Ectomomyrmex leeuwenhoeki

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Ectomomyrmex leeuwenhoeki
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Ponerinae
Tribe: Ponerini
Genus: Ectomomyrmex
Species: E. leeuwenhoeki
Binomial name
Ectomomyrmex leeuwenhoeki
(Forel, 1886)

Pachycondyla leeuwenhoeki casent0106306 p 1 high.jpg

Pachycondyla leeuwenhoeki casent0106306 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels


At a Glance • Gamergate  




Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Indo-Australian Region: Borneo, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines.
Oriental Region: Bangladesh, India (type locality), Laos, Thailand, Vietnam.
Palaearctic Region: China.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb


This species is AQ+G type: sexual reproduction is performed by dealated queen (seven colonies) or mated worker (eight colonies). All colonies (from Ulu Gombak, Peninsular Malaysia) were monogynous with one mated egg-laying female. Colony size was very small with fewer than 10 workers. In both the gamergate and queen colonies, dominance interactions were very rare but frequent aggressions were observed in orphaned colonies. The most dominant worker in an orphaned colony fragment mated with a male (Ito et al. 2007)



The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • leeuwenhoeki. Ponera leeuwenhoeki Forel, 1886d: 244 (w.) INDIA. Imai, Brown, et al. 1984: 67 (k.). Combination in Bothroponera: Forel, 1891b: 124; in Ectomomyrmex: Forel, 1900d: 321; in Pachycondyla (Ectomomyrmex): Emery, 1901a: 46; in Bothroponera: Joma & Mackay, 2013: 2; in Ectomomyrmex: Schmidt & Shattuck, 2014: 193. Current subspecies: nominal plus jacobsoni, sumatrensis. See also: Bingham, 1903: 88.



  • Bingham, C. T. 1903. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera, Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-wasps. London: Taylor and Francis, 506 pp. (page 88, see also)
  • Cheng, L. 1982. Notes on Formicidae - New to China. Entomotaxonomia 4: 252 (page 52, record in China)
  • Emery, C. 1901b. Notes sur les sous-familles des Dorylines et Ponérines (Famille des Formicides). Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 45: 32-54 (page 46, Combination in Pachycondyla (Ectomomyrmex))
  • Forel, A. 1886d. Indian ants of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, No. 2. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal Part II Nat. Sci. 55: 239-249 (page 244, worker described)
  • Forel, A. 1891c. Les Formicides. [part]. In: Grandidier, A. Histoire physique, naturelle, et politique de Madagascar. Volume XX. Histoire naturelle des Hyménoptères. Deuxième partie (28e fascicule). Paris: Hachette et Cie, v + 237 pp. (page 124, Combination in Bothroponera)
  • Forel, A. 1900f. Les Formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part VII. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 13: 303-332 (page 321, Combination in Ectomomyrmex)
  • Imai, H. T.; Brown, W. L., Jr.; Kubota, M.; Yong, H.-S.; Tho, Y. P. 1984. Chromosome observations on tropical ants from western Malaysia. II. Annu. Rep. Natl. Inst. Genet. Jpn. 34: 66-69 (page 67, karyotype described)
  • Ito, F., Ikeshita, H., Gotoh, A. & Hashim, R. 2007. Reproduction by queens and gamergates in the Oriental ponerine ant Pachycondyla (= Ectomomyrmex) leeuwenhoeki var. sumatrensis Forel. Journal of Science and Technology in the Tropics 3: 65-68
  • Schmidt, C.A. & Shattuck, S.O. 2014. The higher classification of the ant subfamily Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a review of ponerine ecology and behavior. Zootaxa. 3817, 1–242 (doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3817.1.1)