Tetramorium

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Tetramorium
Tetramorium caespitum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Tetramorium
Mayr, 1855
Type species
Formica caespitum, now Tetramorium caespitum
Diversity
582 species
(Species Checklist)

Tetramorium caespitum casent0106026 profile 1.jpg

Tetramorium caespitum

Tetramorium caespitum casent0106026 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Synonyms

Hita Garcia, Wiesel and Fischer (2013) - Distributed worldwide with its diversity approaching 600 species. The Afrotropical region holds the largest number of forms with more than 220 described species (Bolton, 1976; Bolton, 1980; Hita Garcia et al., 2010a, 2010b, 2010c). Members of this genus can be found in many habitats from humid rainforests to arid savannahs and deserts and in different strata from the ground and leaf litter layer to the high forest canopy (Bolton, 1980). Most species seem to be predaceous although some, such as the Kenyan savannah species Tetramorium rothschildi, are known to be granivorous.

Identification

Antennal count for most species is 12 segments. There are a fair number of species with 11 segments and even a few with 10.

Tetramorium is a diverse genus that has had many species organized into species groups.

Keys including this Genus

Keys to Subgenera or Species Groups in this Genus

Keys to Species in this Genus

Distribution

One of the most species-rich ant genera (> 400 species), Tetramorium are found in the Afrotropical, Malagasy, Palaearctic, Oriental, and Indo-Australian regions. A few species, mostly non-native, are also found in the New World. Their largest center of diversity is in the Afrotropical region where there are more than 220 described species (Hita Garcia et al. 2010).

World distribution based on political regions. View/Edit Data
Tetramorium Distribution.png Worlddistribution legend.jpg

Species richness

Species richness by country based on regional taxon lists (countries with darker colours are more species-rich). View Data

Tetramorium Species Richness.png

Biology

Eguchi, Bui and Yamane (2011) - In Vietnam Tetramorium species inhabit various habitats such as open lands, grasslands, forest edges and well-developed forests. Their nests are usually found in rotting logs, twigs, wood fragments, under stones and in soil. Workers forage mainly on the ground.

Castes

Many members of this speciose genera are either known from workers only or from a few queens but mainly workers have been collected. Males are unknown and uncollected for a majority of species.

Morphology

Worker Morphology

 • Antennal segment count 10-12 • Antennal club 3 • Palp formula 4,3; 4,2; 3,3; 3,2; 2,2 • Total dental count 6-11 • Spur formula 1 simple, 1 simple, 1 simple-barbulate; 0, 0 • Eyes present • Scrobes present, absent • Sting present

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • TETRAMORIUM [Myrmicinae: Tetramoriini]
    • Tetramorium Mayr, 1855: 423. Type-species: Formica caespitum, by subsequent designation of Girard, 1879: 1016.
    • Tetramorium senior synonym of Tetrogmus: Roger, 1862c: 297.
    • Tetramorium senior synonym of Atopula, Lobomyrmex, Macromischoides, Tetrogmus, Xiphomyrmex: Bolton, 1976: 359; Bolton, 1980: 195.
    • Tetramorium senior synonym of Triglyphothrix: Bolton, 1985: 247.
    • Tetramorium senior synonym of Apomyrmex: Bolton, 2003: 227, 269.
  • ACIDOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Rhoptromyrmex]
    • Acidomyrmex Emery, 1915i: 191 [as subgenus of Rhoptromyrmex]. Type-species: Rhoptromyrmex wroughtonii, by original designation.
    • Acidomyrmex raised to genus: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 664, 672.
    • Acidomyrmex junior synonym of Rhoptromyrmex: Brown, 1964c: 11; Bolton, 1986a: 2.
  • ANERGATES [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Anergates Forel, 1874: 67 (see also p. 93). Type-species: Myrmica atratula, by monotypy.
    • Teleutomyrmex junior synonym of Tetramorium: Ward et al., 2014: 15.
  • APOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Apomyrmex Calilung, 2000: 66. Type-species: Apomyrmex manobo, by original designation.
    • Apomyrmex junior synonym of Tetramorium: Bolton, 2003: 227, 269.
  • ATOPULA [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Atopula Emery, 1912b: 104. Type-species: Atopomyrmex nodifer, by original designation.
    • Atopula subgenus of Vollenhovia: Emery, 1912d: 273.
    • Atopula revived status as as genus: Emery, 1914a: 41.
    • Atopula subgenus of Terataner: Arnold, 1952b: 129.
    • Atopula revived status as as genus: Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1985: 257 (anachronism).
    • Atopula junior synonym of Tetramorium: Bolton, 1976: 359; Bolton, 1980: 195 Bolton, 1994: 106.
  • DECAMORIUM [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Decamorium Forel, 1913a: 121 [as subgenus of Tetramorium]. Type-species: Tetramorium (Decamorium) decem, by monotypy.
    • Decamorium raised to genus: Emery, 1914a: 42; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 664, 906.
    • Decamorium junior synonym of Tetramorium: Hita Garcia & Fisher, 2014: 71.
  • HAGIOXENUS [junior synonym of Rhoptromyrmex]
    • Hagioxenus Forel, 1910a: 8. Type-species: Hagioxenus schmitzi, by monotypy.
    • Hagioxenus junior synonym of Rhoptromyrmex: Bolton, 1986a: 2.
  • IRENEELLA [junior synonym of Rhoptromyrmex]
    • Ireneella Donisthorpe, 1941i: 175. Type-species: Ireneella papuensis (junior synonym of Tetramorium melleum), by original designation.
    • Ireneella junior synonym of Rhoptromyrmex: Bolton, 1976: 298; Bolton, 1986a: 2.
  • LOBOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Lobomyrmex Kratochvíl, 1941: 84 [as subgenus of Tetramorium]. Type-species: Tetramorium (Lobomyrmex) ferox silhavyi (junior synonym of Tetramorium ferox), by monotypy.
    • Lobomyrmex junior synonym of Tetramorium: Bolton, 1976: 359; Bolton, 1980: 196.
  • MACROMISCHOIDES [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Macromischoides Wheeler, W.M. 1920: 53. Type-species: Macromischa aculeata, by original designation.
  • [Macromichoides Santschi, 1924b: 206, incorrect subsequent spelling.]
    • Macromischoides junior synonym of Tetramorium: Bolton, 1976: 359; Bolton, 1980: 196.
  • SULCOMYRMEX [unavailable name]
    • Sulcomyrmex Kratochvíl, 1941: 84 [as subgenus of Tetramorium]. Unavailable name. Proposed without designation of type-species and therefore unavailable. Species included by Kratochvíl (1941) are all referable to Tetramorium: Bolton, 1976: 359.
  • RHOPTROMYRMEX [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Rhoptromyrmex Mayr, 1901b: 18. Type-species: Rhoptromyrmex globinodis, by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 172.
    • Rhoptromyrmex senior synonym of Acidomyrmex: Brown, 1964c: 11.
    • Rhoptromyrmex senior synonym of Ireneella: Bolton, 1976: 298.
    • Rhoptromyrmex senior synonym of Hagioxenus: Bolton, 1986a: 2.
    • Rhoptromyrmex senior synonym of Tetramorium: Ward et al., 2014: 15.
  • TELEUTOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Teleutomyrmex Kutter, 1950: 82. Type-species: Teleutomyrmex schneideri, by original designation.
    • Teleutomyrmex junior synonym of Tetramorium: Ward et al., 2014: 15.
  • TETROGMUS [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Tetrogmus Roger, 1857: 10. Type-species: Tetrogmus caldarius, by monotypy.
    • Tetrogmus subgenus of Tetramorium: Wheeler, W.M. 1910g: 141.
    • Tetrogmus junior synonym of Tetramorium: Roger, 1862c: 297; Bolton, 1976: 359.
  • TRIGLYPHOTHRIX [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Triglyphothrix Forel, 1890b: cvi. Type-species: Triglyphothrix walshi, by monotypy.
    • Triglyphothrix subgenus of Tetramorium: Arnold, 1917: 274; Arnold, 1926: 272.
    • Triglyphothrix revived status as genus: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 196; Emery, 1924d: 272; Creighton, 1950a: 285.
    • Triglyphothrix junior synonym of Tetramorium: Bolton, 1985: 247.
  • XIPHOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Xiphomyrmex Forel, 1887: 385 [as subgenus of Tetramorium]. Type-species: Tetramorium (Xiphomyrmex) kelleri, by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 175.
    • Xiphomyrmex subgenus of Tetramorium: Forel, 1899c: 53; Arnold, 1917: 274; Arnold, 1926: 277.
    • Xiphomyrmex raised to genus: Emery, 1895j: 770; Emery, 1914a: 42; Forel, 1917: 245; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 193; Emery, 1924d: 286.
    • Xiphomyrmex junior synonym of Tetramorium: Bingham, 1903: 175; Bolton, 1976: 359; Bolton, 1980: 195; Bolton, 1994: 106.

References

  • Arnold, G. 1917. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Part III. Myrmicinae. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 14: 271-402 (page 271, Tetramorium in Myrmicinae, Tetramoriini)
  • Ashmead, W. H. 1905c. A skeleton of a new arrangement of the families, subfamilies, tribes and genera of the ants, or the superfamily Formicoidea. Can. Entomol. 37: 381-384 (page 383, Tetramorium in Myrmicinae, Tetramoriini)
  • Bolton, B. 1976. The ant tribe Tetramoriini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Constituent genera, review of smaller genera and revision of Triglyphothrix Forel. Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 34: 281-379 (page 359, Tetramorium senior synonym of Atopula, Lobomyrmex, Macromischoides, Tetrogmus, and Xiphomyrmex, page 314,341, Keys to species (former Triglypothrix species))
  • Bolton, B. 1977. The ant tribe Tetramoriini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The genus Tetramorium Mayr in the Oriental and Indo-Australian regions, and in Australia. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology. 36:67-151. PDF (page 67, Key to species (Oriental, Indo-Australian and Australian))
  • Bolton, B. 1979. The ant tribe Tetramoriini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The genus Tetramorium Mayr in the Malagasy region and in the New World. Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 38: 129-181 (page 129, Key to species (Malagasy and New World))
  • Bolton, B. 1980. The ant tribe Tetramoriini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The genus Tetramorium Mayr in the Ethiopian zoogeographical region. Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 40: 193-384 (page 195, Tetramorium senior synonym of Atopula, Lobomyrmex, Macromischoides, Tetrogmus, and Xiphomyrmex, page 193, Key to species (Afrotropical).
  • Bolton, B. 1985. The ant genus Triglyphothrix Forel a synonym of Tetramorium Mayr. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Nat. Hist. 19: 243-248 (page 247, Species included in Sulcomyrmex (unavailable) referable to Tetramorium. Tetramorium senior synonym of Triglyphothrix.)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 227, 269, Tetramorium in Myrmicinae, Tetramoriini; Tetramorium senior synonym of Apomyrmex)
  • Dalla Torre, K. W. von. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. (page 130, Tetramorium in Myrmicinae)
  • Emery, C. 1877b. Saggio di un ordinamento naturale dei Mirmicidei, e considerazioni sulla filogenesi delle formiche. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 9: 67-83 (page 81, Tetramorium in Myrmicidae, Myrmicidae)
  • Emery, C. 1895l. Die Gattung Dorylus Fab. und die systematische Eintheilung der Formiciden. Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Syst. Geogr. Biol. Tiere 8: 685-778 (page 770, Tetramorium in Myrmicinae, Tetramoriini)
  • Emery, C. 1914e. Intorno alla classificazione dei Myrmicinae. Rend. Sess. R. Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna Cl. Sci. Fis. (n.s.) 18: 29-42 (page 42, Tetramorium in Myrmicinae, Tetramoriini)
  • Emery, C. 1924f [1922]. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [concl.]. Genera Insectorum 174C: 207-397 (page 275, Tetramorium in Myrmicinae, Tetramoriini)
  • Emery, C.; Forel, A. 1879. Catalogue des Formicides d'Europe. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 5: 441-481 (page 457, Tetramorium in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Forel, A. 1895b. A fauna das formigas do Brazil. Bol. Mus. Para. Hist. Nat. Ethnogr. 1: 89-139 (page 125, Tetramorium in Myrmicinae, Myrmicinae)
  • Forel, A. 1899d. Formicidae. [part]. Biol. Cent.-Am. Hym. 3: 25-56 (page 52, Tetramorium in Myrmicinae, Myrmicinae)
  • Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 245, Tetramorium in Myrmicinae, Tetramoriini)
  • Girard, M. 1879. Traité élémentaire d'entomologie. Volume 2. Paris: Librairie J.-B. Baillière et Fils, 1028 pp. (page 1016, Type-species: Formica caespitum, by subsequent designation)
  • Hita Garcia, F.; Fischer, G.; Peters, M. K. 2010. Taxonomy of the Tetramorium weitzeckeri species group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Afrotropical zoogeographical region. Zootaxa 2704:1-90.
  • Hita Garcia, F. & Fisher, B.L. 2014. The ant genus Tetramorium Mayr in the Afrotropical region (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae): synonymisation of Decamorium Forel under Tetramorium, and taxonomic revision of the T. decem species group. ZooKeys 411:67-103.
  • Kusnezov, N. 1964 [1963]. Zoogeografía de las hormigas en Sudamérica. Acta Zool. Lilloana 19: 25-186 (page 57, Tetramorium in Myrmicinae, Myrmicinae (anachronism))
  • Mayr, G. 1855. Formicina austriaca. Beschreibung der bisher im österreichischen Kaiserstaate aufgefundenen Ameisen, nebst Hinzufügung jener in Deutschland, in der Schweiz und in Italien vorkommenden Arten. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ver. Wien 5: 273-478 (page 423, Tetramorium as genus ; Tetramorium in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Mayr, G. 1861. Die europäischen Formiciden. Nach der analytischen Methode bearbeitet. Wien: C. Gerolds Sohn, 80 pp. (page 61, Tetramorium in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. (page 20, Tetramorium in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Radchenko, A. G. 1992a. Ants of the genus Tetramorium (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the USSR fauna. Report 1. Zool. Zh. 71(8 8: 39-49 (page 45, Key to species (former U.S.S.R.))
  • Roger, J. 1862c. Synonymische Bemerkungen. 1. Ueber Formiciden. Berl. Entomol. Z. 6: 283-297 (page 297, Tetramorium senior synonym of Tetrogmus)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1910b. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. (page 141, Tetramorium in Myrmicinae, Tetramoriini)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 664, Tetramorium in Myrmicinae, Tetramoriini)