Monomorium floricola

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Monomorium floricola
Monomorium floricola
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Solenopsidini
Genus: Monomorium
Species: M. floricola
Binomial name
Monomorium floricola
(Jerdon, 1851)

Monomorium floricola side view

Monomorium floricola top view

Specimen labels

Synonyms

Monomorium-floricola-1826.jpg


Monomorium-floricola1829.jpg

Identification

Heterick (2006) - Workers of this species bear a striking resemblance in appearance and morphology to dark-headed, bicolored specimens of Monomorium termitobium, but can be distinguished by the combination of a uniformly dark brown or chocolate head and gaster. In M. termitobium the gaster is not uniformly dark brown or black, although it may be a dingy brownish-yellow or yellow with dark infuscation. The petiolar node in all Malagasy specimens of M. floricola that I have seen is also very low and broadly conical to tumular, barely higher than the postpetiole. The ventral surface of the petiole lacks a lobe of any description. Monomorium termitobium workers possess a petiolar node that is distinctly higher than the postpetiole, even when it is low conical in shape, and a subpetiolar lobe of varying degrees is always present.

Distribution

This taxon was described from India. It is also found in New Caledonia, Australia, Philippines, Ecuador, Brazil, New Guinea, Chile, Colombia, Suriname, Paraguay, French Guiana, Guyana, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, United States, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Bahamas, Tanzania, Comoros, Seychelles, Réunion, Mayotte, Mauritius, Cameroon, Ghana, Nigeria, Togo, Japan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Indonesia, Fiji, Vanuatu, Guam, Samoa, Tonga, Niue, Barbados, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, and Palau.

Check distribution from AntMaps.

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Check specimen data from AntWeb

Biology

Regional Notes

Puerto Rico

Wheeler (1908): Common in Tillandsias, under the bark-scales of trees and in hollow twigs. All the females were apterous like those of this .. species seen in the Bahamas (Wheeler, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. XXI, Pp- 87, 88, figg. D and E).

Castes

Worker

Queen

Male

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • floricola. Atta floricola Jerdon, 1851: 107 (w.) INDIA. Forel, 1893g: 388 (q.m.); Wheeler, W.M. 1905b: 88 (q.m.); Donisthorpe, 1914: 136 (gynandromorph); Crawley, 1920d: 217 (gynandromorph); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1955c: 121 (l.). Combination in Monomorium: Mayr, 1879: 671. Senior synonym of poecilum: Emery, 1894c: 151; of specularis: Mayr, 1879: 671; of cinnabari: Wheeler, W.M. 1913b: 486; of floreanum: Brown, in Linsley & Usinger, 1966: 175; of angusticlava, impressum: Bolton, 1987: 390; of furina, philippinensis: Heterick, 2006: 122. See also: Solis, Fox, Kato, et al. 2010: 15.
  • cinnabari. Monomorium cinnabari Roger, 1863a: 199 (w.) CUBA. Junior synonym of floricola: Wheeler, W.M. 1913b: 486.
  • poecilum. Monomorium poecilum Roger, 1863a: 199 (w.q.) CUBA. Junior synonym of floricola: Emery, 1894c: 151.
  • specularis. Monomorium specularis Mayr, 1866a: 509 (w.) SAMOA. Junior synonym of floricola: Mayr, 1879: 671.
  • impressum. Monomorium impressum Smith, F. 1876a: 447 (q.m.) RODRIGUEZ I. Junior synonym of floricola: Bolton, 1987: 390.
  • philippinensis. Monomorium floricola var. philippinensis Forel, 1910d: 123 (w.q.) PHILIPPINES. Junior synonym of floricola: Heterick, 2006: 122.
  • furina. Monomorium floricola var. furina Forel, 1911i: 221 (w.) SRI LANKA. Junior synonym of floricola: Heterick, 2006: 122.
  • floreanum. Monomorium floreanum Stitz, 1932a: 368, fig. 1 (w.q.) ECUADOR (Galapagos Is). Junior synonym of floricola: Brown, in Linsley & Usinger, 1966: 175.
  • angusticlava. Monomorium (Monomorium) angusticlava Donisthorpe, 1947d: 189 (w.) NEW GUINEA. Junior synonym of floricola: Bolton, 1987: 390.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Type Material

  • Atta floricola Jerdon, 1851: Syntype, queen(s), India, India.

Description

Worker

Heterick (2006) - HEAD: Head rectangular; vertex planar or weakly concave; frons shining and smooth except for piliferous pits; pilosity of frons a mixture of well-spaced, distinctly longer erect and semi-erect setae interspersed with shorter decumbent setae or setulae. Eye moderate, eye width 1–1.5× greatest width of antennal scape; (in full-face view) eyes set above midpoint of head capsule; (viewed in profile) eyes set around midline of head capsule; eye elongate; Antennal segments 12; antennal club three-segmented. Clypeal carinae always well-defined; anteromedian clypeal margin emarginate, clypeal carinae terminating in small denticles; paraclypeal setae moderately long and fine, curved; posteromedian clypeal margin approximately level with antennal fossae. Anterior tentorial pits situated nearer antennal fossae than mandibular insertions. Frontal lobes straight, parallel. Psammophore absent. Palp formula 1,2. Mandibular teeth three, plus minute, basal denticle or angle; mandibles with sub-parallel inner and outer margins, smooth (except for piliferous pits); masticatory margin of mandibles approximately vertical or weakly oblique; basal tooth a small to minute denticle or angle, much smaller than t3 (four teeth present).

MESOSOMA: Promesonotum shining and mainly smooth, striolae, if present, usually vestigial and confined to lower anterior mesopleuron, in some populations entire lower mesopleuron distinctly striolate; (viewed in profile) anterior promesonotum smoothly rounded, thereafter more-or-less flattened, promesonotum on same plane as propodeum; promesonotal setae seven to twelve; standing promesonotal setae consisting of well-spaced, incurved, erect and semi-erect setae only; appressed promesonotal setulae few, mainly on sides of promesonotum. Metanotal groove strongly impressed, with distinct transverse costulae. Propodeum shining and smooth, with multiple hair like striolae on metapleuron; propodeal dorsum convex; propodeum always smoothly rounded; standing propodeal setae consisting of one prominent pair anteriad, with other shorter setae very sparse or absent; appressed propodeal setulae very sparse or absent; propodeal spiracle equidistant from metanotal groove and declivitous face of propodeum. Vestibule of propodeal spiracle absent or not visible. Propodeal lobes present as vestigial flanges or small strips of cuticle only.

PETIOLE AND POSTPETIOLE: Petiolar spiracle lateral and situated within anterior sector of petiolar node; node (viewed in profile) evenly tumular to roundly conical; appearance of node shining and smooth throughout; ratio of greatest node breadth (viewed from front) to greatest node width (viewed in profile) between 1:1 and 3:4; anteroventral petiolar process absent or vestigial; ventral petiolar lobe absent; height ratio of petiole to postpetiole between 4:3 and 1:1; height–length ratio of postpetiole about 1:1; postpetiole shining and smooth; postpetiolar sternite without anterior lip or carina, or this structure vestigial.

GASTER: Pilosity of first gastral tergite consisting of well-spaced, erect and semi-erect setae interspersed with a few short, appressed setulae.

GENERAL CHARACTERS: Color head, gaster brown, mesosoma tawny yellow or variegated yellow-and-brown, appendages yellow or yellowish-brown. Worker caste monomorphic.

LECTOTYPE MEASUREMENTS (M. specularis): HML 1.09 HL 0.42 HW 0.33 CeI 77 SL 0.28 SI 86 PW 0.20.

LECTOTYPE MEASUREMENTS (M. angusticlava): HML 1.15 HL 0.43 HW 0.34 CeI 79 SL 0.29 SI 87 PW 0.21.

OTHER WORKER MEASUREMENTS: HML 1.00–1.21 HL 0.39–0.43 HW 0.31–0.34 CeI 79–85 SL 0.27–0.31 SI 81–90 PW 0.20–0.23 (n=19).

Queen

Heterick (2006) - HEAD: Head rectangular; vertex weakly concave or planar; frons shining and smooth except for piliferous pits and striolae around antennal sockets, frontal carinae and below the eyes; frons a mixture of well-spaced, distinctly longer erect and semi-erect setae interspersed with shorter setae or setulae, which are decumbent or appressed, longer setae thickest on vertex. Eye elliptical, curvature of inner eye margin may be more pronounced than that of its outer margin; (in full-face view) eyes set at about midpoint of head capsule; (viewed in profile) eyes set around midline of head capsule.

MESOSOMA: Anterior mesoscutum smoothly rounded, thereafter more-or-less flattened; pronotum, mesoscutum and mesopleuron shining and mainly smooth, vestigial striolae, if present, confined to anterior katepisternum; length–width ratio of mesoscutum and scutellum combined about 2:1. Axillae narrowly separated (i.e., less than width of one axilla). Standing pronotal/mesoscutal setae a mixture of well-spaced, distinctly longer, erect and semi-erect setae which are curved distally, interspersed with much shorter, incurved, decumbent setae; appressed pronotal, mescoscutal and mesopleural setulae few, mainly on sides of pronotum and mesopleuron. Propodeum shining and smooth, metapleuron with a few distinct striolae; propodeum always smoothly rounded; propodeal dorsum convex; standing propodeal setae consisting of up to a dozen or more longer erect and shorter sub-erect setae; appressed propodeal setulae well-spaced and sparse; propodeal spiracle nearer metanotal groove than declivitous face of propodeum; propodeal lobes present as vestigial flanges only, or absent.

WING: Wing not seen (queens dealated).

PETIOLE AND POSTPETIOLE: Petiolar spiracle lateroventral and situated within anterior sector of petiolar node; node, in profile conical, vertex rounded; appearance of node shining and smooth; ratio of greatest node breadth to greatest node width about 1:1. Anterior petiolar process absent or vestigial; height ratio of petiole to postpetiole about 1:1; height–length ratio of postpetiole between 3:2 and 4:3; postpetiole shining and smooth; postpetiolar sternite without anterior lip or carina, or this structure vestigial.

GASTER: Pilosity of first gastral tergite consisting of well-spaced, erect and semi-erect setae interspersed with a few appressed setulae.

GENERAL CHARACTERS: Color head, gaster brown, mesosoma and nodes yellowish. Brachypterous alates not seen. Ergatoid or worker-female intercastes not seen.

LECTOTYPE MEASUREMENTS (M. impressum): HML 1.88 HL 0.72 HW 0.59 CeI 81 SL 0.60 SI 103 PW 0.42.

OTHER QUEEN MEASUREMENTS: HML 1.75–1.88 HL 0.54–0.55 HW 0.44–0.46 CeI 82–85 SL 0.39–0.40 SI 85–89 PW 0.31–0.33.

Male

Heterick (2006) - HEAD: Head width–mesosoma width ratio between 4:3 and 1:1; frons smooth to finely striolate. Compound eyes protuberant and elliptical; margin of compound eye nearly abutting clypeus. Ocelli weakly turreted. Ratio of length of first funicular segment of antenna to second funicular segment between 3:4 and 2:3. Maximum number of mandibular teeth and denticles three.

MESOSOMA: Mesoscutum broadly convex; pronotum and mesoscutum shining and mainly smooth, vestigial striolae, if present, confined to anterior katepisternum. Parapsidal furrows vestigial or absent; notauli absent. Axillae narrowly separated (i.e., less than width of one axilla).

WING: Wing veins predominantly depigmented, with distal segments reduced to vestigial lines; vein m–cu absent; vein cu–a absent.

PETIOLE AND POSTPETIOLE: Petiolar spiracle lateral and situated within anterior sector of petiolar node. Petiolar node, (viewed in profile) conical, vertex rounded; appearance of node shining and smooth; ratio of greatest node breadth (viewed from front) to greatest node width (viewed in profile) between 4:3 and 1:1. Anterior petiolar process absent or vestigial. Height ratio of petiole to postpetiole between 4:3 and 1:1; height–length ratio of postpetiole between 2:1 and 3:2; postpeti- ole shining and microreticulate.

GASTER: Pilosity of first gastral tergite consisting of well-spaced, semi-erect setae interspersed with a few appressed setulae.

GENERAL CHARACTERS: Color uniformly brown.

MALE MEASUREMENTS: HML 1.68 HL 0.46 HW 0.50 CeI 109 SL 0.16 SI 0.32 PW 0.44.

Type Material

Heterick (2006):

Atta floricola Jerdon 1851:107. Syntype ☿s, India [no types known to exist].

Monomorium cinnabari Roger 1863a:199. Syntype ☿s, CUBA [whereabouts of type material unknown]. Syn. under M. floricola (Jerdon): Wheeler, W.M. 1913:388.

Monomorium poecilum Roger 1863a:199. Syntype ☿s, CUBA [whereabouts of type material unknown]. Syn. under M. floricola (Jerdon): Emery 1894b:51.

Monomorium specularis Mayr 1866:09. Syntype ☿s (see comments below – lectotype here designated) SAMOA: Upolu (NMW) [examined]. Syn. under M. floricola (Jerdon): Mayr 1879:71.

References

The following references are based on the 2007 CD version of the New General Catalogue.

  • Bolton, B. 1987. A review of the Solenopsis genus-group and revision of Afrotropical Monomorium Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 54: 263-452 (page 390, Senior synonym of angusticlava and impressum)
  • Crawley, W. C. 1920d. A gynandromorph of Monomorium floricola, Jerd. Entomol. Rec. J. Var. 32: 217-218 (page 217, gynandromorph described)
  • Donisthorpe, H. 1914b. Three myrmecological notes. Entomol. Rec. J. Var. 26: 136-138 (page 136, gynandromorph described)
  • Emery, C. 1894d. Studi sulle formiche della fauna neotropica. VI-XVI. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 26: 137-241 (page 151, Senior synonym of poecilum)
  • Forel, A. 1893j. Formicides de l'Antille St. Vincent, récoltées par Mons. H. H. Smith. Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 1893: 333-418 (page 388, queen, male described)
  • Jerdon, T. C. 1851. A catalogue of the species of ants found in Southern India. Madras J. Lit. Sci. 17: 103-127 (page 107, worker described)
  • Linsley, E. G.; Usinger, R. L. 1966. Insects of the Galápagos Islands. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. (4) 33: 113-196 (page 175, Senior synonym of floreanum)
  • Mayr, G. 1879. Beiträge zur Ameisen-Fauna Asiens. Verh. K-K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 28: 645-686 (page 671, Combination in Monomorium)
  • Mayr, G. 1879. Beiträge zur Ameisen-Fauna Asiens. Verh. K-K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 28: 645-686 (page 671, Senior synonym of specularis)
  • Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1955c. The ant larvae of the myrmicine tribe Solenopsidini. Am. Midl. Nat. 54: 119-141 (page 121, larva described)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1905c. The ants of the Bahamas, with a list of the known West Indian species. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 21: 79-135 (page 88, queen, male described)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1913b. The ants of Cuba. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 54: 477-505 (page 486, Senior synonym of cinnabari)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922j. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VIII. A synonymic list of the ants of the Ethiopian region. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 711-1004 (page 863, see also)

Additional References

  • Heterick, B. E. 2006. A revision of the Malagasy ants belonging to genus Monomorium Mayr, 1855 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. 57:69-202.
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1908a. The ants of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 24: 117-158.
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