Turneria

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Turneria
Turneria bidentata
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Dolichoderinae
Tribe: Leptomyrmecini
Genus: Turneria
Forel, 1895
Type species
Turneria bidentata
Diversity
8 species
(Species Checklist)

Turneria bidentata casent0069986 profile 1.jpg

Turneria bidentata

Turneria bidentata casent0069986 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Evolutionary Relationships
Dolichoderinae

Tapinomini
  (6 genera)





Bothriomyrmecini
  (5 genera)




Dolichoderini
  (1 genus)


Leptomyrmecini

Non-Austral genera (Azteca, Dorymyrmex, Forelius, Gracilidris, Leptomyrmex, Linepithema)





Doleromyrma





Anonychomyrma



Nebothriomyrmex







Papyrius




Philidris




Turneria




Ochetellus




Froggattella



Iridomyrmex













Based on Ward et al. 2010.

The majority of Turneria species are found in rainforests although they are occasionally encountered in tropical dry sclerophyll woodlands and one species in temperate forests of southern Australia. As far as known all species live in trees above the ground and nest in dead twigs where they form small colonies which contain less than 500 workers. Once away from the nest foragers travel singly, searching on vegetation for suitable prey. They are not commonly collected although this is likely due to their small colony size and tree-nesting habits.

Photo Gallery

  • Turneria are twig-nesting, the interior of the nest being only slightly larger in diameter than the individual workers.
  • Nest entrances are very small, allowing only single workers to pass a time.

Identification

Workers of Turneria may be recognized among the Dolichoderinae by their elongate compound eyes, broadly convex to concave anterior clypeal margin which lacks a central angle or projection, the close approximation of the posterior terminus of the frontal carinae to the inner margins of the compound eyes and the dorsal placement of the propodeal spiracle near the propodeal angle. Additionally, most species lack pilosity on the dorsum of the head and mesosoma (present in a few species), generally have protuberances at the propodeal angle (lacking in T. rosschinga) and with the posterior propodeal face concave (short and flat in T. rosschinga). In all known species the petiolar scale is present, inclined anteriorly and nodiform, and the sculpture is weakly (integument shiny) to moderately (integument subopaque) imbricate.

Shattuck (1992) - Worker: Compound eyes elongate; propodeum with protuberances bearing the propodeal spiracle; anterolateral clypeal margin with the corners expanded slightly anterior of the mediolateral region (rarely posterior to the mediolateral regions); declivitous face of propodeum concave. Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Australia. Queen: Anterolateral clypeal margin with the corners expanded slightly anterior of the mediolateral region; mandible with apical tooth subequal in length to subapical, and the basal angle weakly defined by a denticle; petiolar scale rounded and forming an even arch dorsally; venter of petiole without a lobe; mandible with 7 teeth and 4 denticles. Male: Mandible without teeth or denticles (tip of mandible rounded and without a differentiated tooth); venter of petiole with a well developed lobe.

Keys including this Genus

 

Keys to Species in this Genus

Distribution

This genus has a restricted distribution as it is known only from Papua New Guinea, northeastern Australia, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu.

Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps

Biology

Castes

Head of worker Side of worker Top of worker

Worker of T. bidentata from Queensland.

Morphology

Worker Morphology

 • Antennal segment count 12 • Antennal club gradual • Palp formula 6,4 • Total dental count 6-10(+) • Spur formula 1 simple, 1 pectinate • Eyes present • Scrobes absent • Sting absent (from literature)

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • TURNERIA [Dolichoderinae: Leptomyrmecini]
    • Turneria Forel, 1895f: 419. Type-species: Turneria bidentata, by monotypy.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Shattuck (1992):

Worker

HEAD. Vertex flat to weakly concave. Compound eyes present, elongate; relatively posterior on head. Ocelli absent. Antennae 12 segmented. Scape short, at most surpassing the vertex by lessthan one-third its length. Anterolateral clypeal margin with the corners expanded slightly anterior of the mediolateral region, or rarely posterior to the mediolateral region and separated from it by a shoulder. Anteromedial clypeal margin entire, without a central notch or concavity of any type, or rarely with a broad, shallow concavity. Anterior clypeal setae 10-16; short, less than twice the maximum scape diameter to about the same length as the closed mandibles; straight. Posterior clypeal margin between the anterior and posterior surfaces of the antennal socket cavities. Anterior tentorial pit nearer the antennal socket than the mandibular insertion. Frontal carina present. Anterolateral hypostoma reduced to a thin sclerite. Medial hypostoma entire. Psammophore absent. MOUTHPARTS. Palp formula 6:4. Third maxillary palp segment subequal in length to segment 4. Fifth maxillary palp segment at the apical extreme of segment 4. Mandible with 5 teeth and 5-6 denticles. Apical tooth slightly longer than the subapical tooth. Basal angle weakly defined by a denticle. Basal margin denticulate along entire surface. MESOSOMA. Posteroventral pronotum lateral, rounded or angled. Mesopleural process absent. Anteromedial mesostemum even with the lateral regions. Declivitous face of propodeum concave; dorsal face convex, subequal in length to, or longer than, the declivitous face. Propodeal angle distinct. Pronotal spines absent. Erect pronotal hairs usually absent (present in one undescribed species). Mesonotal spines absent. Propodeal spines present as protuberances. Propodeal tooth absent. Dorsal pro-mesonotal junction with the pronotum and mesonotum even. Metanotal groove forming a distinct angle between the mesonotum and propodeum. Metanotal spiracle dorsal and lying on the dorsal surface when viewed in lateral profile. Propodeal spiracle dorsal and posterior, near the propodeal angle. Hind tibial spur with well developed barbules along entire inner surface (except extreme base). PETIOLE. Scale present; rounded and forming an even arch dorsally; strongly inclined anteriorly and with the anterior face much shorter than the posterior face. Venter with a well developed lobe. GASTER. Firsttergitevertical and not concealing the petiole in dorsal view and with a groove or indentation for the reception of either the basal portion or entire height of the petiole. Anterior tergosternal suture of the first segment absent immediately lateral of the helcium and with the lateral section of the suture terminating immediately above the helcium. Fifth tergite ventral, gaster with 4 apparenttergites. Gastral compression absent (gaster circular in cross section). Fourth stemite flat across entire posterior border. GENERAL CHARACTERS. Worker caste monomorphic. Chromosome number unknown. Integument thin and flexible, weakly sculptured. PROVENTRICULUS. Cupola much broader than bulb; round; with short pile; smooth, without sculpture; and with narrow phragma. Bulb completely hidden by cupola in lateral view. Longitudinal muscle No.1 absent. Occlusory tract absent.

Queen

HEAD. Vertex flat to weakly concave. Compound eyes relatively anterior on head. Antennae 12 segmented. Scape short, surpassing the vertex by less than one-half scape length. Anterolateral clypeal margin with the corners expanded slightly anterior of the mediolateral region. Anteromedial clypeal margin entire, without a central notch or concavity of any type. Anterior clypeal setae 12; short, less than twice the maximum scape diameter; straight. Posterior clypeal margin between the anterior and posterior surfaces of the antennal socket cavities. Anterior tentorial pit nearer the antennal socket than the mandibular insertion. Anterolateral hypostoma reduced to a thin sclerite. Medial hypostoma entire. Psammophore absent. MOUTHPARTS. Palp formula 6:4. Third maxillary palp segment subequal in length to segment 4. Fifth maxillary palp segment at the apical extreme of segment 4. Mandible with 7 teeth and 4 denticles. Apical tooth subequal in length to the subapical tooth. Basal angle weakly defined by a denticle. Basal margin denticulate along entire surface. MESOSOMA. Posteroventral pronotum lateral, rounded or angled. Episternal suture complete to weak, nearly absent. Mesopleural process absent. Anteromedial mesosternum even with the lateral regions. Axilla parallel and entire. Anterior axillar suture straight. Declivitous and dorsal faces of propodeum convex; dorsal face subequal in length to the declivitous face. Propodeal angle indistinct. Propodeal suture absent. Mesosomal spines and tooth absent. Erect mesoscutal hairs absent (possibly present in one undescribed species; see worker description). Propodeal spiracle lateral and ventral of the propodeal dorsum. Hind tibial spur with well developed barbules along entire inner surface (except extreme base). WINGS. Radial cell closed. Fore wing with 2 cubital and 1 discoidal cell. Hind wing with 2 cells. PETIOLE. Scale present; rounded and forming an even arch dorsally; strongly inclined anteriorly and with the anterior face much shorter than the posterior face. Venter without a lobe. GASTER. First segment vertical and not concealing the petiole in dorsal view and with a groove or indentation for the reception of the basal portion ofthe petiole. Fifth tergite ventral, gaster with 4 apparenttergites. Gastral compression absent (gaster circular in cross section). Fourth sternite flat across entire posterior border.

Male

HEAD. Inner margin of eye entire, flat. Scape length shorter than the length of funicular segments 2+3. First funicular segment barrel-shaped. Second funicular segment cylindrical, straight. Funicular segments 2 and 3 at most twice as long as broad. Third and fourth funicular segments straight. Anteromedial clypeal margin entire, without a central notch or concavity of any type. Anterior clypeal setae 4-6; short, about as long as the maximum diameter of the scape; straight. Posterior clypeal margin even with or anterior to the anterior surfaces of the antennal socket cavities. Anterior tentorial pit nearer the antennal socket than the mandibular insertion. Anterolateral hypostoma reduced to a thin sclerite. Medial hypostoma entire. MOUTHPARTS. Palp formula 6:4. Third maxillary palp segment subequal in length to segment 4. Fifth maxillary palp at the apical extreme of segment 4. Mandible with no teeth or denticles. Apical tooth absent (tip of mandible rounded and without a differentiated tooth). Basal angle indistinct, with a relatively uninterrupted curve between the two margins and without a distinct tooth or angle. Basal margin smooth and without teeth or denticles. MESOSOMA. Posteroventral pronotum lateral, rounded or angled. Episternal suture present, complete. Anteromedial mesosternum even with the lateral regions. Axilla parallel and entire. Anterior axillar suture straight. Declivitous and dorsa/faces ofpropodeum convex; dorsalface subequal in length to the declivitous face. Propodeal angle distinct. WINGS. Radial cell closed. Fore wing with 1 cubital and 1 discoidal cell. Pterostigmal appendage absent. Hind wing with 2 cells. PETIOLE. Scale present; ridged and with a distinct angle dorsally; vertical and not inclined anteriorly. Venter with a well developed lobe. Attachment to gaster broad. GASTER. First segment elongated posteriorly, smooth and without a groove or indentation. GENITAUA. Pygostyles present. Posterior margin of subgenital plate concave. Paramere divided by a membranous region. Digitus linear, with a slight ventral arch. Cusp is ventral of digitus. Ventral lobe of volsella present as a swelling. Aedeagus without ventral teeth.

Larva

Shape dolichoderoid. Protuberances present as 2 bosses located middorsally. Body hairs sparse; simple; short. 10 spiracular pairs. Antennae short.

References

  • Ashmead, W. H. 1905c. A skeleton of a new arrangement of the families, subfamilies, tribes and genera of the ants, or the superfamily Formicoidea. Can. Entomol. 37: 381-384 (page 384, Turneria in Dolichoderidae)
  • Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. (page 26, Turneria in Dolichoderinae, Dolichoderini)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 92, Turneria in Dolichoderinae, Dolichoderini)
  • Dubovikoff, D.A. 2005. The system of taxon Bothriomyrmex Emery, 1869 sensu lato (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and relatives genera. Kavkazskii Entomologicheskii Byulleten 1(1): 89-94 (page 92, Turneria in Iridomyrmecina)
  • Emery, C. 1913a [1912]. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Dolichoderinae. Genera Insectorum 137: 1-50 (page 21, Turneria in Dolichoderinae, Tapinomini)
  • Forel, A. 1895g. Nouvelles fourmis d'Australie, récoltées à The Ridge, Mackay, Queensland, par M. Gilbert Turner. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 39: 417-428 (page 419, Turneria as genus)
  • Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 248, Turneria in Dolichoderinae, Tapinomini)
  • Shattuck, S. O. 1990. Revision of the dolichoderine ant genus Turneria (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Syst. Entomol. 15: 101-117 (page 101, Revision of genus)
  • Shattuck, S. O. 1992c. Generic revision of the ant subfamily Dolichoderinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 21: 1-181 (page 161, Turneria in Dolichoderinae, Dolichoderini)
  • Shattuck, S.O. 2011. Turneria rosschinga sp.n. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a new dolichoderine ant from Australia. Myrmecological News 15, 125-128.
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1910b. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. (page 142, Turneria in Dolichoderinae)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 689, Turneria in Dolichoderinae, Tapinomini)