Temnothorax

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Temnothorax
Temporal range: 42–0 Ma
Middle Eocene – Recent
Temnothorax adustus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Temnothorax
Mayr, 1861
Type species
Myrmica recedens, now Temnothorax recedens
Subgenera
Diversity
421 species
7 fossil species
Temnothorax adustus lateral view

Temnothorax adustus

Temnothorax adustus dorsal view

Specimen label

Synonyms

The workers of Temnothorax species are generally small. Colonies are typically monogynous, although facultative polygyny has been documented in several species (Alloway et al. 1983, Buschinger 1974, Buschinger and Linksvayer 2004, Rüppell et al. 1998). Colony populations are usually quite small, often with less than 100 workers (Beckers et al. 1989). However, several studies have found colonies of some species to be widely dispersed with several to many satellite nests (Alloway et al. 1983, Foitzik and Heinze 2001, Partridge et al. 1997). Many species are arborealAmong leaves or twigs, either against a single surface such as a trunk or between adjacent surfaces such as leaves., living within hollow stems, old beetle or termite galleries, or in galls (Mackay 2000). Temnothorax species appear to be trophic generalists, feeding on a wide variety of scavenged items, including the elaiosomes of seeds (Espadaler 1997, Fokuhl et al. 2012). None have been documented to be active or aggressive predators. (Snelling et al. 2014)

Contents

Identification

Key to Temnothorax of California

Distribution

World distribution based on political regions. View/Edit Data
Temnothorax Distribution.png Worlddistribution legend.jpg

Species richness

Species richness by country based on regional taxon lists (countries with darker colours are more species-rich). View Data

Temnothorax Species Richness.png

Distribution based on specimens

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The above specimen data are provided by AntWeb. Please see Temnothorax for further details


Biology

Temnothorax minutissimus alate gynes in an artificial nest with the host species, Temnothorax curvispinosus, workers and a queen.

Specimen Label Information

The following details are derived from labels found on museum specimens as recorded by those making the actual field collections. They have not been edited or summarized and as a result similar information may be repeated or expressed in a variety of ways.

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • TEMNOTHORAX [Myrmicinae: Formicoxenini]
    • Temnothorax Mayr, 1861: 68. Type-species: Myrmica recedens, by monotypy.
    • Temnothorax junior synonym of Leptothorax: Forel, 1890a: lxxii.
    • Temnothorax revived from synonymy as subgenus of Leptothorax: Forel, 1892i: 315; maintained as subgenus: Emery, 1915g: 24; Forel, 1915d: 27; Bondroit, 1918: 117; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 679; Emery, 1924d: 259.
    • Temnothorax junior synonym of Leptothorax: Baroni Urbani, 1971c: 96; Bolton, 1982: 319; Bolton, 1994: 105.
    • Temnothorax revived status as genus: Bernard, 1967: 185; Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 543; Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988: 79; Atanasov & Dlussky, 1992: 125; Bolton, 2003: 252, 270.
    • Temnothorax senior synonym of Antillaemyrmex, Croesomyrmex, Dichothorax, Icothorax, Macromischa, Myrmammophilus, Myrafant: Bolton, 2003: 252, 270.
    • Current subgenera of Temnothorax: nominal plus Gonepimyrma.
  • ANTILLAEMYRMEX [junior synonym of Temnothorax]
    • Antillaemyrmex Mann, 1920: 408 [as subgenus of Macromischa]. Type-species: Macromischa (Antillaemyrmex) terricola, by original designation.
    • Antillaemyrmex raised to genus: Wheeler, W.M. 1931b: 4 (in text).
    • Antillaemyrmex junior synonym of Macromischa: Smith, M.R. 1937: 849; Smith, M.R. 1939e: 502.
    • Antillaemyrmex junior synonym of Leptothorax: Snelling, R.R. 1986: 154.
    • Antillaemyrmex junior synonym of Temnothorax: Bolton, 2003: 253, 271.
  • CHALEPOXENUS [junior synonym of Temnothorax]
    • Chalepoxenus Menozzi, 1923a: 257. Type-species: Chalepoxenus gribodoi (junior synonym of Leptothorax muellerianus), by monotypy.
    • [Name of type-species initially misspelled gridoboi, p. 257; correct spelling as gribodoi, p. 258.]
    • Chalepoxenus senior synonym of Leonomyrma: Buschinger, 1987: 117.
    • Chalepoxenus junior synonym of Temnothorax: Ward et al., 2014: 15.
  • CROESOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Temnothorax]
    • Croesomyrmex Mann, 1920: 408 [as subgenus of Macromischa]. Type-species: Macromischa (Croesomyrmex) wheeleri, by original designation.
    • Croesomyrmex raised to genus: Wheeler, W.M. 1931b: 4 (in text).
    • Croesomyrmex junior synonym of Macromischa: Smith, M.R. 1937: 849; Smith, M.R. 1939e: 502.
    • Croesomyrmex junior synonym of Temnothorax: Bolton, 2003: 253, 271.
  • DICHOTHORAX [junior synonym of Temnothorax]
    • Dichothorax Emery, 1895c: 323 [as subgenus of Leptothorax]. Type-species: Leptothorax (Dichothorax) pergandei, by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 161.
    • Dichothorax raised to genus: Ashmead, 1905b: 383.
    • Dichothorax subgenus of Leptothorax: Wheeler, W.M. 1910g: 139.
    • Dichothorax junior synonym of Leptothorax: Bolton, 1982: 319.
    • Dichothorax junior synonym of Temnothorax: Bolton, 2003: 253, 271.
  • EPIMYRMA [junior synonym of Myrmoxenus]
    • Epimyrma Emery, 1915a: 262. Type-species: Epimyrma kraussei, by original designation.
    • Epimyrma senior synonym of Myrmoxenus (and its junior synonym Myrmetaerus): Buschinger, 1990: 245 (provisional synoynym); Bolton, 1994: 105 [incorrect seniority].
    • Epimyrma junior synonym of Myrmoxenus: Schulz & Sanetra, 2002: 162.
  • ICOTHORAX [junior synonym of Temnothorax]
    • Icothorax Hamann & Klemm, 1967: 415 [as subgenus of Leptothorax]. Type-species: Leptothorax (Icothorax) megalops, by monotypy.
    • Icothorax junior synonym of Myrafant: Baroni Urbani, 1978b: 556; Bolton, 1995b: 32.
    • Icothorax junior synonym of Chalepoxenus: Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 13.
    • Icothorax junior synonym of Temnothorax: Bolton, 2003: 253, 271.
  • LEONOMYRMA [junior synonym of Chalepoxenus]
    • Leonomyrma Arnol'di, 1968: 1809. Type-species: Leonomyrma spinosa, by original designation.
    • Leonomyrma junior synonym of Chalepoxenus: Buschinger, 1987: 117.
  • MACROMISCHA [junior synonym of Temnothorax]
    • Macromischa Roger, 1863a: 184. Type-species: Macromischa purpurata, by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 166.
    • Macromischa subgenus of Leptothorax: Baroni Urbani, 1978b: 398.
    • Macromischa revived status as genus: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1390.
    • Macromischa senior synonym of Antillaemyrmex, Croesomyrmex: Smith, M.R. 1937: 849; Smith, M.R. 1939e: 502; Baroni Urbani, 1978b: 398.
    • Macromischa junior synonym of Leptothorax: Snelling, R.R. 1986: 154; Bolton, 1994: 105; Bolton, 1995b: 34.
    • Macromischa junior synonym of Temnothorax: Bolton, 2003: 252, 271.
  • MYRAFANT [junior synonym of Temnothorax]
    • Myrafant Smith, M.R. 1950: 30 [as subgenus of Leptothorax]. Type-species: Leptothorax curvispinosus, by original designation.
    • Myrafant senior synonym of Icothorax: Baroni Urbani, 1978b: 556.
    • Myrafant junior synonym of Leptothorax: Bolton, 1982: 319.
    • Myrafant junior synonym of Temnothorax: Bolton, 2003: 253, 271.
  • MYRMAMMOPHILUS [junior synonym of Temnothorax]
    • Myrmammophilus Menozzi, 1925d: 29 [as subgenus of Leptothorax]. Type-species: Leptothorax (Myrmammophilus) finzii, by monotypy.
    • Myrmammophilus junior synonym of Leptothorax: Bolton, 1982: 319.
    • Myrmammophilus junior synonym of Temnothorax: Bolton, 2003: 253, 271.
  • MYRMETAERUS [junior synonym of Myrmoxenus]
    • Myrmetaerus Soudek, 1925a: 33. Type-species: Myrmetaerus microcellatus (junior synonym of Myrmoxenus gordiagini), by monotypy.
    • [Myrmetaerus also described as new by Soudek, 1925b: 14.]
    • Myrmetaerus junior synonym of Camponotus: Snelling, R.R. 1981: 404 (error).
    • Myrmoxenus junior synonym of Epimyrma: Bolton, 1994: 105.
    • Myrmetaerus junior synonym of Myrmoxenus: Buschinger, Winter & Faber, 1984: 336; Bolton, 2003: 248.
  • MYRMOXENUS [junior synonym of Temnothorax]
    • Myrmoxenus Ruzsky, 1902b: 474. Type-species: Myrmoxenus gordiagini, by monotypy.
    • Myrmoxenus senior synonym of Myrmetaerus: Buschinger, Winter & Faber, 1984: 336.
    • Myrmoxenus junior synonym of Epimyrma: Bolton, 1994: 105 [incorrect seniority].
    • Myrmoxenus senior synonym of Epimyrma: Schulz & Sanetra, 2002: 162.
    • Myrmoxenus junior synonym of Temnothorax: Ward et al., 2014: 15.
  • PROTOMOGNATHUS [junior synonym of Temnothorax]
    • Protomognathus Wheeler, W.M. 1905a: 3 [as subgenus of Tomognathus]. Type-species: Tomognathus americanus, by monotypy.
    • Protomognathus junior synonym of Harpagoxenus: Emery, 1924d: 265.
    • Protomognathus revived from synonymy and raised to genus: Cover, in Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 65.
    • Protomognathus junior synonym of Temnothorax: Ward et al., 2014: 15.

References

  • Arnol'di, K. V.; Dlussky, G. M. 1978. Superfam. Formicoidea. 1. Fam. Formicidae - ants. Pp. 519-556 in: Medvedev, G. S. (ed.) Keys to the insects of the European part of the USSR. Vol. 3. Hymenoptera. Part 1. Opredeliteli Faune SSSR 119:3-584. (page 543, Temnothorax as genus)
  • Atanassov, N.; Dlussky, G. M. 1992. Fauna of Bulgaria. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Fauna Bûlg. 22: 1-310 (page 125, Temnothorax as genus)
  • Baroni Urbani, C. 1971c. Catalogo delle specie di Formicidae d'Italia (Studi sulla mirmecofauna d'Italia X). Mem. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 50: 5-287 (page 96, Temnothorax as junior synonym of Leptothorax)
  • Bernard, F. 1967a [1968]. Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp. (page 185, Temnothorax as genus)
  • Bolton, B. 1982. Afrotropical species of the myrmecine ant genera Cardiocondyla, Leptothorax, Melissotarsus, Messor and Cataulacus (Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology, 46: 307-370 (page 319, Temnothorax as junior synonym of Leptothorax)
  • Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. (page 105, Temnothorax as junior synonym of Leptothorax)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 252, 270, Temnothorax as genus; Temnothorax senior synonym of Antillaemyrmex, Croesomyrmex, Dichothorax, Icothorax, Macromischa, Myrmammophilus, Myrafant)
  • Bondroit, J. 1918. Les fourmis de France et de Belgique. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 87: 1-174 (page 117, Temnothorax as subgenus of Leptothorax)
  • Brown, W. L., Jr. 1973b. A comparison of the Hylean and Congo-West African rain forest ant faunas. Pp. 161-185 in: Meggers, B. J., Ayensu, E. S., Duckworth, W. D. (eds.) Tropical forest ecosystems in Africa and South America: a comparative review. Wash (page 185, Temnothorax as junior synonym of Leptothorax [provisional])
  • Buschinger, A.; Linksvayer, T. A. 2004. Novel blend of life history traits in an inquiline ant, Temnothorax minutissimus, with description of the male (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecol. Nachr. 6: 67-76 PDF
  • Dalla Torre, K. W. von. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. (page 122, Temnothorax in Myrmicinae; Temnothorax as subgenus of Leptothorax)
  • Dlussky, G. M.; Fedoseeva, E. B. 1988. Origin and early stages of evolution in ants. Pp. 70-144 in: Ponomarenko, A. G. (ed.) Cretaceous biocenotic crisis and insect evolution. Moskva: Nauka, 232 pp. (page 79, Temnothorax as genus)
  • Donisthorpe, H. 1943h. A list of the type-species of the genera and subgenera of the Formicidae. [concl.]. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 11(10): 721-737 (page 731, Temnothorax in Myrmicinae, Leptothoracini; Temnothorax as subgenus of Leptothorax)
  • Emery, C. 1877b. Saggio di un ordinamento naturale dei Mirmicidei, e considerazioni sulla filogenesi delle formiche. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 9: 67-83 (page 81, Temnothorax in Myrmicidae, Myrmicidae)
  • Emery, C. 1915e. Formiche raccolte nell'Eritrea dal Prof. F. Silvestri. Boll. Lab. Zool. Gen. Agrar. R. Sc. Super. Agric. 10: 3-26 (page 24, Temnothorax as subgenus of Leptothorax)
  • Emery, C. 1916a [1915]. Fauna entomologica italiana. I. Hymenoptera.-Formicidae. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 47: 79-275 (page 176, Temnothorax as subgenus of Leptothorax)
  • Emery, C. 1924f [1922]. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [concl.]. Genera Insectorum 174C: 207-397 (page 259, Temnothorax in Myrmicinae, Leptothoracini; Temnothorax as subgenus of Leptothorax)
  • Emery, C.; Forel, A. 1879. Catalogue des Formicides d'Europe. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 5: 441-481 (page 459, Temnothorax in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Forel, A. 1890b. Fourmis de Tunisie et de l'Algérie orientale. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 34:lxi-lxxvi. (page lxxxii, Temnothorax as junior synonym of Leptothorax)
  • Forel, A. 1892j. Die Ameisenfauna Bulgariens. (Nebst biologischen Beobachtungen.). Verh. K-K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 42: 305-318 (page 315, Temnothorax as subgenus of Leptothorax)
  • Forel, A. 1915d. Fauna insectorum helvetiae. Hymenoptera. Formicidae. Die Ameisen der Schweiz. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 12(B Beilage: 1-77 (page 27, Temnothorax as subgenus of Leptothorax)
  • Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 245, Temnothorax in Myrmicinae, Leptothoracini; Temnothorax as subgenus of Leptothorax)
  • MacKay, W. P. 2000. A review of the New World ants of the subgenus Myrafant, (Genus Leptothorax) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology. 36:265-444.
  • Mayr, G. 1861. Die europäischen Formiciden. Nach der analytischen Methode bearbeitet. Wien: C. Gerolds Sohn, 80 pp. (page 68, Temnothorax in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. (page 21, Temnothorax in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Ruzsky, M. 1905b. The ants of Russia. (Formicariae Imperii Rossici). Systematics, geography and data on the biology of Russian ants. Part I. Tr. Obshch. Estestvoispyt. Imp. Kazan. Univ. 38(4-6 6: 1-800 (page 607, Temnothorax as subgenus of Leptothorax)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1910b. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. (page 139, Temnothorax as subgenus of Leptothorax)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 679, Temnothorax as subgenus of Leptothorax)
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