Aphaenogaster subterraneoides

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Aphaenogaster subterraneoides
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Stenammini
Genus: Aphaenogaster
Species group: pallida
Species: A. subterraneoides
Binomial name
Aphaenogaster subterraneoides
Emery, 1881

Aphaenogaster subterraneoides casent0280956 p 1 high.jpg

Aphaenogaster subterraneoides casent0280956 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels


This species has been found in steppe grasslands in Bulgaria (Borowiec et al., 2019).


A member of the Aphaenogaster pallida-group (Borowiec et al., 2019).

Aphaenogaster subterraneoides and Aphaenogaster pallida are very similar and differ only in the structure of propodeum. In A. pallida the propodeum is rounded, lacking propodeal spines, while in A. subterraneoides minute propodeal spines are present (Borowiec et al., 2019).

Keys including this Species


This is the most widespread species of the A. pallida species group. It has been recorded from Armenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Italy, North Macedonia, Russia (Caucasus), Serbia, Turkey and Ukraine. It is possible that records of Aphaenogaster pallida from Bulgaria (Vasilev 1984) are misidentified specimens of Aphaenogaster subterraneoides (Borowiec et al., 2019).

Records under the name Aphaenogaster lesbica from Crete (Borowiec & Salata 2012: 465) are based on a misinterpretation of that species in the key by Agosti & collingwood (1987) and concern Aphaenogaster subterraneoides (Borowiec, 2014).

Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 41.3° to 32.249974°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Armenia (type locality), Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece (type locality), Israel, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Russian Federation, Türkiye, Ukraine.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.




The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • subterraneoides. Aphaenogaster pallida var. subterraneoides Emery, 1881b: 534 (w.) GREECE (Zakynthos).
    • Type-material: holotype worker.
    • Type-locality: Greece: Zante (= Zakynthos I.), 1879 (G. Doria & O. Beccari).
    • Type-depository: MSNG.
    • [Misspelled as subterranoides by Forel, 1890a: lxxi (in text).]
    • Santschi, 1939c: 5 (q.).
    • Combination in Aphaenogaster (Attomyrma): Emery, 1921f: 59.
    • As unavailable (infrasubspecific) name: Emery, 1898c: 139; Ruzsky, 1905b: 720; Emery, 1908c: 334.
    • Subspecies of striola: Forel, 1890a: lxxi; Dalla Torre, 1893: 105.
    • Subspecies of gibbosa: Karavaiev, 1912a: 5.
    • Subspecies of pallida: André, 1883b: 358; Dalla Torre, 1893: 103; Emery, 1915a: 258; Emery, 1916b: 130; Santschi, 1919e: 245; Emery, 1921f: 59; Müller, 1923b: 53; Finzi, 1930a: 153; Finzi, 1930d: 312; Santschi, 1932d: 344; Zimmermann, 1935: 12; Menozzi, 1936d: 270; Santschi, 1939c: 5; Ceballos, 1956: 298; Arnol’di, 1968: 1806.
    • Junior synonym of pallida: Bernard, 1967: 134.
    • Status as species: Bondroit, 1918: 159; Collingwood & Yarrow, 1969: 59; Arnol'di, 1976b: 1023 (in key); Collingwood, 1978: 79 (in key); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 536 (in key); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 54; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b: 270 (in key) ; Vonshak, et al. 2009: 41; Collingwood, 1993b: 194; Bolton, 1995b: 73; Espadaler, 1997b: 29; Bračko, 2006: 135; Karaman, M.G. 2011b: 20; Legakis, 2011: 8; Borowiec, L. & Salata, 2012: 469; Kiran & Karaman, 2012: 17; Borowiec, L. & Salata, 2013: 337; Borowiec, L. 2014: 19 (see note in bibliography); Bračko, et al. 2014: 13; Lebas, et al. 2016: 260; Radchenko, 2016: 167; Salata & Borowiec, 2018c: 43; Schifani & Alicata, 2023: 67.
    • Senior synonym of armeniaca: Schifani & Alicata, 2023: 67.
    • Senior synonym of cypriotes: Emery, 1915a: 258; Emery, 1916b: 130; Emery, 1921f: 59; Finzi, 1930a: 153; Santschi, 1932d: 344; Arnol’di & Dlussky, 1978: 536 (in key) ; Bolton, 1995b: 73; Petrov, 2006: 91 (in key); Karaman, M.G. 2011b: 20; Legakis, 2011: 8; Radchenko, 2016: 167.
    • Distribution: Armenia, Bosnia & Hercegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, Italy, Macedonia, Morocco, Russia, Serbia, Spain, Turkey, Ukraine.
    • [Note: distribution based on Borowiec, 2014: 19.]
  • armeniaca. Aphaenogaster (Attomyrma) pallida subsp. armeniaca Arnol'di, 1968: 1807 (w.) ARMENIA.
    • Type-material: holotype worker, 14 paratype workers.
    • Type-locality: holotype Armenia: Karabakhlar, 17.v.1960, no. 932 (G.M. Dlussky); paratypes with same data.
    • Type-depositories: ZMUM (holotype); RASM, ZMUM (paratypes).
    • Subspecies of subterraneoides: Arakelian, 1994: 33.
    • Junior synonym of subterraneoides: Schifani & Alicata, 2023: 67.
  • cypriotes. Aphaenogaster pallida subsp. cypriotes Emery, 1908c: 329 (w.) CYPRUS.
    • Type-material: syntype workers (number not stated).
    • Type-locality: Cyprus: (no further data) (G. Cecconi).
    • Type-depository: MSNG.
    • [Misspelled as cypriodes by Karaman, M.G. 2011b: 20.]
    • Subspecies of pallida: Forel, 1913d: 429; Emery, 1914d: 156.
    • Junior synonym of subterraneoides: Emery, 1915a: 258; Emery, 1916b: 130; Emery, 1921f: 59; Finzi, 1930a: 153; Santschi, 1932d: 344; Arnol’di & Dlussky, 1978: 536 (in key) ; Bolton, 1995b: 69; Karaman, M.G. 2011b: 20; Legakis, 2011: 8; Radchenko, 2016: 167.



References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Agosti, D. and C.A. Collingwood. 1987. A provisional list of the Balkan ants (Hym. Formicidae) and a key to the worker caste. I. Synonymic list. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 60: 51-62
  • Borowiec L. 2014. Catalogue of ants of Europe, the Mediterranean Basin and adjacent regions (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus (Wroclaw) 25(1-2): 1-340.
  • Borowiec L., and S. Salata. 2012. Ants of Greece - Checklist, comments and new faunistic data (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus 23(4): 461-563.
  • Borowiec L., and S. Salata. 2013. Ants of Greece – additions and corrections (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus (Wroclaw) 24(3-4): 335-401.
  • Bracko G., H. C. Wagner, A. Schulz, E. Gioahim, J. Maticic, and A. Tratnik. 2014. New investigation and a revised checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Republic of Macedonia. North-Western Journal of Zoology 10(1): 10-24.
  • Bracko, G. 2006. Review of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera:Formicidae) of Croatia. Acta Entomologica Slovenica 14(2): 131-156.
  • Collingwood, C. A. 1993. A Comparitive Study of the Ant Fauna of Five Greek Islands. Biologia Gallo-hellenica. 20,1:191-197
  • Collingwood, C. A. "A comparative study of the ant fauna of five Greek islands." Biologia Gallo-Hellenica 20 (1993): 191-197.
  • Czechowski W., A. Radchenko, W. Czechowska and K. Vepsäläinen. 2012. The ants of Poland with reference to the myrmecofauna of Europe. Fauna Poloniae 4. Warsaw: Natura Optima Dux Foundation, 1-496 pp
  • Dubovikoff D. A., and Z. M. Yusupov. 2018. Family Formicidae - Ants. In Belokobylskij S. A. and A. S. Lelej: Annotated catalogue of the Hymenoptera of Russia. Proceedingss of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences 6: 197-210.
  • Emery C. 1914. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Bearbeitung von O. Leonhard's Sammlungen. 5. Südeuropäische Ameisen (Hym.). Entomologische Mitteilungen. Berlin-Dahlem 3: 156-159.
  • Emery, C. "Beiträge zur Kenntniss der palaearktischen Ameisen." Öfversigt af Finska Vetenskaps-Societetens Förhandlingar (Helsinki) 20 (1898): 124-151.
  • Emery, C. "Viaggio ad Assab nel Mar Rosso dei Signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso "Esploratore" dal 16 novembre 1879 al 26 febbraio 1880. I. Formiche." Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale 16 (1881): 525-535.
  • Finzi B. 1930. Contributo allo studio degli Aphaenogaster paleartici (Formicidae-Myrmicinae). Bollettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 62: 151-156.
  • Forel, A. "Fourmis de Tunisie et de l'Algerie orientale recoltees et decrites par Auguste Forel." Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 34 (1890): lxi-lxxvi.
  • Izhaki I., B. Idelovich, R. Laster, and Y. Ofer. 2009. The impact of macro- vs micro environmental factors on the structure of ant communities inhabiting East-Mediterranean Aleppo pine forests. Israel Journal of Entomology 39: 129-146.
  • Karaman M. G. 2011. A catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Montenegro. Podgorica: Catalogues 3, Volume 2, Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts, 140 pp.
  • Kiran K., and C. Karaman. 2012. First annotated checklist of the ant fauna of Turkey (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 3548: 1-38.
  • Ortiz, F. J., and A. Tinaut. "Introducción al conocimiento de las hormigas de la provincia de Almería." Publicaciones del Instituto de Estudios Almerienses. Boletín (Ciencias) 8 (1988): 223-231.
  • Petrov I. Z., and C. A. Collingwood. 1992. Survey of the myrmecofauna (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) of Yugoslavia. Archives of Biological Sciences (Belgrade) 44: 79-91.
  • Salata S., L. Borowiec, and A.Trichas. 2018. Taxonomic Revision of the Cretan Fauna of the Genus Temnothorax Mayr, 1861 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with Notes on the Endemism of Ant Fauna of Crete. Annales Zoologici (Warsaw) 68(4): 769-808.
  • Salata S., and L Borowiec. 2017. Species of Tetramorium semilaeve complex from Balkans and western Turkey, with description of two new species of (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Annales Zoologici (Warsaw) 62:279–313.
  • Salata S., and L. Borowiec. 2018. Taxonomic and faunistic notes on Greek ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annals of the Upper Silesian Museum in Bytom Entomology 27: 1-51.
  • Salata S., and L. Borowiec. 2019. Preliminary division of not socially parasitic Greek Temnothorax Mayr, 1861 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) with a description of three new species. ZooKeys 877: 81-131.
  • Santschi, F. "Trois notes sur quelques fourmis du Musée Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique." Bulletin du Musée Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique 15 (1939): 1-15.
  • Tinaut A., and F. J. Ortiz. 1988. Introduccion al conocimiento de las hormigas de la provincia de Almeria (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Publicaciones del Instituto de Estudios Almerienses. Boletín (Ciencias) 8: 223-231.
  • Vesni? A. 2011: Revidirani sistematski prijegled mrava Bosne i Hercegovine. Unutar : S. Lelo (urednik), Fauna Bosne i Hercegovine – Biosistematski pregledi. 7. izmijenjeno i popravljeno interno izdanje Udruženja za inventarizaciju i zaštitu životinja, Ilijaš, Kanton Sarajevo, pp: 205-207.
  • Vonshak M., and A. Ionescu-Hirsch. 2009. A checklist of the ants of Israel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Israel Journal of Entomology 39: 33-55.