Anochetus traegaordhi

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Anochetus traegaordhi
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Ponerinae
Tribe: Ponerini
Genus: Anochetus
Species: A. traegaordhi
Binomial name
Anochetus traegaordhi
Mayr, 1904

Anochetus traegaordhi sam-hym-c001378b profile 1.jpg

Anochetus traegaordhi sam-hym-c001378b dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

Synonyms

In Cameroon and Congo this species was found to specialize on feeding on Nasutitermes termites, nesting in logs occupied by this prey (Schatz et al. 1999). In Saudi Arabia, Sharaf et al. (2017) found this species nesting in soil that was moist and rich in organic matter. A nest series was also found under a large Ficus tree (Moraceae) in Thi Ayn Archeological Village (Al Bahah Province) collected by digging. Some workers were found foraging in leaf litter at Wadi Aljora.

Identification

Sharaf et al. (2017) - Anochetus traegaordhi is a member of the Anochetus ghilianii-group as mentioned by Brown (1978). The A. ghilianii-group can be recognized by the medium or large body and eye sizes, the short cephalic longitudinal striations that fail to reach nuchal carina, the smooth and shining cephalic surface, and the thick, upright, compressed petiolar node as seen from profile.

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Afrotropical Region: Cameroun, Congo, Eritrea, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mozambique, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Sudan (type locality), Yemen, Zimbabwe.


Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Collingwood (1985) - Scattered accounts include a Zimbabwe collection from a sandy soil nest (Arnold 1946), a nest discovered under a tree in Sudan (Viehmeyer 1923) and two foragers found foraging on the ground in bushy scrub.

Schatz et al. (1999): Workers of Anochetus traegordhi are specialized in the capture of Nasutitermes sp. termites. Both species were found to live in the same logs fallen on the ground of the African tropical rain forest. A. traegordhi has a very marked preference for workers over termite soldiers. The purpose of the capture of soldiers, rather than true predation, was to allow the ants easier access to termite workers. During the predatory sequence, termite workers were approached from behind, then seized and stung on the gaster, while soldiers were attacked head on and stung on the thorax. When originating from a different nest-site log than their predator ant, termites were detected from a greater distance and even workers were attacked more cautiously. Only 33.3% of these termite workers were retrieved versus 75% of the attacked same-site termite workers. We have demonstrated that hunting workers can recognize the nature of the prey caste (workers versus termite soldiers) and the origin of the termite colony (i.e. sharing or not the log where the ants were nesting), supporting the hypothesis that hunting ants can learn the colony odor of their prey. This, in addition to the nest-site selection of A. traegordhi in logs occupied by Nasutitermes can be considered as a first step in termitolesty.

Sharaf et al. (2017) - This species was collected nesting in soil that was moist and rich in organic matter. A nest series was found also under a large Ficus tree (Moraceae) in Thi Ayn Archeological Village (Al Bahah Province) collected by digging. Some workers were found foraging in leaf litter at Wadi Aljora.

Castes

Worker

Queen


Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • traegaordhi. Anochetus traegaordhi Mayr, 1904b: 2 (w.) SUDAN.
    • Type-material: holotype worker.
    • Type-locality: Sudan: Khartoum (no collector’s name).
    • Type-depository: NHRS.
    • [Misspelled as trägaordi by Karavaiev, 1911: 3.]
    • Status as species: Santschi, 1910c: 351; Emery, 1911d: 110; Karavaiev, 1911: 3; Forel, 1916: 400; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 792; Santschi, 1923e: 267; Brown, 1964d: 215; Brown, 1978c: 559, 598; Collingwood, 1985: 237; Bolton, 1995b: 66; Collingwood & Agosti, 1996: 309; Kugler & Ionescu, 2007: 296 (in key); Hita Garcia, et al. 2013: 219; Borowiec, L. 2014: 8; Sharaf, Monks, et al. 2017: 84; Madl, 2019: 16.
    • Senior synonym of angusticornis: Brown, 1978c: 559; Bolton, 1995b: 66.
    • Senior synonym of gracilicornis: Brown, 1978c: 559; Bolton, 1995b: 66.
    • Senior synonym of silvaticus: Brown, 1964d: 215; Brown, 1978c: 559; Bolton, 1995b: 66.
    • Senior synonym of sudanicus: Brown, 1978c: 559; Bolton, 1995b: 66.
    • Distribution: Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mozambique, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe.
  • angusticornis. Anochetus angusticornis Arnold, 1946: 56 (w.q.) ZIMBABWE.
    • Type-material: 10 syntype workers, 1 syntype queen.
    • Type-localities: Zimabawe (“S. Rhodesia”): workers Balla-Balla (G. Arnold), queen Umtali, at light (G. Arnold).
    • Type-depositories: BMNH, SAMC.
    • Junior synonym of traegaordhi: Brown, 1978c: 559; Bolton, 1995b: 63.
  • gracilicornis. Anochetus gracilicornis Viehmeyer, 1923: 87, fig. 1 (w.) SOUTH SUDAN.
    • Type-material: syntype workers (number not stated).
    • Type-locality: South Sudan (“Anglo-Egyptian Sudan”): Renk, 20.iv.1914 (Werner/ Ebner).
    • Type-depositories: MNHU, NHMB.
    • Status as species: Brown, 1964d: 215.
    • Junior synonym of traegaordhi: Brown, 1978c: 559; Bolton, 1995b: 64.
  • silvaticus. Anochetus silvaticus Bernard, 1953b: 212, fig. 5G-I (w.q.) IVORY COAST, GUINEA.
    • Type-material: 2 syntype workers, 1 syntype queen.
    • Type-localities: 1 worker, 1 queen Ivory Coast: Banco, st H5, 13.vii.1945 (Delamare-Deboutteville), 1 worker Guinea: Zouépo, forêt, 1215 m., B8.10 (Lamotte).
    • Type-depository: MNHN.
    • Junior synonym of traegaordhi: Brown, 1964d: 215; Brown, 1978c: 559; Bolton, 1995b: 65.
  • sudanicus. Anochetus sudanicus Weber, 1942a: 47, fig. 7 (w.) SOUTH SUDAN.
    • Type-material: holotype worker.
    • Type-locality: South Sudan (“Anglo-Egyptian Sudan”): east base of Imatong Mts, Lango village of Longoforok, 29.vii.1939, no. 1366 (N.A. Weber).
    • Type-depository: MCZC.
    • Status as species: Weber, 1943c: 302.
    • Junior synonym of gracilicornis: Brown, 1964d: 215.
    • Junior synonym of traegaordhi: Brown, 1978c: 559; Bolton, 1995b: 64.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

Sharaf et al. (2017) - EL 0.25–0.30, HL 1.50–1.75, HW 1.25–1.50, MDL 0.90–1.05, ML 2.00–2.25, PNH 0.65–0.95, PNL 0.30–0.40, PNW 0.25–0.40, PW 0.60–0.80, SL 1.45–1.60, TL 5.35–7.50; Indices: CI 77–93, EI 17–22, MDI 57–63, PNI 157–317, SI 100–116 (n=9). The specimens used for measurements were recent collections from the KSA.

Head: Posterior margin of head strongly concave; eyes of moderate size (EI 17–22); scapes short, fail to reach posterior margin of head. Mesosoma: Promesonotum feebly convex in profile; metanotal groove impressed; propodeal dorsum about 2.5 3 longer than declivity; propodeal outline obtusely angulate. Petiole: In profile, anterior face broadly concave, posterior face feebly convex; petiolar node narrowly rounded. Sculpture: Cephalic surface smooth and shining except for fine striations between frontal carinae, running posteriorly and outwards to level of posterior margin of eyes; mesosoma faintly and irregularly rugulose; mesopleuron smooth; petiole and gaster smooth and shining. Pilosity: Cephalic surface without hairs or pubescence, anterior clypeal margin with few simple hairs, mandibles and antennae with appressed pubescence, mesosoma with scattered short hairs (hair length 0.08), gaster with scattered hairs. Color: Uniform yellow, gastral tergites yellow with brown tint.

Type Material

Sharaf et al. (2017) - (w.) Sudan. Afrotropical. Type not located.

References

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Bernard F. 1953. La réserve naturelle intégrale du Mt Nimba. XI. Hyménoptères Formicidae. Mémoires de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire 19: 165-270.
  • Brown Jr., W.L. 1978. Contributions toward a reclassification of the Formicidae. Part VI. Ponerinae, Tribe Ponerini, Subtribe Odontomachiti, Section B. Genus Anochetus and Bibliography. Studia Entomologia 20(1-4): 549-XXX
  • Brown W. L. Jr. 1964. Synonymy and variation of some species of the ant genus Anochetus. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 37: 212-215.
  • Brown W. L., Jr. 1964. Synonymy and variation of some species of the ant genus Anochetus. J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 37: 212-215.
  • Brown W.L. Jr. 1978. Contributions toward a reclassification of the Formicidae. Part VI. Ponerinae, tribe Ponerini, subtribe Odontomachiti. Section B. Genus Anochetus and bibliography. Studia Ent. 20(1-4): 549-638.
  • CSIRO Collection
  • El-Hawagry M. S., M. W. Khalil, M. R. Sharaf, H. H. Fadl, and A. S. Aldawood. 2013. A preliminary study on the insect fauna of Al-Baha Province, Saudi Arabia, with descriptions of two new species. ZooKeys 274: 1–88. doi:10.3897/zookeys.274.4529
  • Emery C. 1911. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118: 1-125.
  • Garcia F.H., Wiesel E. and Fischer G. 2013.The Ants of Kenya (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)—Faunal Overview, First Species Checklist, Bibliography, Accounts for All Genera, and Discussion on Taxonomy and Zoogeography. Journal of East African Natural History, 101(2): 127-222
  • IZIKO South Africa Museum Collection
  • Karavaiev V. 1911. Ameisen aus Aegypten und dem Sudan. Rus. Entomol. Obozr. 11: 1-12.
  • Kugler J., and A. Ionescu. 2007. Anochetus bytinskii, a new ant species from Israel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).Israel Journal of Entomology 37: 287-298.
  • Santschi F. 1910. Formicides nouveaux ou peu connus du Congo français. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 78: 349-400.
  • Sharaf M. R., J. Monks, A. S. Aldawood, and A. Polaszek. 2017. Anochetus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Arabian Peninsula, with Description of a New Species from Oman. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 119(1):78-89.
  • Viehmeyer H. 1923. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der mit Unterstützung der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien aus der Erbschaft Treitl von F. Werner unternommenen zoologischen Expedition nach dem anglo-ägyptischen Sudan (Kordofan) 1914. VII. Hymenoptera A. Formicidae. Denkschriften der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 98: 83-94.
  • Weber N. A. 1943. The ants of the Imatong Mountains, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 93: 263-389.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VIII. A synonymic list of the ants of the Ethiopian region. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 45: 711-1004