Trichomyrmex

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Trichomyrmex
Trichomyrmex aberrans
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Trichomyrmex
Mayr, 1865
Type species
Trichomyrmex rogeri
Diversity
28 species
(Species Checklist)

Monomorium aberrans casent0908722 p 1 high.jpg

Monomorium aberrans casent0908722 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Synonyms

The ant genus Trichomyrmex Mayr, 1865 is a small genus in the subfamily Myrmicinae. The genus is known from the Palearctic, the Afrotropical, the Malagasy, the Nearctic, Neotropical, Oriental and Australian regions. Most species nest directly in the ground, or under stones, or in rotten wood, or sometimes in more specialized habitats such as termitaries. The described species are considered either granivorous (Trichomyrmex abyssinicus, Trichomyrmex chobauti), or are predators or scavengers (Trichomyrmex destructor, Trichomyrmex mayri). (Sharaf et al. 2016)

Identification

Sharaf et al. (2016) - Workers of Trichomyrmex can be recognized by the following characters: usually polymorphic; antennae 12-segmented, either lacking an apical club or with a club of 3 or 4 segments (usually 3, e.g., species of the Trichomyrmex destructor-group); masticatory margin of mandibles armed with 3–4 teeth, when 4 the basalmost tooth is reduced to an offset denticle or blunt angle; palp formula 2,2; scrobes absent; median portion of clypeus is short and does not project anteromedially; the anterior clypeal margin is only feebly convex to concave; clypeus usually with a distinct unpaired seta located at the midpoint of the anterior margin; the antennal fossae are surrounded by fine and curved striolae; metanotal groove impressed; propodeum unarmed, with transversely sculptured dorsum; propodeal spiracle usually circular to subcircular (vertical ellipse or short slit in Trichomyrmex abyssinicus; sting absent.

Keys including this Genus

Keys to Species in this Genus

Distribution

World distribution based on political regions. View/Edit Data
Trichomyrmex Distribution.png Worlddistribution legend.jpg

Species richness

Species richness by country based on regional taxon lists (countries with darker colours are more species-rich). View Data

Trichomyrmex Species Richness.png

Biology

Sharaf et al. (2016) - Among the nine species of the genus Trichomyrmex reported from the Arabian Peninsula, T. mayri and Trichomyrmex destructor are the most abundant ones. However, T. mayri is the most successfully distributed species, since it has the ability to establish itself in a broad range of habitats, including desert and agricultural, wild and urban, pristine and disturbed sites (Collingwood 1985; Collingwood & Agosti 1996; Collingwood et al. 1997, 2011). These observations agree with Collingwood et al. (2004) and Sharaf et al. (in press) on Socotra, where T. mayri has a broad distributional range on the Archipelago, occurring in different habitats. The species is also recorded from different localities in Egypt, including the Sinai and Nile Delta (Sharaf 2006). The two species are recorded here for the first time from Qatar, which is not surprising, especially under the intensive urbanization that has occurred recently (UNCSD 2004).

Castes

Morphology

Worker Morphology

 • Antennal segment count 12 • Antennal club weakly developed, 3, rarely 4 • Palp formula 2,2 • Total dental count 3, 4 • Eyes present • Scrobes absent • Caste monomorphic to polymorphic • Sting present

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • TRICHOMYRMEX [Myrmicinae: Crematogastrini]
    • Trichomyrmex Mayr, 1865: 19. Type-species: Trichomyrmex rogeri, by monotypy.
    • Trichomyrmex junior synonym of Monomorium: Ettershank, 1966: 82; Bolton, 1987: 296.
    • Trichomyrmex revived from synonymy of Monomorium: Ward et al., 2014: 16.
  • EQUESTRIMESSOR [junior synonym of Trichomyrmex]
    • Equestrimessor Santschi, 1919d: 92 [as subgenus of Monomorium]. Type-species: Holcomyrmex chobauti, by subsequent designation of Donisthorpe, 1943f: 644.
    • Equestrimessor junior synonym of Monomorium: Ettershank, 1966: 82; see also discussion in Bolton, 1987: 297.
    • [Ward et al. (2014) transferred the type species of Equestrimessor to Trichomyrmex but did not formally synonimise Equestrimessor under Trichomyrmex although this was implied.]
  • EQUESSIMESSOR [unavailable name]
    • Equessimessor Santschi, 1936a: 32, incorrect subsequent spelling of Equestrimessor.
  • HOLCOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Trichomyrmex]
    • Holcomyrmex Mayr, 1879: 671. Type-species: Holcomyrmex scabriceps, by subsequent designation of Bingham, 1903: 280.
    • [Holcomyrmex Smith, F. 1873: ix. Nomen nudum, attributed to Mayr.]
    • Holcomyrmex junior synonym of Monomorium: Emery, 1908h: 667.
    • Holcomyrmex revived from synonymy as subgenus of Monomorium: Emery, 1915i: 190.
    • Holcomyrmex junior synonym of Monomorium: Ettershank, 1966: 82; see also discussion in Bolton, 1987: 295.
    • Holcomyrmex junior synonym of Trichomyrmex: Ward et al., 2014: 16.
  • PARHOLCOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Trichomyrmex]
    • Parholcomyrmex Emery, 1915i: 190 [as subgenus of Monomorium]. Type-species: Myrmica gracillima (junior synonym of Atta destructor), by original designation.
    • Parholcomyrmex junior synonym of Monomorium: Ettershank, 1966: 82; Bolton, 1987: 296.
    • Parholcomyrmex junior synonym of Trichomyrmex: Ward et al., 2014: 16.
  • [Paraholcomyrmex Emery, 1915i: 191; Forel, 1917: 242; incorrect subsequent spellings.]

References

  • Bolton, B. 1987. A review of the Solenopsis genus-group and revision of Afrotropical Monomorium Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 54: 263-452 (page 296, Trichomyrmex as junior synonym of Monomorium)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 211, Trichomyrmex as junior synonym of Monomorium)
  • Dalla Torre, K. W. von. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. (page 72, Trichomyrmex in Myrmicinae)
  • Donisthorpe, H. 1943h. A list of the type-species of the genera and subgenera of the Formicidae. [concl.]. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 11(10): 721-737 (page 733, Trichomyrmex in Myrmicinae, Solenopsidini)
  • Emery, C. 1877b. Saggio di un ordinamento naturale dei Mirmicidei, e considerazioni sulla filogenesi delle formiche. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 9: 67-83 (page 81, Trichomyrmex in Myrmicidae, Myrmicidae)
  • Emery, C. 1914e. Intorno alla classificazione dei Myrmicinae. Rend. Sess. R. Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna Cl. Sci. Fis. (n.s.) 18: 29-42 (page 41, Trichomyrmex in Myrmicinae, Solenopsidini [subtribe Monomoriini])
  • Emery, C. 1922c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174B: 95-206 (page 185, Trichomyrmex in Myrmicinae, Solenopsidini)
  • Ettershank, G. 1966. A generic revision of the world Myrmicinae related to Solenopsis and Pheidologeton (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Aust. J. Zool. 14: 73-171 (page 82, Trichomyrmex as junior synonym of Monomorium)
  • Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 243, Trichomyrmex in Myrmicinae, Solenopsidini)
  • Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. (page 19, Trichomyrmex as genus)
  • Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. (page 19, Trichomyrmex in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Smith, D. R. 1979. Superfamily Formicoidea. Pp. 1323-1467 in: Krombein, K. V., Hurd, P. D., Smith, D. R., Burks, B. D. (eds.) Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Volume 2. Apocrita (Aculeata). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Pr (page 1381, Trichomyrmex as junior synonym of Monomorium)
  • Ward, P.S., Brady, S.G., Fisher, B.L. & Schultz, T.R. 2014. The evolution of myrmicine ants: phylogeny and biogeography of a hyperdiverse ant clade (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology, DOI: 10.1111/syen.12090.
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1910b. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. (page 140, Trichomyrmex in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 662, Trichomyrmex in Myrmicinae, Solenopsidini)