Difference between revisions of "Crematogaster"

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(Identification)
(Identification)
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==Identification==
 
==Identification==
''Crematogaster'' species can be difficult to identify. There are many parts of world where ''Crematogaster'' are quite abundant but the diversity and taxonomy of the genus is poorly known. A number of recent revisions have brought made some improvements for a few species groups and regions. Unfortunately there is no overall treatment or comprehensive revision to provide any coherent accounting of the genus as a whole.  
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''Crematogaster'' species can be difficult to identify. There are many parts of world where ''Crematogaster'' are quite abundant but the diversity and taxonomy of the genus is poorly known. A number of recent revisions have greatly improved our understanding of a few species groups and regions. Unfortunately there is no comprehensive revision that can provide any coherent accounting of the genus as a whole.  
  
 
*[[Crematogaster Species by Subgenus and Species Group|Malagasy ''Crematogaster'' Species by Subgenus and Species Group]]
 
*[[Crematogaster Species by Subgenus and Species Group|Malagasy ''Crematogaster'' Species by Subgenus and Species Group]]
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*Key to ''Crematogaster degeeri'' group [[Key to Crematogaster degeeri group workers| '''workers''']] / [[Key to Crematogaster degeeri group queens| '''queens''']]  
 
*Key to ''Crematogaster degeeri'' group [[Key to Crematogaster degeeri group workers| '''workers''']] / [[Key to Crematogaster degeeri group queens| '''queens''']]  
 
*Key to ''Crematogaster kelleri'' group [[Key to Crematogaster kelleri group workers|'''workers''']] / [[Key to Crematogaster kelleri group queens|'''queens''']] / [[Key to Crematogaster kelleri group males|'''males''']]
 
*Key to ''Crematogaster kelleri'' group [[Key to Crematogaster kelleri group workers|'''workers''']] / [[Key to Crematogaster kelleri group queens|'''queens''']] / [[Key to Crematogaster kelleri group males|'''males''']]
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*[[Key to Crematogaster Physocrema species|Key to ''Crematogaster Physocrema'' species]]
  
 
==Distribution==
 
==Distribution==

Revision as of 16:38, 3 March 2015

Crematogaster
Temporal range: 30–0 Ma
Oligocene – Recent
Crematogaster scutellaris
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Crematogaster
Lund, 1831
Type species
Formica scutellaris, now Crematogaster scutellaris
Subgenera
Diversity
769 species
3 fossil species

Crematogaster scutellaris casent0173120 profile 1.jpg

Crematogaster scutellaris

Crematogaster scutellaris casent0173120 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Hita Garcia, Wiesel and Fischer (2013) - One of the most species-rich and widely distributed genera, with approximately 470 valid species and 300 subspecies (Bolton, 2012). Despite its cosmopolitan distribution, most species are found in the tropics. The extreme species richness together with the high intraspecific and geographical variability provides serious obstacles for the taxonomic understanding of this genus. Thus, it is not surprising that revisionary treatments are very scarce and have been thoroughly avoided in the past. Some regional faunas have been revised on genus or subgenus level (Buren, 1959; Longino, 2003; Hosoishi & Ogata, 2008, 2009; Blaimer, 2010, 2011). In tropical regions, most members of this genus are arboreal (Longino, 2003), although a minority of species nest and forage on the ground (Quinet et al., 2009; Hosoishi et al., 2010). Crematogaster can be found in a diversity of habitats, such as forests, woodlands, savannahs or shrublands (Blaimer, 2010) and they often play a dominant, aggressive and territorial role within the local ant fauna (Longino, 2003). Most Crematogaster seem to be highly generalistic and omnivorous (Longino, 2003), although the most important resource for many species is homopteran honeydew.

Identification

Crematogaster species can be difficult to identify. There are many parts of world where Crematogaster are quite abundant but the diversity and taxonomy of the genus is poorly known. A number of recent revisions have greatly improved our understanding of a few species groups and regions. Unfortunately there is no comprehensive revision that can provide any coherent accounting of the genus as a whole.

Distribution

Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps

Species richness

Species richness by country based on regional taxon lists (countries with darker colours are more species-rich). View Data

Crematogaster Species Richness.png

Biology

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • CREMATOGASTER [Myrmicinae: Crematogastrini]
    • Crematogaster Lund, 1831a: 132. Type-species: Formica scutellaris, by subsequent designation of Bingham, 1903: 124.
    • [Type-species not Formica acuta, unjustified subsequent designation by Emery, 1912d: 272; this error repeated in, for example, Emery, 1914c: 39, Arnold, 1920a: 482, Emery, 1922e: 128, Gallardo, 1934: 4; Soulié, 1965: 78.]
    • Crematogaster senior synonym of Acrocoelia: Roger, 1863b: 36; Mayr, 1863: 404; Dalla Torre, 1893: 79 (see also Buren, 1959: 125; Kempf, 1972a: 81).
    • Crematogaster (as subgenus) senior synonym of Atopogyne, Colobocrema, Decacrema, Oxygyne, Nematocrema, Paracrema, Physocrema, Sphaerocrema, Xiphocrema: Blaimer, 2012: 52.
    • Subgenera of Crematogaster: nominal plus Orthocrema..
  • CREMASTOGASTER Mayr, 1861: 74 (and many later authors), incorrect subsequent spelling. Discussion of spelling: Emery, 1912d: 272 (footnote); Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 78; Donisthorpe, 1941f: 36 and Buren, 1959: 125.
  • ACROCOELIA [junior synonym of Crematogaster]
    • Acrocoelia Mayr, 1853a: 147. Type-species: Acrocoelia ruficeps (junior synonym of Formica scutellaris), by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 158.
    • Acrocoelia junior synonym of Crematogaster: Mayr, 1863: 404; Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 158; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 828.
    • Acrocoelia revived from synonymy as subgenus of Crematogaster: Emery, 1922e: 140.
    • Acrocoelia junior synonym of Crematogaster: Buren, 1959: 126.
    • Acrocoelia revived from synonymy as genus: Soulié, 1964: 398.
    • Acrocoelia junior synonym of Crematogaster: Brown, 1973b: 178. [The type-species of Acrocoelia and Crematogaster are synonymous, the generic synonymy is therefore absolute.]
  • TRANOPELTOIDES [junior synonym of Crematogaster]
    • Tranopeltoides Wheeler, W.M. 1922e: 10. Type-species: Tranopelta huberi, by original designation.
    • Tranopeltoides junior synonym of Crematogaster: Kempf, 1960c: 173.
  • NEMATOCREMA [junior synonym of Crematogaster]
    • Nematocrema Santschi, 1918d: 182 [as subgenus of Crematogaster]. Type-species: Crematogaster stadelmanni, by original designation.
    • Nematocrema raised to genus: Soulié, 1964: 398.
    • Nematocrema junior synonym of Crematogaster: Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 13.
    • Nematocrema subgenus of Crematogaster: Bolton, 1995b: 38.
    • Nematocrema junior synonym of Crematogaster: Blaimer, 2012: 249.

References

  • Arnold, G. 1920a. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Part IV. Myrmicinae. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 14: 403-578 (page 482, Crematogaster in Myrmicinae, Crematogastrini)
  • Ashmead, W. H. 1905c. A skeleton of a new arrangement of the families, subfamilies, tribes and genera of the ants, or the superfamily Formicoidea. Can. Entomol. 37: 381-384 (page 383, Crematogaster in Myrmicinae, Crematogastrini)
  • Bingham, C. T. 1903. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera, Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-wasps. London: Taylor and Francis, 506 pp. (page 124, Type-species Formica scutellaris; by subsequent designation)
  • Blaimer, B. B. 2012c. A subgeneric revision of Crematogaster and discussion of regional species-groups (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 3482:47-67. PDF
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 238, Crematogaster in Myrmicinae, Crematogastrini [Type-species not Formica acuta, unjustified subsequent designation by Emery, 1912d: 272; this error repeated in, for example, Arnold, 1920a: 482, Emery, 1922e: 128, Gallardo, 1934: 4; Soulié, 1965: 78.]; page 238, Crematogaster as subgenus of Crematogaster)
  • Cresson, E. T. 1887. Synopsis of the families and genera of the Hymenoptera of America, north of Mexico, together with a catalogue of the described species, and bibliography. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc., Suppl. Vol. 1887: 1-351 (page 262, Crematogaster in Myrmicidae)
  • Dalla Torre, K. W. von. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. (page 79, Crematogaster in Myrmicinae; Crematogaster senior synonym of Acrocoelia)
  • Emery, C. 1877b. Saggio di un ordinamento naturale dei Mirmicidei, e considerazioni sulla filogenesi delle formiche. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 9: 67-83 (page 81, Crematogaster in Myrmicinae, Pheidolini [Myrmicidae, Pheidolidae])
  • Emery, C. 1895l. Die Gattung Dorylus Fab. und die systematische Eintheilung der Formiciden. Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Syst. Geogr. Biol. Tiere 8: 685-778 (page 769, Crematogaster in Myrmicinae, Crematogastrini)
  • Emery, C. 1914e. Intorno alla classificazione dei Myrmicinae. Rend. Sess. R. Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna Cl. Sci. Fis. (n.s.) 18: 29-42 (page 41, Crematogaster in Myrmicinae, Crematogastrini)
  • Emery, C. 1922c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174B: 95-206 (page 127, Crematogaster in Myrmicinae, Crematogastrini)
  • Emery, C.; Forel, A. 1879. Catalogue des Formicides d'Europe. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 5: 441-481 (page 464, Crematogaster in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Forel, A. 1893b. Sur la classification de la famille des Formicides, avec remarques synonymiques. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 37: 161-167 (page 164, Crematogaster in Myrmicinae, Crematogastrini)
  • Forel, A. 1895b. A fauna das formigas do Brazil. Bol. Mus. Para. Hist. Nat. Ethnogr. 1: 89-139 (page 130, Crematogaster in Myrmicinae, Crematogastrini)
  • Forel, A. 1899f. Formicidae. [part]. Biol. Cent.-Am. Hym. 3: 81-104 (page 81, Crematogaster in Myrmicinae, Crematogastrini)
  • Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 242, Crematogaster in Myrmicinae, Crematogastrini)
  • Hosoishi, S. & Ogata, K. 2009a. The ant genus Crematogaster Lund, subgenus Physocrema Forel, in the Indochinese Peninsula. Asian Myrmecology 2 (2008): 1-10. PDF
  • Kempf, W. W. 1960c. Tranopeltoides Wheeler, a synonym of Crematogaster Lund (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Entomol. News 71: 173-175 (page 173, Crematogaster senior synonym of Tranopeltoides)
  • Lund, P. W. 1831a. Lettre sur les habitudes de quelques fourmis du Brésil, adressée à M. Audouin. Ann. Sci. Nat. 23: 113-138 (page 132, Crematogaster as genus)
  • Mayr, G. 1855. Formicina austriaca. Beschreibung der bisher im österreichischen Kaiserstaate aufgefundenen Ameisen, nebst Hinzufügung jener in Deutschland, in der Schweiz und in Italien vorkommenden Arten. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ver. Wien 5: 273-478 (page 468, Crematogaster in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Mayr, G. 1861. Die europäischen Formiciden. Nach der analytischen Methode bearbeitet. Wien: C. Gerolds Sohn, 80 pp. (page 74, Crematogaster in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae] [Cremastogaster Mayr, 1861: 74 (and many later authors), incorrect subsequent spelling. Discussion of spelling: Emery, 1912d: 272 (footnote); Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 78; Donisthorpe, 1941f: 36 and Buren, 1959: 125.] )
  • Mayr, G. 1863a. Formicidarum index synonymicus. Verh. K-K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 13: 385-460 (page 404, Crematogaster senior synonym of Acrocoelia)
  • Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. (page 22, Crematogaster in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Roger, J. 1863b. Verzeichniss der Formiciden-Gattungen und Arten. Berl. Entomol. Z. 7(B Beilage: 1-65 (page 36, Crematogaster senior synonym of Acrocoelia)
  • Smith, F. 1857a. Catalogue of the hymenopterous insects collected at Sarawak, Borneo; Mount Ophir, Malacca; and at Singapore, by A. R. Wallace. [part]. J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool. 2: 42-88 (page 75, Crematogaster in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Smith, F. 1858a. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae. London: British Museum, 216 pp. (page 134, Crematogaster in Poneridae, Myrmicidae)
  • Smith, F. 1871a. A catalogue of the Aculeate Hymenoptera and Ichneumonidae of India and the Eastern Archipelago. With introductory remarks by A. R. Wallace. [part]. J. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool. 11: 285-348 (page 329, Crematogaster in Myrmicidae)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1910b. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. (page 140, Crematogaster in Myrmicinae, Crematogastrini)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 661, Crematogaster in Myrmicinae, Crematogastrini)
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