Acromyrmex octospinosus

Every Ant Tells a Story - And Scientists Explain Their Stories Here
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Acromyrmex octospinosus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Attini
Genus: Acromyrmex
Species: A. octospinosus
Binomial name
Acromyrmex octospinosus
(Reich, 1793)

Acromyrmex octospinosus psw7796-21 profile 1.jpg

Acromyrmex octospinosus psw7796-21 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

Subspecies
Synonyms

Acromyrmex octospinosus is a host species of the social parasite Acromyrmex insinuator.

Identification

Median pronotal spines usually present and distinct, occasionally reduced or absent; head tapering behind eyes; head width less than or equal to 1.7 mm.

Distribution

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Neotropical Region: Brazil, Cuba, Ecuador, French Guiana (type locality), Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela.


Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Boulogne et al. (2018) - Acromyrmex octospinosus causes serious damage to fields crops, pastures and plantations due to their foraging activities for its symbiotic fungus cultivation (Pérez et al 2011). Estimated damage was, for example, several million dollars per year in USA and Brazil (Cameron & Riggs 1985). A. octospinosus is native to South and Central America and exotic to Guadeloupe. This species was introduced in Guadeloupe in 1954 and progressively colonized the entire territory (Boulogne et al 2014), causing ongoing damage in both agricultural and protected areas. The 1995 cyclone favored ant invasion in natural areas where some plant species, such as the endemic arborescent ferns of the genus Cyathea, are now threatened and might completely disappear (Boulogne et al 2014). The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) classifies this ant among the most serious pests of tropical and subtropical America (Pollard 1982).

Fernandez- Marin et al. (2003) - Incipient nests of Acromyrmex octospinosus have only 3-7 workers.

Nehring et al. (2015) - While this species is parastized by queens of Acromyrmex insinuator, this social parasite is not able to reproduce in Acromyrmex octospinosus colonies. The sympatric Acromyrmex echinatior is also parasitized by A. insinuator and is able to reproduce within colonies of this other host.

Weber (1958) - The springtail species Cyphoderus inaequalis Folsom (Lepidocyrtidae: Cyphoderinae) is known from nests of this ant.

Life History Traits

  • Mean colony size: 50,000 (Beckers et al., 1989)
  • Foraging behaviour: mass recruiter (Beckers et al., 1989)

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • octospinosus. Formica octospinosa Reich, 1793: 132 (w.) FRENCH GUIANA.
    • Forel, 1893e: 590 (s.q.m.); Wheeler, G.C. 1949: 674 (l.); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1986d: 496 (l.).
    • Combination in Atta: Emery, 1892b: 163;
    • combination in Atta (Acromyrmex): Forel, 1893e: 590;
    • combination in Acromyrmex: Mann, 1916: 454.
    • Status as species: Forel, 1893e: 590 (redescription); André, 1893b: 152; Dalla Torre, 1893: 153; Emery, 1894c: 220; Forel, 1895b: 139; Forel, 1899c: 34; Forel, 1905b: 157; Emery, 1905c: 44; Wheeler, W.M. 1905b: 130; Forel, 1907e: 2; Forel, 1908b: 42; Forel, 1908e: 69; Forel, 1912e: 181; Wheeler, W.M. 1913b: 495; Santschi, 1913h: 41; Mann, 1916: 454; Wheeler, W.M. 1916d: 326; Crawley, 1916b: 373; Wheeler, W.M. 1922c: 13; Emery, 1924d: 350; Santschi, 1925a: 391 (in key); Borgmeier, 1927c: 134; Wheeler, W.M. 1933a: 63; Wheeler, W.M. 1937c: 15, 69; Santschi, 1939e: 319 (in key); Santschi, 1939f: 166; Weber, 1941b: 125; Weber, 1945: 62; Weber, 1946b: 154; Brown, 1957e: 236; Gonçalves, 1961: 157; Kempf, 1972a: 14; Alayo, 1974: 42; Cherrett & Cherrett, 1989: 51; Bolton, 1995b: 56; Branstetter & Sáenz, 2012: 257; Fernández, et al. 2015: 70 (redescription); Fernández & Serna, 2019: 834.
    • Senior synonym of guentheri: Emery, 1894c: 220; Forel, 1899c: 34, Santschi, 1913h: 41; Emery, 1924d: 350; Borgmeier, 1927c: 134; Gonçalves, 1961: 157; Kempf, 1972a: 14; Bolton, 1995b: 56; Fernández, et al. 2015: 71.
    • Senior synonym of pallida Crawley: Wheeler, W.M. 1937c: 70; Gonçalves, 1961: 157; Kempf, 1972a: 14; Bolton, 1995b: 56; Fernández, et al. 2015: 71.
    • Current subspecies: nominal plus cubanus, ekchuah, inti.
  • guentheri. Atta (Acromyrmex) guentheri Forel, 1893e: 594 (s.w.q.m.) TRINIDAD, VENEZUELA.
    • Junior synonym of octospinosus: Emery, 1894c: 220; Forel, 1899c: 34; Santschi, 1913h: 41; Emery, 1924d: 350; Borgmeier, 1927c: 134; Gonçalves, 1961: 157; Kempf, 1972a: 14; Bolton, 1995b: 55; Fernández, et al. 2015: 71.
  • pallida. Acromyrmex octospinosa var. pallida Crawley, 1921: 92 (s.w.) GUYANA.
    • [Unresolved junior secondary homonym of Oecodoma pallida Smith, F. 1858b: 187 (Bolton, 1995b: 56).]
    • Subspecies of octospinosus: Santschi, 1925a: 359; Santschi, 1939e: 319 (in key); Santschi, 1939f: 166 (in key).
    • Junior synonym of octospinosus: Wheeler, W.M. 1937c: 70; Gonçalves, 1961: 157; Kempf, 1972a: 14; Bolton, 1995b: 56; Fernández, et al. 2015: 71.
  • pampanus. Acromyrmex (Moellerius) balzani subsp. pampanus Weber, 1938b: 200 (w.q.m.) BOLIVIA.
    • Subspecies of balzani: Weber, 1958d: 264; Brandão, 1991: 323.
    • Subspecies of landolti: Kempf, 1972a: 16.
    • Synonym of multituber: Fowler, 1988: 284; Brandão, 1991: 323.
    • [Note: Fowler and Brandão give pampanus as senior synonym, but multituber has priority (Bolton, 1995b: 56).]

Description

References

  • Beckers R., Goss, S., Deneubourg, J.L., Pasteels, J.M. 1989. Colony size, communication and ant foraging Strategy. Psyche 96: 239-256 (doi:10.1155/1989/94279).
  • Boulogne, I., L. Desfontaines, H. Ozier-Lafontaine, and G. Loranger-Merciris. 2018. Sustainable Management of Acromyrmex octospinosus (Reich): How Botanical Extracts Should Promote an Ecofriendly Control Strategy. Sociobiology. 65:348-357. doi:10.13102/sociobiology.v65i3.1640
  • Emery, C. 1892c [1891]. Note sinonimiche sulle formiche. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 159-167 (page 163, Combination in Atta)
  • Emery, C. 1894d. Studi sulle formiche della fauna neotropica. VI-XVI. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 26: 137-241 (page 220, senior synonym of guentheri)
  • Forel, A. 1893h. Note sur les Attini. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 37: 586-607 (page 590, soldier, queen, male described, Combination in Atta (Acromyrmex))
  • Gonçalves, C. R. 1961. O genero Acromyrmex no Brasil (Hym. Formicidae). Stud. Entomol. 4: 113-180 (page 157, see also)
  • Mann, W. M. 1916. The Stanford Expedition to Brazil, 1911, John C. Branner, Director. The ants of Brazil. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 60: 399-490 (page 454, Combination in Acromyrmex)
  • Nehring, V., F. R. Dani, S. Turillazzi, J. J. Boomsma, and P. d'Ettorre. 2015. Integration strategies of a leaf-cutting ant social parasite. Animal Behaviour. 108:55-65. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2015.07.009
  • Reich, G. C. 1793. Kurze Beschreibung neuen, oder noch wenig bekkanten Thiere, welche Herr Le Blond der naturforschenden Gesellschaft zu Paris aus Cayenne als Geschenk überschikt hat. Mag. Thierreichs 1: 128-134 (page 132, worker described)
  • Wheeler, G. C. 1949 [1948]. The larvae of the fungus-growing ants. Am. Midl. Nat. 40: 664-689 (page 674, larva described)
  • Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1986f. Supplementary studies on ant larvae: Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 94: 489-499 (page 496, larva described)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1937c. Mosaics and other anomalies among ants. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 95 pp. (page 70, senior synonym of pallida)

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Adams B. J., S. A. Schnitzer, and S. P. Yanoviak. 2019. Connectivity explains local ant community structure in a Neotropical forest canopy: a large-scale experimental approach. Ecology 100(6): e02673.
  • Alayo D. P. 1974. Introduccion al estudio de los Himenopteros de Cuba. Superfamilia Formicoidea. Academia de Ciencias de Cuba. Instituto de Zoologia. Serie Biologica no.53: 58 pp. La Habana.
  • Amat-G G., M. G. Andrade-C. and F. Fernández. (eds.) 1999. Insectos de Colombia. Volumen II. Bogotá: Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, 433 pp. 131975
  • Boer P. 2019. Ants of Curacao, species list. Accessed on January 22 2019 at http://www.nlmieren.nl/websitepages/SPECIES%20LIST%20CURACAO.html
  • Boomsma, J.J. , E.J. Fjerdingstad and J. Frydenberg. 1999. Multiple paternity, relatedness and genetic diversity in Acromyrmex leaf-cutter ants. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London (B) 266:249-254.
  • Bustos H., J. 1994. Contribucion al conocimiento de al fauna de hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) del occidente del Departamento de Narino (Colombia). Bol. Mus. Ent. Univ. Valle 2(1,2):19-30
  • Castano-Meneses, G., M. Vasquez-Bolanos, J. L. Navarrete-Heredia, G. A. Quiroz-Rocha, and I. Alcala-Martinez. 2015. Avances de Formicidae de Mexico. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico.
  • Celini L., V. Roy, J. Delabie, K. Questel, and P. Mora. 2012. Presence et origine d'Acromyrmex octospinosus (Reich, 1793) a Saint-Barthelemy, Petites Antilles (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Attini). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France 117(2): 167-172.
  • Dattilo W. et al. 2019. MEXICO ANTS: incidence and abundance along the Nearctic-Neotropical interface. Ecology https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2944
  • Del Toro, I., M. Vázquez, W.P. Mackay, P. Rojas and R. Zapata-Mata. Hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de Tabasco: explorando la diversidad de la mirmecofauna en las selvas tropicales de baja altitud. Dugesiana 16(1):1-14.
  • Delabie J. H. C., R. Céréghino, S. Groc, A. Dejean, M. Gibernau, B. Corbara, and A. Dejean. 2009. Ants as biological indicators of Wayana Amerindian land use in French Guiana. Comptes Rendus Biologies 332(7): 673-684.
  • Emery C. 1896. Formiche raccolte dal dott. E. Festa nei pressi del golfo di Darien. Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della Reale Università di Torino 11(229): 1-4.
  • Escalante Gutiérrez J. A. 1993. Especies de hormigas conocidas del Perú (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Revista Peruana de Entomología 34:1-13.
  • Fernandes, P.R. XXXX. Los hormigas del suelo en Mexico: Diversidad, distribucion e importancia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).
  • Fernandez-Marin, H., J.K. Zimmerman and W.T. Wzislo. 2007. Fungus garden platforms improve hygiene during nest establishment in Acromyrmex ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Attini). Insectes Sociaux 54:64-69
  • Fernández F., E. E. Palacio, W. P. Mackay, and E. S. MacKay. 1996. Introducción al estudio de las hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de Colombia. Pp. 349-412 in: Andrade M. G., G. Amat García, and F. Fernández. (eds.) 1996. Insectos de Colombia. Estudios escogidos. Bogotá: Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, 541 pp
  • Fernández F., V. Castro-Huertas, and F. Serna. 2015. Hormigas cortadoras de hojas de Colombia: Acromyrmex & Atta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Fauna de Colombia, Monografía No.5. Bogotá D.C., Colombia: Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 350 pp.
  • Fernández, F. and S. Sendoya. 2004. Lista de las hormigas neotropicales. Biota Colombiana Volume 5, Number 1.
  • Field Museum Collection, Chicago, Illinois (C. Moreau)
  • Fontanla Rizo J.L. 1997. Lista preliminar de las hormigas de Cuba. Cocuyo 6: 18-21.
  • Fontenla J. L. 2005. Species of ants (Formicidae) recorded during the rapid biological inventory of the Zapata Peninsula, 8-15 September 2002. In: Kirkconnell P., A., D. F. Stotz, y / and J. M. Shopland, eds. 2005. Cuba: Península de Zapata. Rapid Biological Inventories Report 07. The Field Museum, Chicago
  • Fontenla J. L., and J. Alfonso-Simonetti. 2018. Classification of Cuban ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) into functional groups. Poeyana Revista Cubana de Zoologia 506: 21-30.
  • Fontenla Rizo J. L. 1993. Composición y estructura de comunidades de hormigas en un sistema de formaciones vegetales costeras. Poeyana. Instituto de Ecología y Sistemática, Academia de Ciencias de Cuba 441: 1-19.
  • Fontenla Rizo J. L. 1997. Lista preliminar de las hormigas de Cuba (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Cocuyo 6: 18-21.
  • Forel A. 1905. Miscellanea myrmécologiques II (1905). Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 49: 155-185.
  • Forel A. 1907. Formiciden aus dem Naturhistorischen Museum in Hamburg. II. Teil. Neueingänge seit 1900. Mitt. Naturhist. Mus. Hambg. 24: 1-20.
  • Forel A. 1908. Catálogo systemático da collecção de formigas do Ceará. Boletim do Museu Rocha 1(1): 62-69.
  • Forel A. 1908. Fourmis de Costa-Rica récoltées par M. Paul Biolley. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 44: 35-72.
  • Forel A. 1912. Formicides néotropiques. Part II. 3me sous-famille Myrmicinae Lep. (Attini, Dacetii, Cryptocerini). Mémoires de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 19: 179-209.
  • Franco W., N. Ladino, J. H. C. Delabie, A. Dejean, J. Orivel, M. Fichaux, S. Groc, M. Leponce, and R. M. Feitosa. 2019. First checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of French Guiana. Zootaxa 4674(5): 509-543.
  • Galkowski C. 2016. New data on the ants from the Guadeloupe (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Bull. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 151, 44(1): 25-36.
  • Gonçalves C. R. 1961. O genero Acromyrmex no Brasil (Hym. Formicidae). Stud. Entomol. 4: 113-180.
  • Groc S., J. H. C. Delabie, F. Fernandez, M. Leponce, J. Orivel, R. Silvestre, Heraldo L. Vasconcelos, and A. Dejean. 2013. Leaf-litter ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a pristine Guianese rainforest: stable functional structure versus high species turnover. Myrmecological News 19: 43-51.
  • Groc S., J. Orivel, A. Dejean, J. Martin, M. Etienne, B. Corbara, and J. H. C. Delabie. 2009. Baseline study of the leaf-litter ant fauna in a French Guianese forest. Insect Conservation and Diversity 2: 183-193.
  • INBio Collection (via Gbif)
  • Jacobs J. M., J. T. Longino, and F. J. Joyce. 2011. Ants of the Islas Murciélago: an inventory of the ants on tropical dry forest islands in northwest Costa Rica. Tropical Conservation Science 4(2): 149-171.
  • Jaffe, Klaus and Lattke, John. 1994. Ant Fauna of the French and Venezuelan Islands in the Caribbean in Exotic Ants, editor D.F. Williams. 182-190.
  • Kempf, W.W. 1972. Catalago abreviado das formigas da regiao Neotropical (Hym. Formicidae) Studia Entomologica 15(1-4).
  • Kooij P. W., B. M. Dentinger, D. A. Donoso, J. Z. Shik, and E. Gaya. 2018. Cryptic diversity in Colombian edible leaf-cutting ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Insects 9: 191.
  • Kusnezov N. 1963. Zoogeografia de las hormigas en sudamerica. Acta Zoologica Lilloana 19: 25-186
  • Landero-Torres I., M. A. Garcia-Martinez, M. E. Galindo-Tovar, O. R. Leyva-Ovalle, H. E. Lee-Espinosa, J. Murguia-Gonzalez, and J. Negrin-Ruiz. 2014. Alpha diversity of the myrmecofauna of the Natural Protected Area Metlac from Fortin, Veracruz, Mexico. Southwestern Entomologist 39(3): 541-553.
  • Levings S. C. 1983. Seasonal, annual, and among-site variation in the ground ant community of a deciduous tropical forest: some causes of patchy species distributions. Ecological Monographs 53(4): 435-455.
  • Longino J. T. 2013. Ants of Honduras. Consulted on 18 Jan 2013. https://sites.google.com/site/longinollama/reports/ants-of-honduras
  • Longino J. T. 2013. Ants of Nicargua. Consulted on 18 Jan 2013. https://sites.google.com/site/longinollama/reports/ants-of-nicaragua
  • Longino, J.T. 2010. Personal Communication. Longino Collection Database
  • Maes, J.-M. and W.P. MacKay. 1993. Catalogo de las hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de Nicaragua. Revista Nicaraguense de Entomologia 23.
  • Marques Silva T. G. 2013. Partición aditiva de la diversidad de hormigas entre escalas espaciales en el Bosque Tropical Caducifolio de México. In Formicidae de Mexico (eds. M. Vasquez-Bolanos, G. Castano-Meneses, A. Cisneros-Caballero, G. A. Quiroz-Rocha, and J. L. Navarrete-Heredia) p 83-89.
  • Medina U. C. A., F. Fernandez, and M. G. Andrade-C. 2010. Insectos: escarabajos coprofagos, hormigas y mariposas. Capitulo 6. Pp 197-215. En: Lasso, C. A., J. S. Usma, F. Trujillo y A. Rial (eds.). 2010. Biodiversidad de la cuenca del Orinoco: bases científicas para la identificación de áreas prioritarias para la conservación y uso sostenible de la biodiversidad. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, WWF Colombia, Fundación Omacha, Fundación La Salle e Instituto de Estudios de la Orinoquia (Universidad Nacional de Colombia). Bogotá, D. C., Colombia.
  • Poulsen, M., A.N.M. Bot, M.G. Neilsen and J.J. Boomsma. 2002. Experimental Evidence for the Costs and Hygienic Significance of the Antibiotic Metapleural Gland Secretion in Leaf-Cutting Ants. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 52 (2):151-157
  • Pérez-Sánchez A. J., J. E. Lattke, and M. A. Riera-Valera. 2014. The Myrmecofauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Macanao Semi-arid Peninsula in Venezuela: An Altitudinal Variation Glance. J Biodivers Biopros Dev 1: 116. doi:10.4172/ijbbd.1000116
  • Reddell J. R., and J. C. Cokendolpher. 2001. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from caves of Belize, Mexico, and California and Texas (U.S.A.) Texas. Texas Memorial Museum Speleological Monographs 5: 129-154.
  • Reynoso-Campos J. J., J. A. Rodriguez-Garza, and M. Vasquez-Bolanos. 2015. Hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de la Isla Cozumel, Quintana Roo, Mexico (pp. 27-39). En: Castaño Meneses G., M. Vásquez-Bolaños, J. L. Navarrete-Heredia, G. A. Quiroz-Rocha e I. Alcalá-Martínez (Coords.). Avances de Formicidae de México. UNAM, Universiad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco.
  • Santschi F. 1925. Revision du genre Acromyrmex Mayr. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 31: 355-398.
  • Solomon S. E., C. Rabeling, J. Sosa-Calvo, C. Lopes, A. Rodrigues, H. L. Vasconcelos, M. Bacci, U. G. Mueller, and T. R. Schultz. 2019. The molecular phylogenetics of Trachymyrmex Forel ants and their fungal cultivars provide insights into the origin and coevolutionary history of ‘higher-attine’ ant agriculture. Systematic Entomology 44: 939–956.
  • Sumner, S., D.K. Aanen, J. Delabie and J.J. Boomsma. 2004. The evolution of social parasitism inAcromyrmexleaf-cutting ants: a test of Emery’s rule. Insectes Sociaux 51(1):37-42.
  • Ulyssea M. A., and C. R. F. Brandao. 2013. Ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from the seasonally dry tropical forest of northeastern Brazil: a compilation from field surveys in Bahia and literature records. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 57(2): 217–224.
  • Ulysséa M. A., C. R. F. Brandão. 2013. Ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from the seasonally dry tropical forest of northeastern Brazil: a compilation from field surveys in Bahia and literature records. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 57(2): 217-224.
  • Vásquez-Bolaños M. 2011. Lista de especies de hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) para México. Dugesiana 18: 95-133
  • Weber N. A. 1938. The food of the giant toad, Bufo marinus (L.), in Trinidad and British Guiana with special reference to the ants. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 31: 499-503.
  • Weber N. A. 1945. The biology of the fungus-growing ants. Part VIII. The Trinidad, B. W. I., species. Revista de Entomologia (Rio de Janeiro) 16: 1-88.
  • Weber N. A. 1946. The biology of the fungus-growing ants. Part IX. The British Guiana species. Revista de Entomologia (Rio de Janeiro) 17: 114-172.
  • Weber N. A. 1947. Lower Orinoco River fungus-growing ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Attini). Boletín de Entomologia Venezolana 6: 143-161.
  • Weber, Neal A. 1968. Tobago Island Fungus-growing Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomological News. 79:141-145.
  • Weber, Neal A. 1968. Tobago Island Fungus-growing Ants. Entomological News. 79(6): 141-145.
  • Weber, Neil A. 1968. Tobago Island Fungus-growing Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomological News. 79(6):141-145.
  • Wetterer J. K. 1998. Ants on Cecropia trees in urban San José, Costa Rica. Florida Entomologist 81: 118-121.
  • Wheeler G. C. 1949. The larvae of the fungus-growing ants. Am. Midl. Nat. 40: 664-689.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1905. The ants of the Bahamas, with a list of the known West Indian species. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 21: 79-135.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1913. The ants of Cuba. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 54: 477-505.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1919. The ants of Tobago Island. Psyche (Cambridge) 26: 113.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1922. The ants of Trinidad. American Museum Novitates 45: 1-16.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1937. Mosaics and other anomalies among ants. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 95 pp.
  • Wheeler, William Morton. 1916. Ants Collected in Trinidad by Professor Roland Thaxter, Mr. F. W. Urich, and Others. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparitive Zoology at Harvard University. 40(8):322-330
  • de Abreu J. M., and J. H. C. Delabie. 1986. Controle das formigas cortadeiras em plantios de cacau. Revista Theobroma 16(4): 199-211.