Harris1970Plate8.jpg
Fig. 37, Imbricate-Punctate. Fig. 38, Coriarious-Punctate (cracks are an artifact of coating). Fig. 39, Imbricate. Fig. 40, Imbricate. Fig. 41, Imbricate. Fig. 42, Obscurely Variolate.     Fig. 43, Finely or Minutely Colliculate. Fig. 44, Verrucose.

General Terminology

Some important terms for correctly understanding a discussion of descriptive terminology.

  • embossed, ornamented with raised sculpturing (T-B).
    • cf., sculptured.
  • interstice, a space between two lines, whether striate or punctate (T-B).
    • cf., interval.
  • interval, the space between two structures or sculptures (T-B).
    • cf. interstice.
  • maculation, the pattern of marks or spots on a surface (T-B)(C)(B).
    • cf., sculpture.
  • prominent, raised or produced above the surface or beyond the margin; standing out in relief; conspicuous by position (T-B).
    • cf., protuberance.
  • protuberance, any excrescence above the surface; a prominence (T-B)(FW).
    • cf., prominent.
  • sculpture, the markings or pattern of impressions or elevations on a surface (T-B).
    • cf., maculation.
  • sculptured, superficially marked with elevations or depressions or both, arranged in some definable manner (T-B).
    • cf., embossed.

Modifiers

Words used to modify the meaning of a descriptive term. Also, prefixes.

  • a-, wanting or without (T-B).
  • ab-, off; away from (T-B).
  • 'conflected, crowded; thickly clustered (T-B)(J).
    • ant., sparse.
  • confused (fig. 17), markings with indefinite outlines or run together as lines or spots without definite pattern (T-B).
    • cf., intricate, obscure.
  • dispersed, with scattered markings or small sculptures (T-B).
    • cf., sparse.
  • e-, without (T-B).
  • elute, with scarcely distinct markings (T-B).
  • ex-, out of; proceeding from (T-B).
  • intricate, confused; markings, whether elevated or depressed. so run into each other as to be difficult to see (T-B).
    • cf., confused, obscure.
  • obscure, dark; not readily seen; not well defined (T-B).
    • cf., confused, intricate.
  • ordinate, spots or sculpturing arranged in rows or regularly arranged (T-B)(B).
    • cf., perlate V.
  • sparse, scattered; spread irregularly and some distance apart; thin; eg., pile or hairs (T-B).
    • cf., dispersed.
    • ant., connected.
  • sub-, under, slightly less than, or not quite so (T-B).

Unsculptured Surfaces

  • denudate, without hairs or scales (sens. str.); without vestiture of any kind (sens. lat.) (T-B)(B)(C).
    • cf., glabrous, immaculate, investitus, nude.
  • destitute, lacking or devoid of something specified; being entirely without (used to contrast) (T-B) (E&B).
  • ecarinate, without or deprived of a keel or a carina (used to contrast carinate) (T-B).
    • ant., carinate IX.
  • explicate, unfolded or open; also, without folds or plicae (T-B).
    • ant., plicate VIII, X.
  • glabrate, almost glabrous ( M) (FW).
  • glabrous, smooth, devoid of pubescence (sens. str.); devoid of any sculpturing (sens. lat.) (T-B)(FW)(C).
    • cf., denudate, immaculate, investitus, nude.
  • immaculate, destitute of spots, marks, or sculpturing (sens. lat.); destitute of spots or marks (sens. str.) (T-B)(S).
    • cf., denudate, glabrous, investitus, nude.
    • ant., maculate IV.
  • impunctate, not punctate or marked with punctures (used to contrast punctate) (T-B).
    • ant., punctate IV.
  • inermis, unarmed; without striae, spines, or any other sharp processes ( T-B)(B).
    • cf., mutic.
    • ant., munite V.
  • innotate, without markings (T-B).
    • ant., notate IV.
  • investitus, unclothed; without scales or hair (T-B).
    • cf., denudate, glabrous, immaculate, nude.
  • levigate, a smooth surface, sometimes somewhat shiny or polished; without elevations or depressions (T-B)(B)(C)(FW).
    • cf., glabrous, micans, nitid, politus.
  • micans, shining or twinkling, in part or altogether (B)(T-B).
    • cf., glabrous, nitid, politus.
  • mutic, unarmed; lacking processes where such usually occur (T-B).
    • cf., inermis.
  • nitid, shiny or glossy; reflecting light (T-B).
    • cf., politus.
  • nude, naked; devoid of hair, scales or other surface vestiture (T-B).
    • cf., denudate, glabrous, immaculate, investitus.
  • politus, polished; smooth shiny ( B)(C)(T-B).
    • cf., glabrous, micans, nitid.

Superficial and Impressed Nonparallel Sculpturing

Spots. punctures, excavations, and cracks.

  • adsperse, marked with closely crowded, small spats (T-B).
    • cf., atomarius, irrorate, maculate.
  • atomarius, with minute dots or points (T-B).
    • cf., adsperse, irrorate, maculate.
  • cariose, corroded; appearing worm eaten; with cavities ar ulcerations (T-B)(FW).
    • cf., vermicular VI, vermiculate VI.
  • cicatrose, a surface having scars with elevated margins like those of small pox (T-B).
    • cf., impressed, lacunose, variolate.</sapn>
  • corticinus, bark-like sculpturing or texture (T-B).
    • cf., fatiscent, fissate, rimose.
  • exarate, ploughed; sculpted; furrowed; sulcated; an excavated surface in general (T-B)(B)(FW).
    • cf., impressed.
  • excavated, with a scooped out depression; superficially, with a hollowed out area (FW)(C).
    • cf., lacunose.
  • exsculptate, with irregular, more or less longitudinal depressions, as if carved or scooped out (T-B)(C).
    • cf., fossulate, scrobiculate.,/span>
  • fatiscent, with superficial cracks, crevices, or similar openings (T-B)(C).
    • cf., corticinus, fissate, rimose.
  • fenestrate, with transparent areas or window-like openings (fenestrae) as in the wings of some Lepidoptera (M)(T-B).
  • fissate, with fissures or cracks (seas. lat.); divided or cleft (setts. str.) (C) (T-B).
    • cf., corticinus, fatiscent, rimose.
  • fossulate, with oblong depressions (fossulae) more elongate or furrow-like than scrobiculate (T-B)( B)
    • cf., exsculpiate, lacunose, scrobiculate.
  • foveate (fig. 27), pitted; with numerous, regular, depressions or pits (foveae) (B)(C)(T-B).
    • dim., foveolate.
    • cf., lacunose, punctate.
  • foveolate (figs. 29, 32, 34, 35, 36), with small deep pits; finely pitted (B)(C).
    • dim., punctate.
    • cf., foveate.
  • impressed, having shallow, depressed areas or markings (T-B).
    • cf., cicatrose, lacunose, variolate.
  • irrorate, freckled or speckled; covered with minute spots or granules (T-B) (13).
    • cf., adsperse, atomarius, farinose VI, maculate.
  • lacunose (fig. 20), full of hollows or cavities; with scattered and irregular broad, shallow cavities (C)(B)(T-B).
    • cf., excavated, foveate, impressed, variolate.
  • maculate, spotted; with many superficial marks or spots (T-B) ( FW).
    • ant., immaculate III.
    • cf., adsperse, atomarius, irrorate.
  • notate, marked by spots (sens. sir.); with a series of depressed marks as a sculpture (sens. lat.) (T-B).
    • ant., innotate III.
    • cf., impressed. maculate, ordinate IL
  • porose, having pores (T-B).
  • punctate (figs. 23, 30. 31, 32, 35, 37. 38). set with fine, impressed points or punctures appearing as pin-pricks (T-B)(B)(C).
    • ant., impunctate III.
    • dim., punticulate, punctulate.
    • cf., foveate, foveolate.
  • puncticulate (figs. 33, 36), sparsely punctate with very fine, widely spaced punctures (S)( M).
    • cf., punctulate.
  • punctulate (fig. 30), finely punctate; with numerous minute and close set punctures (S)(C)(T-B).
    • cf., puncticulate.
  • rimose, with minute, narrow and nearly parallel excavations (rimae) running into each other; chinky; resembling the cracked bark of a tree (C)(B)(J)(T-B).
    • dim., rimulose.
    • cf., corlicinus, fatiscent, fissate, rivose VI, undose.
  • rimulose, minutely rimose; with minute cracks or fissure-like openings with sharp edges (B).
  • scrobiculate (fig. 28), uniformly covered with short, oblong or trench-like hollows (B)(.I)(T-B).
    • cf., exsculptate, fossulate.
  • undose, with undulating, broad, nearly parallel depressions running more or less into each other; wavy, resembling ripple-marks on a sandy beach (T-B).
    • cf., verrniculate VI.
  • variolate (fig. 42), pitted as if by small pox; full of irregular indentations (varioles) (B)(T-B).
    • cf., cicatrose, impressed. lacunose.

Protuberant Nonparallel Sculpturing

Bumps, knobs, and spines.

  • acinose, continuously set with granulations like those on a black-berry (T-B).
    • cf., colliculate, granulate, papillate.
  • colliculate (fig. 43), continuously covered with low, rounded elevations, not as pronounced as acinose (B) (S).
    • cf., acinose, granulate, papillate.
  • echinate, thickly set or armed with short, stout spines or prickles; spiny like a hedgehog (FW)(T-B).
    • dim., echinulate.
  • echinulate, with very small prickles; minutely echinate (C).
  • granulate, covered with or made up of very small grains or granules. Also, minutely and densely verrucose or minutely farinose (T-B) (M) (S).
    • cf., acinose, farinose VI.
  • munite, a surface armed with spines or other excrescences (T-B) (C).
    • ant., inermis III.
  • nodulate, a surface sculpturing of small knots or swellings (T-B).
    • cf., acinose, colliculate, torulose, tuberculate, verrucose.
  • papillate, covered with small, nipple-like surface elevations, often porous at the tip (B) (H&D) (T-B).
    • cf., acinose, colliculate, papillulate, pustulate.
  • papillulate, beset with depressions or elevations with a small elevation in the center (a papillule) (T-B).
    • cf., papillate.
  • perlate, beaded (sens. lat.);bearing relieved, rounded points in series (seas. str.) (T-B).
    • cf., ordinate II.
  • pustulate, covered with small, blister-like swellings larger than papillae and never with a terminal pore (T-B) (S).
    • cf., acinose, colliculate, papillate.
  • spherulate, provided with one or more rows of minute tubercles (T-B) (B).
    • cf., perlate, tuberculate.
  • spinose, armed with thorny spines, more elongate that echinate (B) (T-B).
    • dim., spinulate.
    • cf., echinate.
  • spinulate, set with numerous small, thorny spines; minutely spinose (B) (T-B).
    • cf., echinulate.
  • torose, superficially swelling in knots, knobs, or protuberances; knobby (seas. lat.). In general form, swollen or with a knobby or knotted shape (sens. str.) (T-B) (B) (C).
    • dim., torulose.
    • cf., nodulate, tuberculate, verrucose.
  • torulose, minutely torose; with numerous small knobs or knots (seas. lat.) (T-B) (B).
    • cf., torose
  • tuberculate, covered or furnished with rounded, projecting lobes; more projecting than granulate, papillate, or pustulate (S) (J) (B)(T-B).
    • cf., nodulate, torose, verrucose.
  • verrucose (fig. 44), covered with irregularly shaped lobes or wart-like protuberances (S) (T-B).
    • cf., nodulate, torose, tuberculate.

Irregular and Nonparallel Sculpturing

Wrinkles, roughness, scratches, mealiness.

  • aciculate, appearing as if irregularly scratched with a needle (T-B).
    • cf., rastrate, scarified.
  • areolate (figs. 19, 21, 22, 23, 26), divided into a number of small, irregular spaces (S) (B).
    • cf., alveolate VII, goffered VII, reticulate VII.
  • asperous, rough and uneven (T-B).
    • cf., salebrose, scabrous, squarrose.
  • caelate, with superficial plane elevations of varying form (T-B) (B).
  • corticinus, bark-like sculpturing or texture (T13).
    • cf., fatiscent, fissate, rimose.
  • farinaceous, mealy or powdery looking; applied to surfaces or wings (T-B) (C).
    • cf., farinose, pollinose, pruinose, pulverulent, rorulent.
  • farinose, dotted with many single flour-like spots; mealy (T-B).
    • cf., farinaceous, pollinose, pruinose, pulverulent, rorulent.
  • fatiscent, with cracks, crevices, or similar openings (T-B) (C).
    • cf., corticinus, fissate, rimose.
  • sate, with fissures or cracks (sens. fat.); divided or cleft (sens. str.) (C) (T-B).
    • cf., corticinus, fatiscent, rimose.
  • hatched, closely marked with numerous short, transverse lines (T-B).
    • cf., strigate IX, X.
  • muriculate, with a coverning of fine, short, sharp, thick excrescences; irregularly scabriculous (M).
  • pollinose, covered with a loose, mealy, often yellow dust like the pollen of flowers; fine meal (T-B) (B) (J).
    • cf., farinaceous, farinose, pruinose, pulverulent, rorulent.
  • pruinose, appearing covered with a fine dust or coarse powder, but which cannot be rubbed off; the brightness of the surface somewhat obscured by the appearance of a bloom Like that of a plum (T-B) (M).
    • cf., farinaceous, farinose, pollinose, pulverulent, rorulent.
  • pulverulent, powdery or dusty. Also, covered with very minute, powder-like scales (T-B) (M).
    • cf., farinaceous, farinose, pollinose, pruinose, rorulent, squarrose.
  • rastrate, covered as if with longitudinal scratches (T-B) (J). cf., aciculate, scarified.
  • rimose, with minute, narrow and nearly parallel excavations (rimae) running into each other; chinky; resembling the cracked bark of a tree (C)(B)(J)(T-B).
    • dim., rimulose.
    • cf., corticinus, fatiscent, fissate, rivose.
  • rimulose, minutely rimose; with minute cracks or fissure-like openings with sharp edges (B).
  • rivose, marked with sinuate furrows, like rivulets, not running in a parallel direction (C)(S)(B).
    • dim., rivulose.
    • cf., rimose, venose.
  • rivulose, minutely rivose; with very small or fine sinuate furrows, like rivulets, which are not parallel (B) (C).
  • rorulent, covered with a bloom of fine dust that can be rubbed off (T-B)(C)(S).
    • cf., farinaceous, farinose, pollinose, pruinose, pulverulent.
  • rugose, (figs. 12, 15, 16, 21, 22), wrinkled (T-B) (C) (B).
    • dim., rugulose.
    • cf., salebrose, scabrous.
  • rugulose, (figs. 17, 18, 19, 20, 23), minutely rugose; minutely wrinkled (J) (T-B).
    • cf., scabriculous.
  • salebrose, rough, rugged, or uneven (C)(T-B)
    • cf., asperous, rugose, scabrous, squarrose.
  • scabriculous, (figs. 13, 19), finely scabrous; with fine and regular short, sharp, wrinkles and/or projections (M) (T-B).
    • cf., muriculate, shagreened.
  • scabrid, sparsely scabrous (S) (M).
  • scabrous, (fig. 14), rough; irregularly and roughly rugose; possessing short, sharp projections or wrinkles (B) (T-B).
    • dim., scabriculous.
    • cf., rugose, salebrose, squarrose.
  • scarified, appearing clawed or scratched; furnished with fine, irregular grooves, coarser than aciculate (T-B)(B).
    • cf., aciculate, rastrate.
  • shagreened, covered with a closely set roughness, like the rough-surfaced horse leather termed shagreened; like shark leather (T-B).
    • cf., scabriculous.
  • squarrose, rough with elevations; scurfy; rough with loose scales differing in direction or not parallel in direction (C) (I) (S) (T-B)
    • cf., pulverulent, rugose, salebrose, scabrous.
  • undose, with undulating, broad, nearly parallel depressions running more or less into each other; wavy; resembling ripple- marks on a sandy beach (T-B)
    • cf., vermiculate.
  • venose, furnished with veins or vein-like marking; of or pertaining to veins (T-B).
  • vermicular, worm-shaped or worm-like in general body form (M) (S).
    • cf., cariose IV, undose, vermiculate.
  • vermiculate, with superficial, tortuous markings resembling the tracks of a worm (T-B) (S).
    • cf., cariose IV, undose, vermicular.

Regular and Nonparallel Sculptured Patterns

Reticulations, imbrications.

  • alutaceous, rather pale leather-brown; covered with minute cracks like the human skin and leathery in texture (T-B) cf., coriaceous, coriarious.
  • alveolate, (fig. 25), honeycombed; with regular, deep, angular cavities (alveohe) separated by thin partitions. Furnished with cells or alveoli (T-B) (3).
    • cf., areolate, goffered, reticulate.
  • areate, furnished with open areas or with areas defined on the surface (T-B) (M).
    • cf., areolate.
  • areolate, (figs. 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26), divided into a number of small, irregular spaces (S) (B).
    • cf., alveolate, areate, reticulate.
  • cancellate, a lattice-work or grid; a series of enclosed cells or chambers (B) (C) (FW).
    • cf., clathrate, reticulate.
  • cataphracted, clad in closely set scales (C) (T-B).
    • cf., imbricate, scutate, squamate.
  • catenate, with longitudinal, connected elevations like links in a chain (T-B).
    • dim., catenulate.
    • cf., consute.
  • catenulate, chain-like, with smaller links than catenate (T-B).
  • clathrate, latticed; elevated ridges decussing at right angles (T-B)
    • cf., cancellate, reticulate.
  • consute, with very minute elevations in series, some distance apart, and of a different color from the general surface, which resemble stitching somewhat (T-B).
    • cf., catenate.
  • coriaceous, leather-like in texture, with minute cracks like human skin (T-B).
    • cf., alutaceous, coriarious.
  • coriarious (fig. 38), leather-like in sculpture; with minute cracks like the human skin (T-B)(B).
    • cf., aiutaceous, coriaceous.
  • crenate, having the margin evenly notched with rounded teeth (B) (T-B).
    • dim., crenulate.
  • crenulate, having the margin finely notched with small, rounded teeth (T-B) (B) (M).
  • goffered, with regular impressions, closely set, and separated by narrow ridges; waffling or honeycombs (E&B) (T-B).
    • cf., alyeolate, areolate, cancellate, clathrate, reticulate.
  • imbricate (figs. 37, 39, 40, 41), partly overlapping and appearing like shingles on a roof or scales on a fish (T-B) (M) (H&D).
    • cf., cataphracted, scutate, squamate.
  • reticulate (figs. 27, 30), superficially net-like or made up of a network of lines; meshed; netted (T-13) (C) (S).
    • cf., alveolate, areolate, cancellate, clathrate, goffered.
  • scabriculous, (figs. 13, 19), finely scabrous; with fine and regular short, sharp, wrinkles and/or projections (M) (T-B).
    • cf., muriculate VI, shagreened VI.
  • scrobiculate, uniformly covered with short, oblong or trench- like hollows (B)(J) (T-B).
    • cf., exsculptate IV, fossulate IV.
  • scutate, covered with large, flat, scales. Also, having a scutum; shield-shaped; scutiform (T-B).
    • dim., scutellate.
    • cf., cataphracted, imbricate, squamate.
  • scutellate, divided into surfaces like small plates, minutely scutate (T-B).
    • cf., cataphracted, imbricate, squamate.
  • squamate, scaly; covered with scales (B) (T-B).
    • cf., cataphracted, imbricate, scutate.
  • tessellate, made up of squares like a chess board, either in sculp-turing or in color (C) (M).
    • cf., cancellate, clathrate.

Parallel Lineations

General terms for sculptured lineations, whether raised or impressed or superficial.

  • corrugated, wrinkled into furrows; with alternate ridges and channels (T-B) (E&B).
  • lineate, longitudinally marked with raised or depressed parallel lines; with linear marks (T-B) (M).
    • dim., lineolate.
  • lineolate, finely lineate, longitudinally marked with very fine raised or depressed lines (C).
  • plicate, folded; with folds; impressed with striae to produce the appearance of having been folded or pleated (T-B).
    • ant., explicate III.
  • serrations, lines arranged in parallel series, either in sculpture or in color, as in the Corixidae of the Heteroptera (T-B).
  • taeniate, with broad, longitudinal bands or ribbon-like markings (sens. lat.); shaped like a tapeworm (sens. str,) (B) (C) (T-B).
  • vittate, striped; longitudinally striped or plaited (T-B).

Raised Parallel Lineations

  • carinate (figs. 11, 16), keeled; having keels or carinae; with one, or several, but usually few longitudinal narrow raised ridges (T-B).
    • ant., ecarinate III.
    • dim., carinulate.
    • cf., costate, cristate, porcate.
  • carinulate, with several small, elevated, longitudinal ridges or carinae (T-B).
    • cf., costulate, cristulate.
  • costate (figs. 8, 9), furnished with longitudinal raised ribs or ridges (costae), much coarser than carinate (T-B).
    • dim., costulate.
    • cf., carinate, cristate, porcate.
  • costulate (figs. 4, 6, 7), with less prominent ribs or ridges than costate (T-B).
  • cristate, with a prominent carina or crest on the upper surface; crested (T-B).
    • dim., cristulate.
    • cf., carinate, costate, porcate.
  • cristulate, with several, small, crescent-like ridges or crests (T-B).
    • cf., carinulate.
  • porcate (fig. 10), with several parallel, longitudinal ridges with deep, broad sulcations (T-B).
    • cf., carinate, costate, cristate.
  • strigate (figs. 4, 5, 6, 12), having narrow, transverse lines or streaks, either raised or impressed; composed of fine, short lines (T-B).
    • dim., strigualte.
    • cf., hatched VI, striate X.
  • strigulate (figs. 1, 2, 3), finely or minutely strigate; with numer¬ous short and fine transverse lines, either raised or impressed (T-B)(B).
    • cf., striolate X.

Impressed Parallel Lineations

  • canaliculate, channelled or furrowed; longitudinally grooved (serfs. lat.). In general body form, long and concave so as to resemble a gutter or channel (sens. str.) (T-B)(S).
    • cf., porcate, sulcate.
  • channelled (fig. 11), having deep grooves or channels (T-B).
    • cf., canaliculate, fluted, striate, strigate.
  • fluted, having parallel grooves or flutes; channelled (FW) (T-B).
    • cf., canaliculate, channelled.
  • institia, striae or furrows of equal width throughout (T-B).
  • plicate, folded; with folds; impressed with striae to produce the appearance of having been folded or pleated (T-B).
    • ant., explicate III.
    • cf., striate.
  • porcate (fig. 10), with several parallel, longitudinal ridges with deep, broad sulcations (T-B).
    • cf., canaliculate, striate, sulcate.
  • striate, marked with parallel, fine, longitudinal impressed lines or furrows (T-B) (M) (C)(J)(B).
    • dim., striolate.
    • cf., strigate.
  • strigate (figs. 4, 5, 6, 12), having narrow, transverse lines or streaks, either raised or impressed; composed of fine, short lines (B) (T-B).
    • dim., strigulate.
    • cf., hatched VI, striate.
  • strigulate (figs. 3, 2, 3), finely or minutely strigate; with numer¬ous short and fine transverse lines, either raised or impressed (T-B) (B).
    • cf., striolate.
  • striolate, minutely or finely striate; with numerous parallel and very fine longitudinal impressed lines or furrows (T-B) (B).
    • cf., strigulate.
  • sulcate, deeply furrowed or grooved (T-B).
    • cf., canaliculate, porcate.