Basiceros convexiceps

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Basiceros convexiceps
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Attini
Genus: Basiceros
Species: B. convexiceps
Binomial name
Basiceros convexiceps
(Mayr, 1887)

Basiceros convexiceps casent0904974 p 1 high.jpg

Basiceros convexiceps casent0904974 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Synonyms

There are a small number of collections of this ant and little is known about its natural history. The large area covered by the BIOTA Project, spanning the whole distribution of the Atlantic Forest and hundreds of 1m2 leaf litter samples, yielded four specimens (states of Santa Catarina, Paraná, and São Paulo). Borgmeier's field notes about a Basiceros convexiceps colony from Jussaral (60 workers, 3 gynes) was collected from a wide, rotted trunk, under and inside the bark. The presence of three wingless gynes suggests that the colony was polygynic (Borgmeier, 1937). Other specimens were collected from litter samples, indicating that B. convexiceps also nests or forages in the leaf litter.

Identification

Probst & Brandão (2022) - Color reddish, ferruginous. Head trapezoidal; vertexal margin continuously convex in both directions, except for the presence of a median longitudinal groove. Subpetiolar process composed of single projection, anteroventral to the peduncle and curved anteriorly—posterior margin rarely presenting a small dentiform projection

The morphological uniformity of this taxon is remarkable. Considering the current geographical distribution of B. convexiceps. There is practically no variation between specimens from different locations, except for minor differences in cephalic rugosity and pilosity, and the latter is likely associated with abrasion. In his description of Basiceros squamifer, Borgmeier distinguishes it from B. convexiceps mainly by the different postpetiolar proportions (detailed in couplet 5 of the Basiceros key).

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Restricted to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest biome with records from the State of Santa Catarina to Bahia.

Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: -7.15° to -27.818°.

   
North
Temperate
North
Subtropical
Tropical South
Subtropical
South
Temperate

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Neotropical Region: Brazil (type locality).

Distribution based on AntMaps

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Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.
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Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.
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Biology

Castes

Worker

Probst & Brandão 2022. Figure 8. Basiceros convexiceps, worker (MZSP, Brazil: São Paulo); A. full-face view, B. lateral view; C. dorsal view. Scale bars: A = 0.5 mm, B–C =1 mm.

Queen

Probst & Brandão 2022. Figure 9. Basiceros convexiceps, gyne (MZSP, Brazil: São Paulo). A. full-face view, B. lateral view; C. dorsal view. Scale bars: A = 0.5 mm, B–C =1 mm.

Larva

Probst & Brandão 2022. Figure 10. Basiceros convexiceps, larva (from type-series of Basiceros squamifer) (MZSP, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro) and male forewing diagram (adapted from Emery, 1924) (Brazil: Santa Catarina); A. Head in ventro-oblique view, B. head in oblique view, C. male forewing (black arrow highlights transversal 1m-cu vein), D. anus, E. thorax in lateroventral view, highlighting the spinose pilosity, F. lateral view. Scale bars: A, B–E = 0.1 mm; F = 0.5 mm.

Phylogeny

Basiceros

Basiceros sp.n.A

Basiceros convexiceps

Basiceros manni

Basiceros singularis

Basiceros scambognathus

Basiceros conjugans

Basiceros disciger

Basiceros militaris

Based on Probst et al., 2019.

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • convexiceps. Ceratobasis convexiceps Mayr, 1887: 581 (w.) BRAZIL (Santa Catarina).
    • Type-material: holotype worker.
    • Type-locality: Brazil: Santa Catarina (L. Hetschko).
    • Type-depository: NHMW.
    • Emery, 1924d: 328 (m.), Brown & Kempf, 1960: 174 (q.); Probst & Brandão, 2022: 26 (l.).
    • Combination in Basiceros: Emery, 1924d: 328.
    • Status as species: Dalla Torre, 1893: 148; Forel, 1895b: 136; Emery, 1924d: 328; Borgmeier, 1927c: 120; Brown, 1949f: 89; Brown & Kempf, 1960: 172 (redescription); Kempf, 1972a: 36; Brown, 1974c: 140 (in key); Bolton, 1995b: 80; Feitosa, et al. 2007: 19 (in key); Probst & Brandão, 2022: 23 (redescription).
    • Senior synonym of squamifer: Brown & Kempf, 1960: 172; Kempf, 1972a: 36; Bolton, 1995b: 80; Probst & Brandão, 2022: 23.
    • Distribution: Brazil.
  • squamifer. Basiceros squamifer Borgmeier, 1937b: 245, figs. 30-33 (w.q.l.) BRAZIL (Rio de Janeiro).
    • Type-material: 60 syntype workers, 3 syntype queens.
    • Type-locality: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro, Jussaral, nr Angra dos Reis, 30.x.1935 (H. Souza Lopes & H. Lent).
    • Type-depositories: GUPC, IBVR, IMLT, MCZC, MNHN, MSNG, MZSP, USNM.
    • Status as species: Brown, 1949f: 89.
    • Junior synonym of convexiceps: Brown & Kempf, 1960: 172; Kempf, 1972a: 36; Bolton, 1995b: 80; Probst & Brandão, 2022: 23.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Probst & Brandão (2022)

Worker

(n=3). HL 1.25–1.28, HL2 1.25–1.30, HW1 1.28–1.31, MdL 0.72–0.78, SL1 0.84–0.89, SL2 0.89–0.94, PDL 0.11–0.13, A3L 0.03–0.05, AFL 0.36–0.38, FuL 0.97–1.00, EL 0.16–0.17, EW 0.14–0.16, ML 1.69–1.72, MfL 1.33–1.34, MtL 1.00–1.06, PH 0.38, PL 0.77–.081, PW 0.36–0.38, PPL 0.47–0.50, PPW 0.53–0.61, GL 1.59–1.63, GW 1.13–1.19, TL 6.58–6.61, CI 100–105, CS 1.27–1.28, MCI 56–62, SI 69–73, ESI 17–19, SAI2 247–252, EI1 0.23–0.26, MFI 95–97, PTI 204–216.

Color reddish, ferruginous; appendages slightly lighter, reddish-brown. Mandibles covered with tiny piligerous punctuations, apex with short yellowish setae; interdental setae present, yellowish and filiform, subequal to teeth length. Basimandibular seta present, narrow and erect, slightly clavate. Suberect and clavate hair on the dorsomedial region of each stipe. Frontoclypeal margin covered by spaced piligerous punctuations; lateral limits of clypeus with decumbent, short and squamiform yellowish hairs. Head dorsum predominantly covered by coarse (foveate) piligerous punctuations; pilosity close to posterolateral region of head and vertexal margin composed of whitish to yellowish, short and subdecumbent squamiform hairs. Head lateral and vertexal margins covered by clavate yellowish hairs, erect to suberect in the following conformation: one hair above the eyes, at the anterior limit of the antennal scrobe; four hairs on the posterolateral margin, bordering the meeting of upper limit of scrobe and vertexal margin; a hair near the posterolateral corner of the head; four or five hairs on each side of the vertexal margin, separated by the median sulcus. A pair of yellowish hairs erect and clavate on the frontal region, close to the vertexal margin. Sides of head ventral margin covered by whitish and squamiform subdecumbent hairs; ventral head surface with suberect and subdecumbent curved filiform setae, length variable. Four to six long fine setae bordering the occipital carina. Yellowish to whitish subplumose hairs, usually subdecumbent, on the meso- and metasoma, in the following conformation: surrounding the anterolateral margin of pronotum; on the dorsum of mesonotum and propodeum; on the side of the sloping margin of propodeum; densely on the dorsum of petiolar and postpetiolar nodes; three pairs on each side of the anterolateral region of the postpetiolar sternite; on the anterolateral region of the procoxae and dorsum of meso- and metacoxae; on legs, from trochanters to basitarsus dorsum. Clavate hairs in the following conformation: one pair, erect, present on the dorsum of mesonotum, close to the promesonotal suture; erect to suberect, close to the margins of the sternites and gastral tergites. Mesosternum shelf (surrounded by epicnemial carina) with short, filiform setae along its length. Long, filiform setae present in the anterior portion of procoxa and median portion of the first gastral sternite. Thick and suberect setae present from the ventral margin of basitarsus to the apex of the apical tarsomere. Antennae pilosity: dorsal surface of scape primarily covered by short subdecumbent and squamiform hairs; external margin of scape with long and erect hairs, clavate on apical half; funiculus densely covered with short appressed yellowish setae; ventral margin of scape with longitudinal rows of medium setae, curved and subdecumbent. Remaining of integument with coarse piligerous punctuations.

Body mostly smooth and shiny on glabrous regions. Mandibles and clypeus dorsa sparsely covered by punctuations. Anteroventral portion of mandibles and ventral margin of scapes finely alveolate. Head punctuate-foveate, posterolateral surface of antennal scrobe punctuate-rugose. Pronotum sparsely foveate. Dorsum of mesonotum, anterodorsal region of the propodeum, dorsal surface of the meso- and metacoxae, and dorsum of the petiolar postpetiole nodes punctuate-rugose. Mesopleuron and lateral of the propodeum smooth and shiny or subopaque. Surface of propodeal declivity punctuate-rugose. Gaster densely punctuate-reticulate; tergite surface of abdominal segments V, VI, and VII finely and densely punctuate, slightly opaque, tergal margins smooth and shiny; more sparse sculpture in the first gastral sternite, especially in the longitudinal axis of median region. Antennal scapes smooth or finely rugulose, usually shiny. Funiculi densely and finely punctuate, usually opaque. Legs smooth or superficially rugose; procoxae punctuate-foveate.

Head trapezoidal, narrower anteriorly. Vertexal margin continuously convex in both directions, except for the presence of a shallow longitudinal sulcus that extends downwards into the posterofrontal region of the head; posterolateral angles rounded. Cervical margin carinate. Stipes subrectangular. Labrum cuneiform, long; distal margin bilobed, lobes tapered and separated by narrow cleft. Mandibles triangular; in full-face view, lateral margins of mandibles slightly concave in its apical half; basal angle usually indented, followed by 12–13 triangular teeth on the masticatory margin; in lateral view, mandibular apex slightly curved ventrally. Clypeomandibular space semielliptical. Clypeus anteriorly lamellated; anterolateral portion gently convex; anterior margin subrectilinear. Scape with obtuse basal angle ranging from slightly convex to slightly concave before the beginning of a translucent and crenulate lamellar portion. Antennal fossa deeply impressed. Antennal scrobe comparatively deep in its anterior half.

In lateral view, mesosoma profile with promesonotal complex subglobular. In dorsal view, promesonotal suture practically indistinct; metanotal suture broad and deeply inserted, longitudinally costulate. Mesopleuron anteriorly marginate, interrupted at the meeting with a conspicuous epicnemial fossa. In dorsal view, propodeum subrectangular. In lateral view, anterior portion of propodeum slightly oblique posteriorly, abruptly followed by the sloping face. Propodeal declivity laterally carinate and with transverse carina connecting to short, sharp and triangular propodeal projections. Opening of the propodeal spiracle rounded. Metapleural gland bulla protruding, prominent; opening transversal and covered by cuticular lamella. Petiolar peduncle longitudinally carinate on its dorsal surface. In dorsal view, propodeal spiracle weakly projected laterally. In lateral view, petiolar node with truncated anterior face, sloping posterodorsally; postpetiole slightly longer than the petiolar node. Subpetiolar process consisting of an anterior process curved anteriorly. In dorsal view, petiolar node longitudinally elliptical; postpetiole (excluding pilosity) slightly wider than long, posterior margin convex and widely inserted into the anterior concavity of gaster. Calcar of strigil pectinate. Pro-, meso- and metabasitarsi longer than the sum of other tarsomeres. Tarsal claws simple.

Queen

(n=2). HL 1.34–1.36, HL2 1.31–1.34, HW1 1.34–1.41, MdL 0.80–0.81, SL1 0.94–1.00, SL2 0.91–0.97, PDL 0.13, A3L 0.03–0.05, AFL 0.39, FuL 1.00–1.08, EL 0.25–0.30, EW 0.22–0.25, LOD 0.09, MOD 0.09–0.13, OOD 0.41–0.44, ML 2.03, MSL 1.00–1.06, MSW 1.03, MLL 0.34–0.36, MLW 0.56–0.59, MfL 1.34–1.38, MtL 1.08–1.09, PH 0.44, PL 0.97, PW 0.47, PPL 0.56, PPW 0.72, GL 1.94, GW 1.41–1.44, TL 7.64–7.67, CI 100–103, CS 1.34–1.38, MCI 59–59, SI 67–68, ESI 25–32, SAI2 232–248, EI1 0.34–0.41, MTI 97–103, MLI 163–165, MFI 97–104, PTI 221.

Color and sculpture similar to worker; body size ranging from equal to slightly larger. Cephalic dorsum with three ocelli: median ocelli inserted slightly below and lateral ocelli inserted just above a pair of clavated and erect hairs. Head pilosity as in workers. Pilosity of the anterolateral pronotal margin denser and longer than in workers. Whitish subdecumbent and squamiform hairs near the humeral angles and surrounding the posterior limit of pronotum; short and sparse on the dorsum of mesoscutum; on the scutoscutellar sulcus; on the dorsum of mesoscutellum; a pair on the metanotal flange, suberect. Whitish erect to suberect and clavate hairs on each side of pronotum, one pair close to pronotal suture; a pair on the metanotal flange; narrower and present as eight pairs on mesoscutum dorsum; one pair on each parapsis; one on each axilla, laterally; one on the lateral margin of mesoscutellum. Hairs on the gaster more abundant than on workers. In dorsal view, mesoscutum anteriorly rounded, slightly cuneiform, posterior margin slightly convex, medially in the meeting with the scutoscutellar suture; notauli indistinct; parapsidal lines narrow and inconspicuous, involved by the sculpture; parapsis shallow, rudimentary; tegulae narrow, apical margin rounded. Pre-scutellum narrow; axillae projected posteriorly, rounded and slightly depressed. Scutoscutellar suture well-defined. Mesoscutellum transversely subrectangular, posterior limit concave. Dorsal face of propodeum strongly inclined. In lateral view, anapleural sulcus broader anteriorly at the connection with the epicnemial fossa, narrowing posteriorly. Median region of first gastral sternite slightly projected on its basal half. Wing venation unknown (only dealate gynes were examined).

Male

Only known from diagnosis (Emery 1924), translated below (the specimen Emery described could not be located): “Epistoma (= clypeus) projected anteriorly. Frontal margin (= frontal carina) short, auricular. Mandibles long, advancing beyond the clypeus and disc-shaped, lateral margin (= external margin) rounded and medial margin (= masticatory margin) straight, armed with numerous sharp, serrated teeth. Antennae long, 1st funicular segment very short. (In the forewing) Portion of the wing anterior to the pterostigma large and well developed, radial (=1st marginal) cell open; cubital cell Solenopsis-type; inconstant discal cell”. According to Emery’s description, the forewing fits in part the type 1 adopted for the present work.

Larva

(first description, based on several specimens from the type-series of B. squamifer). Approximate length through spiracles: 4.4 mm (Borgmeier 1937, 246: “larger larvae measure about 4 mm”); profile pogonomyrmecoid: larger diameter near the middle of the abdominal region, thorax markedly narrower than the abdominal region, forming a neck; curved ventrally. Anus ventral; anal opening moderately convex, anal lobe present. Spiracles small. Integument of the ventral region densely covered by spinules arranged in transverse rows. Due to the state of the larvae, pilosity was lost in most of the body surface. Still, it was possible to notice sparse broken setae on the head, alveolar and with articular membrane, and on the ventral margin of the thorax (about 0.10–0.20 mm), flexible and denticulate (Borgmeier 1937, 246: “{the larvae} have a fine erect pilosity and in each segment there is a transverse row of isolated, longer and anteriorly curved hairs”). Cranium subhexagonal, median impression present, antennae very small and inserted in the anterior half of the cephalic capsule. Clypeus protruding. Labrum strongly bilobed; ventral surface spinulose. Mandibles pogonomyrmecoid, long and narrow, medially curved; apical tooth curved and with a rounded apex; two protruding teeth projecting into the masticatory margin. Maxillae parabolic, apex spinulose; maxillary palps and galeae digitiform, subequal, elongated and narrow. Labium covered by subtransverse rows of spinules; spinules developed, capillary (about 0.02 mm) and densely covering the labium surface; labial palp papillary; opening of sericeous gland transverse. Hypopharynx densely spinulose.

Type Material

Probst & Brandão (2022) - BRAZIL: Santa Catarina: no locality, no date, Hecko (?) col., (one worker—holotype of Ceratobasis convexiceps) [NHMW] (examined). Rio de Janeiro: Angra dos Reis, Jussaral, 30.x.1935, M. S. Lopes & H. Lent cols. (60 workers, three gynes and larvae of different instars—cotypes/syntypes of Basiceros squamifer), n. 5510—Coleção Borgmeier (41 workers, two gynes—cotypes/syntypes of Basiceros squamifer) [MZSP]; same data (three workers—cotypes/syntypes of Basiceros squamifer) [IFLM]; same data, MZC-Cotype n. 28512/Cotype n. 5540 (three workers and two gynes—cotypes/syntypes of Basiceros squamifer) [MCZ]; USNM-Cotype n. 58766 (two workers—cotypes/syntypes of Basiceros squamifer) [USNM], USNM-Cotype n. 5561 (one worker—cotype/ syntype of Basiceros squamifer) [GUPC] (examined); same data (one worker—cotype/syntype of Basiceros squamifer) [MNHN-Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle] (not examined); same data (one worker—cotype/syntype of Basiceros squamifer) [MSNG-Museo Civico di Storia Naturale ‘Giacomo Doria’] (not examined); other type material (9 workers) not located and not examined.

Etymology

Probst & Brandão (2022) - From Latin convexus, arched, curved; ceps, combinative form of caput, head. Mayr probably named this species based on the shape of the vertexal and occipital margins, which, except for a shallow groove in the median region of the vertexal margin, are continuously and uniformly convex in both directions. Also from Latin squama, scale; fer, radical of ferre, infinitive present of the irregular verb ferȏ, to carry, to bring. Borgmeier probably named the junior synonym B. squamifer based on the squamiform pilosity. It is interesting to mention that the term squama—possibly originated from the Latin squalidus (rough, coated with dirt, dirty), could also be associated with the epithet of this species.

Karyotype

  • 2n = 20, karyotype = 20M (Brazil) (Mariano et al., 2013).

References

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Brown W. L., Jr., and W. W. Kempf. 1960. A world revision of the ant tribe Basicerotini. Stud. Entomol. (n.s.) 3: 161-250.
  • Kempf W. W. 1978. A preliminary zoogeographical analysis of a regional ant fauna in Latin America. 114. Studia Entomologica 20: 43-62.
  • Kempf, W.W. 1972. Catalago abreviado das formigas da regiao Neotropical (Hym. Formicidae) Studia Entomologica 15(1-4).
  • Lutinski J. A., B. C. Lopes, and A. B. B.de Morais. 2013. Diversidade de formigas urbanas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de dez cidades do sul do Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 13(3): 332-342.
  • Lutinski J. A., F. R. Mello Garcia, C. J. Lutinska, and S. Iop. 2008. Ants diversity in Floresta Nacional de Chapecó in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Ciência Rural, Santa Maria 38(7): 1810-1816.
  • Probst R. S., B. D. Wray, C. S. Moreau, and C. R. F. Brandao. 2019. A phylogenetic analysis of the dirt ants, Basiceros (Formicidae: Myrmicinae): inferring life histories through morphological convergence. Insect Systematics and Diversity 3(4): 1–12.
  • Rosa da Silva R. 1999. Formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) do oeste de Santa Catarina: historico das coletas e lista atualizada das especies do Estado de Santa Catarina. Biotemas 12(2): 75-100.
  • Silva R.R., and C. R. F. Brandao. 2014. Ecosystem-Wide Morphological Structure of Leaf-Litter Ant Communities along a Tropical Latitudinal Gradient. PLoSONE 9(3): e93049. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0093049
  • Ulyssea M.A., C. E. Cereto, F. B. Rosumek, R. R. Silva, and B. C. Lopes. 2011. Updated list of ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) recorded in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, with a discussion of research advances and priorities. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 55(4): 603-–611.