Ant gardens

Every Ant Tells a Story - And Their Stories Are Here
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The following introduction serves as a means of beginning this webpage but there is much more that could be stated and added here. There is also an older introduction to this topic here: Holldobler and Wilson, 1990

There is also a page that has information about individual studies published on this topic Epiphyte and Ant Garden Studies.

Leal et al. (2017) - Ant gardens are formed mutualistic associations between epiphyte plants and ant species in Asian and Neotropical rainforests (Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990). Ant gardens are ant nests built on the branches of trees and on which aggregates of epiphyte species grow (Ule, 1901). The nest can hold one or, more frequently, more than one ant species and several phylogenetically distant epiphyte plant species (Orivel & Leroy, 2011). When more than one ant species occurs in the same nest, they show a parabiotic behavior, in which the ants live in close association sharing foraging trials but do not exhibit obvious parasitic or exploitative interactions (Davidson, 1988; Forel, 1898; Vantaux & Leroy, 2007; Orivel & Leroy, 2011, but see Menzel et al., 2015).

Seeds from most ant gardens epiphytes are dispersed by the associated ants, which incorporate these seeds into carton nest continuously over the lifespan of the nest (Orivel & Leroy, 2011). Although seeds from ant garden epiphytes commonly bear aril or elaiosome, seed selection by ants seem not determined by the quantity or quality of such appendages as patterns of seeds selection by ant gardens ants remains the same after the removal of such seed structures (Orivel & Dejean, 1999). In fact, it seems that ant garden ant species are attracted by a set of specific volatile compounds released by the seed coat of some of epiphyte species commonly found on ant gardens (Youngstead et al., 2008). After germination, ants of at least one species protect plants against herbivores by patrolling on leaves (Vantaux et al., 2007), while the roots and stems of epiphytes increase the stability and moisture of ant nests (Yu, 1994). Some epiphytes also provide feeding resources for ants through extrafloral nectaries (EFN), oil glands and fruits (Kleinfeldt, 1978; Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990). Although previous studies has been able to identify the general benefits for both interacting sides (see Orivel & Leroy, and references therein), it has been very hard to identify the determinants of plant and ant species composition in ant gardens, and also the roles played by different partner species in this multispecific interaction.

Weissflog, Kaufmann and Maschwitz (2017) - A large majority of vascular epiphytes in lowland forests (except for ferns and orchids) are totally dependent on ants for their establishment and proliferation (Kaufmann & Maschwitz 2006). Generally, the establishment of ant gardens follows the same behavioral patterns in all ant garden systems that have already been described by Ule (1901): Ants construct small carton nests, into which they then retrieve seeds of their epiphyte partners. However, details on ontogenetic development of ant gardens, specificity of ant and epiphyte partners, colony structure and ants’ behavior vary greatly depending on the involved species (e.g. Belin-Depoux et al. 1987, Davidson & Epstein 1989; Orivel et al. 1997, Corbara & Dejean 1996, Cedeño et al. 1999, Orivel & Leroy 2011).

As a rule, ant garden associations are beneficial for ant and epiphyte partners. Ants provide reliable short distance seed dispersal, and a highly nutritional growth substrate with good water storing capacity. They prevent water loss of the root substrate and possibly protect the plants from herbivores (e.g. Longino 1986, Davidson 1988, Kleinfeldt 1978, 1986, Schmidt-Neuerburg & Blüthgen 2007). In addition to rain water the garden is provided with honeydew from trophobionts housed within the nest (Maschwitz et al. 2010). The epiphytes stabilize the ants’ nests with their roots and might additionally sometimes offer food in form of edible fruit pulp, seed appendages or floral and/or extra-floral nectaries (e.g. Yu 1994, Davidson 1988; Kleinfeldt 1978, 1986). Again, details and degree of the mutual benefits depend on epiphyte and ant species (Weissflog et al. 1999, Kaufmann & Maschwitz 2006).

Images

Weissflog, Kaufmann and Maschwitz, 2017. Drawing by Winfried Noll. Camponotus irritabilis / Hoya elliptica.
Weissflog, Kaufmann and Maschwitz, 2017. Drawing by Winfried Noll. Camponotus irritabilis / Hoya elliptica.
Peeters, C. & D. Wiwatwitaya 2014. Philidris / Dischidia: Cluster of pitcher leaves of Dischidia major growing on a tree trunk.
Peeters, C. & D. Wiwatwitaya 2014. Philidris / Dischidia: inhabited pitcher of Dischidia major.

Ants

Sortable table
Ant Species Epiphyte Region
Philidris
Camponotus irritabilis Hoya elliptica Old World
Crematogaster levior various Amazonia
Camponotus femoratus various Amazonia

References

  • Belin-Depoux M, Roeland JC and Sarthou C, 1987. Aspects biologiques des jardin de fourmis en Guyane francaise. Revue de cytologie et de biologie végétales - le botaniste. 10: 185-210.
  • Cedeño A, Mérida T and Zegerra J, 1999. Ant gardens of Surumoni, Venezuela. Selbyana. 20: 125-132.
  • Corbara B and Dejean A, 1996. Arboreal nest building and ant garden initiation in a ponerine ant. Naturwissenschaften 83:227-230.
  • Davidson DW and Epstein WW, 1989. Epiphytic associations with ants. In: Vascular Plants as Epiphyte (U. Lüttge, ed.). Springer-Verlag, New York. pp. 200-233.
  • Kaufmann E and Maschwitz U, 2006. Ant-gardens of tropical Asian rainforests. Naturwissenschaften 93: 216-227.
  • Kaufmann E, Weissflog A, Hashim R and Maschwitz U, 2001. Ant-gardens on the giant bamboo Gigantochloa scortechinii (Poaceae) in West Malaysia. Insectes Sociaux 48: 125-133.
  • Kiew R and Anthonysamy S, 1995. Ant-garden and ant-tree associations involving Dischidia species (Asclepiadaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia. In: The Taxonomy and Phytochemistry of the Asclepiadaceae in Tropical Asia (R. Kiew Ed.). Universiti Pertanian Malaya, Serdang. pp. 95-102.
  • Kleijn D and Van Donkelaar R, 2001. Notes on the taxonomy and ecology of the genus Hoya (Asclepiadaceae) in Central Sulawesi. Blumea. 46: 457-483.
  • Leal, L. C., C. C. Jakovac, P. E. D. Bobrowiec, J. L. C. Camargo, and P. E. C. Peixoto. 2017. The Role of Parabiotic Ants and Environment on Epiphyte Composition and Protection in Ant Gardens. Sociobiology. 64:276-283. doi:10.13102/sociobiology.v64i3.1219
  • Maschwitz U, Weissflog A and Kaufmann E, 2010. Hängende Gärten in luftiger Höhe. Ameisen, Pflanzen und mehr neu entdeckte Vielpartnersymbiosen im Kronendach südostasiatischer Regenwälder. Natur und Museum. 140: 306- 319.
  • Orivel J, Errad C and Dejean A, 1997: Ant gardens: interspecific recognition in parabiotic ant species. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 40: 87-93.
  • Orivel J and Leroy C, 2011. The diversity and ecology of ant gardens (Hymenoptera: Formicidae; Spermatophyta: Angiospermae). Myrmecological News. 14: 73-85.
  • Peeters, C. and D. Wiwatwitaya 2014. Philidris ants living in Dischidia epiphytes from Thailand. Asian Myrmecology. 6:49-61. doi:10.20362/am.006004
  • Ule E, 1901. Ameisengärten im Amazonasgebiet. Englers Botanische Jahrbücher. 30: 45-51.
  • Van Leeuwen Docters WML, 1913. Beitraege zur Kenntnis der Lebensweise einiger Dischidia Arten. Annales du Jardin botanique de Buitenzorg. 27: 65-91.
  • Van Leeuwen Docters WML, 1929a. Kurze Mitteilungen über Ameisenepiphyten aus Java. Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft. 47: 90-97.
  • Van Leeuwen Docters WML, 1929b. Mierenepiphyten I. De Tropische Natuur. 18: 57-64.
  • Van Leeuwen Docters WML, 1929c. Mierenepiphyten II. De Tropische Natuur. 18: 131-139.
  • Weissflog A, Kaufmann E and Ulrich Maschwitz. 2017. Ant gardens of Camponotus (Myrmotarsus) irritabilis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) and Hoya elliptica (Apocynaceae) in Southeast Asia. Asian Myrmecology 9: e009001:1-16. doi:10.20362/am.009001