Acropyga kinomurai

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Acropyga kinomurai
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Plagiolepidini
Genus: Acropyga
Species: A. kinomurai
Binomial name
Acropyga kinomurai
Terayama & Hashimoto, 1996
Common Name
Hirase-yotsuba-ari
Language: Japanese


Evolutionary Relationships
Acropyga



Acropyga ayanganna




Acropyga donisthorpei



Acropyga panamensis







Acropyga guianensis



Acropyga stenotes






Acropyga fuhrmanni



Acropyga smithii





Acropyga romeo




Acropyga hirsutula




Acropyga dubitata




Acropyga decedens, Acropyga goeldii



Acropyga epedana












Acropyga arnoldi



Acropyga silvestrii






Acropyga kinomurai



Acropyga lauta





Acropyga sauteri




Acropyga acutiventris




Acropyga myops




Acropyga butteli




Acropyga ambigua



Acropyga pallida










Based on Blaimer et al., 2016. Note only selected Acropyga species are included, and undescribed species are excluded.

LaPolla (2004) - A dealate queen was found in August. An A. kinomurai nest was taken under a stone. The mealybug Eumyrmococcus kinomurai has been found in the nests of A. kinomurai (Williams and Terayama, 2000).

Identification

LaPolla (2004) - Worker: 10-11 segmented antennae; flattish head distinctly square to rectangular in shape with prominent posterolateral corners and parallel sides; torulae widely separated; mandibles with 4 teeth, dorsum densely covered in hairs. Queen: as in worker with modifications expected for caste. Male: unknown. This species is unique in its appearance.

This is a bizarre looking and easy to recognize species with its uniquely square head and very widely set torulae. The placement of the torulae is particularily interesting because the great distance between the structures is unique among Acropyga. Based on the widely set torulae, A. kinomurai is provisionally placed in the myops species-group, pending discovery of worker-associated male specimens. This species also shares a very similar mesosomal structure (flat dorsum and short pronotum) with Acropyga lauta and Acropyga sauteri, other species in the myops species-group. The outer surface of the worker mandibles are similar to A. lauta in being covered in a dense layer of hairs suggesting a possible relationship between the two species. Unfortunately, A. lauta also is without known male specimens, and it has torulae that are close together, possibly indicating it is not a close relative of A. kinomurai.

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Indo-Australian Region: Philippines.
Palaearctic Region: Japan (type locality).


Distribution based on AntMaps

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Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

A. kinomurai has been collected from Ishigaki Island, Japan, under a stone on the ground together with ant-attended mealybug Eumyrmococcus kinomurai. It is rare in this area (Japanese Ant Image Database).

Castes

Males have yet to be collected.

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • kinomurai. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) kinomurai Terayama & Hashimoto, 1996: 7, figs. 16-18 (w.) JAPAN (Yaeyama Is).
    • LaPolla, 2004a: 65 (q.).
    • Status as species: Terayama, Fellowes & Zhou, 2002: 25 (redescription); Imai, et al. 2003: 82; LaPolla, 2004a: 64 (redescription).

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

LaPolla (2004) - (n=1): TL: 2.09; HW: 0.5; HL: 0.438; SL: 0.357; ML: 0.547; GL: 1.1; CI: 114.16; SI: 71.4. Head: yellow; covered in a thick layer of appressed to suberect hairs; head broader than long, distinctly square to rectangular in appearance; posterolateral corners distinct; posterior margin entire to slightly concave medially, with short erect hairs; 10-11 segmented, incrassate antennae; scape reaches to posterior margin; clypeus narrow and flat, with many long hairs (reaching toward apical teeth of closed mandibles) along anterior clypeal margin; torulae widely separated from each other; mandible with 4 teeth; dorsal surface of mandible with dense covering of hairs; gap exists between inner mandibular margin and anterior clypeal margin. Mesosoma: yellow; in lateral view pronotum rises steeply toward mesonotum; pronotum covered in dense layer of appressed to erect hairs; dorsum nearly flat, with propodeum slightly lower than mesonotum; mesonotum flat, covered in a dense layer of appressed to erect hairs; metanotal area indistinct; propodeum flat, covered in a dense layer of appressed to erect hairs; declivity gently sloping. Gaster: petiole thick and erect, with many short erect hairs on surface, reaching height of propodeum; gaster yellow; covered in layer of appressed hairs with scattered erect hairs throughout.

Queen

LaPolla (2004) - (n=1): TL: 3.0; HW: 0.603; HL: 0.525; SL: 0.514; ML: 0.924; GL: 1.55; CI: 114.86; SI: 85.24. As in worker with modifications expected for caste and the following differences: color darker than worker, being brownish-yellow; pronotum very narrow.

Type Material

LaPolla (2004) - Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) kinomurai Terayama & Hashimoto, 1996: 7. Holotype worker, JAPAN: Yoshino, Ishigaki-jima, Yaeyama Is., Okinawa Pref. (K. Kinomura) (Museum of Nature and Human Activities) [not examined). Specimens (worker and queen) examined for this study were from the type locality and had the same date and collector as listed in Terayama & Hashimoto (1996) for the holotype and subsequent paratypes, though the examined specimens were not labeled with any type designation.

References

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Blaimer B. B., J. S. LaPolla, M. G. Branstetter, M. W. Lloyd, and S. G. Brady. 2016. Phylogenomics, biogeography and diversification of obligate mealybug-tending ants in the genus Acropyga. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 102: 20-29.
  • LaPolla J.S. 2004. Acropyga (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the world. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute 33(3): 1-130.
  • Tanaka H., and T. Kikuchi. 2010. New distribution record of Acropyga kinomurai (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) and its mutualist mealybug, Eumyrmococcus kinomurai (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae). Japanese Journal of Systematic Entomology 16(2): 191-193.
  • Terayama M., S. Kubota, and K. Eguchi. 2014. Encyclopedia of Japanese ants. Asakura Shoten: Tokyo, 278 pp.
  • Terayama M.; Fellowes, J. R.; Zhou, S. 2002. The East Asian species of the ant genus Acropyga Roger, 1862 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae). Edaphologia 70:21-32. 
  • Terayama M.; Hashimoto, Y. 1996. Taxonomic studies on the Japanese Formicidae, part 1. Introduction to this series and descriptions of four new species of the genera Hypoponera, Formica and Acropyga. Nature & Human Activities 1:1-8. 
  • Williams D. J., and M. Terayama. 2000. A new species of the mealybug genus Eumyrmococcus Silvestri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, Rhiwoecinae) associated with the ant Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) kinomurai Terayama et Hashimoto (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Entomological Science 3(2): 373-376.
  • Yamane S., S. Ikudome, and M. Terayama. 1999. Identification guide to the Aculeata of the Nansei Islands, Japan. Sapporo: Hokkaido University Press, xii + 831 pp. pp, 138-317.
  • Yamane S.; Ikudome, S.; Terayama, M. 1999. Identification guide to the Aculeata of the Nansei Islands, Japan. Sapporo: Hokkaido University Press, xii + 831 pp. pp138-317.