Aphaenogaster tipuna

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Aphaenogaster tipuna
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Stenammini
Genus: Aphaenogaster
Species: A. tipuna
Binomial name
Aphaenogaster tipuna
Forel, 1913

Aphaenogaster tipuna casent0280953 p 1 high.jpg

Aphaenogaster tipuna casent0280953 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Common Name
Language: Japanese

This species nests in the soil, under stones, or in cavities of plant roots (Japanese Ant Image Database).


Dong et al. (2020) - Workers of Aphaenogaster lepida and Aphaenogaster tipuna are morphologically similar. The most significant difference is in head coloration, the head of A. tipuna workers being entirely reddish (Fig. 5A) while it is black in A. lepida (Figs. 1, 2). However, while the colour differences are distinct in live and freshly collected material, discoloration can occur in both pinned specimens and alcohol-fixed material, especially in long-term preserved specimens. Unfortinately, this reduces the usefulness of this character in separating these taxa.

In contrast to workers, males are easily separated by differences in the shape of the mesonotum and propodeum. The mesonotum of A. lepida is smaller and lower (Figs. 3A, 3B) compared to that of A. tipuna, where it is larger and overhangs the posterior region of the head (Fig. 3C) (Wheeler, 1929). The propodeum in A. lepida is higher and essentially flat (Figs. 3A, 3B) while in A. tipuna it is lower and distinctly angular anteriorly (Fig. 3C).

  • Fig. 1. Morphological characters of A. lepida workers from Korea (A, C) and Taiwan (type locality) (B, D) (Dong et al. 2020, Fig. 1).
  • Fig. 2A. Field images of A. lepida from Korea (Dong et al. 2020, Fig. 2A).
  • Fig. 2B. Field images of A. lepida from Taiwan (type locality) (Dong et al. 2020, Fig. 2B).
  • Fig. 3. Morphological comparisons of males of A. lepida from Korea (A) and Taiwan (type locality) (B), and A. tipuna from Japan (C) (Dong et al. 2020, Fig. 3).
  • Fig. 5. Habitus of A. tipuna collected from Japan (near Funaura, Iriomote-jima, Yayeyama Is., 22 Jun. 1991. Coll. H. Watanabe. Det. W. Jaitrong). (A) Worker, (B) Gyne (Dong et al. 2020, Fig. 5).


Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Oriental Region: Taiwan (type locality).
Palaearctic Region: Japan.

  • Note that Korean records of A. tipuna are misidentifications of Aphaenogaster lepida (Dong et al., 2020).

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.




The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • tipuna. Aphaenogaster rothneyi r. tipuna Forel, 1913f: 195 (w.m.) TAIWAN.
    • Hung, Imai & Kubota, 1972: 1024 (k.).
    • Combination in Aphaenogaster (Attomyrma): Emery, 1921f: 59.
    • Subspecies of rothneyi: Emery, 1921f: 59; Wheeler, W.M. 1929g: 59; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 132.
    • Status as species: Santschi, 1937h: 368; Hung, Imai & Kubota, 1972: 1024; Ogata, 1991b: 86; Morisita, et al. 1992: 18; Bolton, 1995b: 73; Park & Kim, 2000: 108; Imai, et al. 2003: 179; Lin & Wu, 2003: 64; Terayama, 2009: 164.



  • 2n = 34 (Taiwan) (Hung et al., 1972).


References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Chapman, J. W., and Capco, S. R. 1951. Check list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Asia. Monogr. Inst. Sci. Technol. Manila 1: 1-327
  • Choi B.M. 1996. Distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (16) - Ant fauna from Chollabukdo. Korean J. Soil. Zoology 1(1): 5-23.
  • Choi B.M. 1996. Distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (16): Ant fauna from Chollabukdo. Korean Journal of Soil Zoology 1(1): 5-23.
  • Choi B.M., K. Ogata, and M. Terayama. 1993. Comparative studies of ant faunas of Korea and Japan. 1. Faunal comparison among islands of Southern Korean and northern Kyushu, Japan. Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan 48(1): 37-49.
  • Choi B.M., Kim, C.H., Bang, J.R. 1993. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (13). A checklist of ants from each province (Do), with taxonomic notes. Cheongju Sabom Taehakkyo Nonmunjip (Journal of Cheongju National University of Education) 30: 331-380.
  • Choi B.M., and J. R. Bang. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (12): the analysis of ant communities in 23 islands. Journal of Cheongju National University of Education 30:317-330.
  • Forel A. 1913. H. Sauter's Formosa-Ausbeute: Formicidae II. Arch. Naturgesch. (A)79(6): 183-202
  • Guénard B., and R. R. Dunn. 2012. A checklist of the ants of China. Zootaxa 3558: 1-77.
  • Ha S.J, S.J. Park, and B.J. Kim. 2002. Comparative ant faunas between Seonyudo and seven other islands of West Sea in Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology 32(2): 75-79.
  • Hu C.-H. 2006. Indigenized conservation and biodiversity maintenance on Orchid Island. PhD Thesis, graduate school of the University of Minnesota. 150 pages.
  • Hung A. C. F., H. T. Imai, and M. Kubota. 1972. The chromosomes of nine ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Taiwan, Republic of China. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 6 65: 1023-1025.
  • Kim B.J. 1996. Synonymic list and distribution of Formicidae (Hymenoptera) in Korea. Entomological Research Bulletin Supplement 169-196.
  • Kim C.H., B.M. Choi, and J.R. Bang. 1992. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (8)-Ant fauna in 10 islands, Chollanam-do. Korean J. Appl. Entomol. 31(4): 345-359.
  • Lee T. L., and Y. S. Wei. 2005. Study for the temporal and spatial variation of the ant assemblages as the biological indicator in national parks. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 4(4): 491-496.
  • Li Z.h. 2006. List of Chinese Insects. Volume 4. Sun Yat-sen University Press
  • Lyu D.P. 2003. Systematics of Myrmicinae from Korea (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). PhD thesis Faculty of the Graduate School of Chungbuk National University 330 pages.
  • Pan Y.S. 2007. Systematic Study on the Ant Genera Pheidole Westwood and Aphaenogaster Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formincidae : Myrmicinae) In China. Guangxi Normal University, Guangxi, China. 73 pages.
  • Park S. J., and B. J. Kim. 2000. Systematic study of Pheidolini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) in Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology 30: 107-114.
  • Park S.J., and B.J. Kim. 2002. Faunal comparison of ants among Cheongsando and other islands of South Sea in Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology 32(1): 7-12.
  • Park, Seong, Joon and Byung, and Kim, Jin. 2002. Faunal Comparison of Ants among Cheongsando and Other Islands of South Sea in Korea. Korean Jornal of Entomology. 32(1):7-12.
  • Santschi F. 1937. Fourmis du Japon et de Formose. Bulletin et Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 77: 361-388.
  • Terayama M. 1992. Structure of ant communities in East Asia. A. Regional differences and species richness. Bulletin of the Bio-geographical Society of Japan 47: 1-31.
  • Terayama M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University. Liberal Arts 17:81-266.
  • Terayama M., S. Kubota, and K. Eguchi. 2014. Encyclopedia of Japanese ants. Asakura Shoten: Tokyo, 278 pp.
  • Terayama M., and B. M. Choi. 1991. Four newly recorded species of Formicidae (Insecta, Hymenoptera) from Korea. Edaphologia 45: 63-64.
  • Terayama Mamoru. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta, Hymenoptera). The Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University 17: 81-266.
  • Terayama, M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta; Hymenoptera). The Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University 17: 81-266.
  • Terayama. M. and Inoue. N. 1988. Ants collected by the members of the Soil Zoological Expedition to Taiwan. ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 18: 25-28
  • Wheeler W. M. 1929. Ants collected by Professor F. Silvestri in Formosa, the Malay Peninsula and the Philippines. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria della Reale Scuola Superiore d'Agricoltura. Portici 24: 27-64.
  • Yamane S., S. Ikudome, and M. Terayama. 1999. Identification guide to the Aculeata of the Nansei Islands, Japan. Sapporo: Hokkaido University Press, xii + 831 pp. pp, 138-317.
  • Yamane S.; Ikudome, S.; Terayama, M. 1999. Identification guide to the Aculeata of the Nansei Islands, Japan. Sapporo: Hokkaido University Press, xii + 831 pp. pp138-317.