Brachymyrmex heeri

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Brachymyrmex heeri
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Myrmelachistini
Genus: Brachymyrmex
Species: B. heeri
Binomial name
Brachymyrmex heeri
Forel, 1874

Brachymyrmex heeri casent0173478 profile 1.jpg

Brachymyrmex heeri casent0173478 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

Synonyms

Brachymyrmex heeri nests under stones and other objects, often in disturbed areas, as well as in bamboo (Fagundes et al., 2010).

Identification

Small workers (1.2 to 2mm) with nine segmented antenna. Color varies from yellow to brown.

Distribution

Central America, South America and the Caribbean. Also introduced in a few locations in Europe and in the Galapagos Islands.

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Neotropical Region: Argentina (type locality), Bolivia, Brazil (type locality), Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Galapagos Islands, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Lesser Antilles, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, Venezuela.
Palaearctic Region: Switzerland (type locality), Ukraine.


Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Regional Notes

Greater Antilles

In Haiti this species was "found to be very common beneath stones, boards etc. on the shores of the salty Lake Assuei (Haiti)" (Wheeler and Mann 1914).

Wheeler (1908) found "several small colonies under stones" in Puerto Rico and in the Bahamas (Wheeler 1905) discovered "a single colony, including several winged females, of the typical form of this species.under a stone on a key in the Southern Bight, Andros Island, May 23 (1904)."

Costa Rica

Longino 2004 - This is a common species of synanthropic habitats in Costa Rica. It can be found in small parks in the middle of San José, in hotel landscaping, along road edges, in scrubby second growth vegetation, and in pastures. It occurs in almost any bioclimatic region: dry Guanacaste lowlands, wet Atlantic slope lowlands, Central Valley urban areas, and roads and pastures near Monteverde cloud forest. Nests are often under stones on the ground but also occur in cavities in low vegetation. Colonies are polygynous, with multiple dealate queens often occurring together in nests. Workers are omnivorous and opportunistic foragers.

Castes

Worker

Queen

Male

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • heeri. Brachymyrmex heeri Forel, 1874: 89, 91, figs. 16, 20 (w.) SWITZERLAND (hothouse in botanical garden, Zurich).
    • [Note: description repeated in Latin, p. 92.]
    • Forel, 1876: 52 (q.m.).
    • Status as species: Forel, 1876: 52; Emery, 1878b: 47; Emery & Forel, 1879: 466; Forel, 1881: 3; André, 1882b: 214 (in key); Mayr, 1886d: 431; Cresson, 1887: 257; Dalla Torre, 1893: 174; Forel, 1895b: 106; Forel, 1899c: 123; Wheeler, W.M. 1904e: 304; Wheeler, W.M. 1905b: 132; Wheeler, W.M. 1906e: 350; Forel, 1907e: 9; Wheeler, W.M. 1908a: 153; Wheeler, W.M. 1911a: 29; Forel, 1912i: 62; Wheeler, W.M. & Mann, 1914: 44; Forel, 1915d: 49 (in key); Wheeler, W.M. 1916m: 591; Mann, 1920: 431; Wheeler, W.M. 1921f: 166; Wheeler, W.M. 1922c: 15; Wheeler, W.M. 1923c: 5; Santschi, 1923b: 664; Emery, 1925b: 42; Stärcke, 1926: 118 (in key); Borgmeier, 1927c: 141; Menozzi, 1927c: 268; Menozzi & Russo, 1930: 166; Menozzi, 1931b: 274; Aguayo, 1932: 224; Santschi, 1933e: 122; Eidmann, 1936b: 92; Smith, M.R. 1937: 866; Santschi, 1939e: 319; Wheeler, W.M. 1942: 253; Kusnezov, 1953b: 339; Kempf, 1961b: 522; Bernard, 1967: 280 (redescription); Kempf, 1970b: 340; Kempf, 1972a: 39; Alayo, 1974: 26 (in key); Bolton, 1995b: 82; Wetterer & Wetterer, 2004: 215; Wild, 2007b: 27; Branstetter & Sáenz, 2012: 255; Borowiec, L. 2014: 24 (see note in bibliography); Radchenko, 2016: 348; Fernández & Ortiz-Sepúlveda, 2019: 728; Lubertazzi, 2019: 78; Ortiz-Sepúlveda, et al. 2019: 503 (redescription).
    • Senior synonym of cordobensis: Ortiz-Sepúlveda, et al. 2019: 503.
    • Senior synonym of goeldii: Ortiz-Sepúlveda, et al. 2019: 503.
    • Senior synonym of physogaster: Ortiz-Sepúlveda, et al. 2019: 503.
  • cordobensis. Brachymyrmex giardi var. cordobensis Santschi, 1929d: 309 (w.) ARGENTINA (Córdoba).
    • Subspecies of giardi: Kempf, 1972a: 39; Bolton, 1995b: 82.
    • Junior synonym of heeri: Ortiz-Sepúlveda, et al. 2019: 503.
  • goeldii. Brachymyrmex goeldii Forel, 1912i: 65 (w.) BRAZIL (São Paulo).
    • Status as species: Luederwaldt, 1918: 48; Santschi, 1923b: 663; Emery, 1925b: 42; Borgmeier, 1927c: 141; Kempf, 1972a: 39; Bolton, 1995b: 82.
    • Junior synonym of heeri: Ortiz-Sepúlveda, et al. 2019: 503.
  • physogaster. Brachymyrmex physogaster Kusnezov, 1960c: 382, figs. 1-4 (w.) ARGENTINA (Salta).
    • Status as species: Bolton, 1995b: 82.
    • Junior synonym of heeri: Ortiz-Sepúlveda, et al. 2019: 503.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Ouvriere: Longueur 1, 2 a 2mm

Tout le corps court, large, trapu. Mandibules munies de cinq dents (les autres especes en ont quatre). Pas trace d'ocelles (les autres especes ont trois ocelles). Yeux composes d'environ 35 facettes chacun ; ils sont situes legerement en avant du milieu des bords lateraux de la tete. Palpes maxillaires longs; le second et le troisieme article sont plus longs que les quatre autres. Les palpes labiaux sont assez longs aussi; leurs quatre articles sont egaux entre eux. Chaperon (c.) en forme de capuchon (comme chez le Brachymyrmex patagonicus), sans carene, recouvrant un peu les mandibules, fortement voute de droite a gauche, moins fortement d'avant en arriere: Il est arrondi posterienrement, parfois aussi un peu echancre au milieu de son bord posterieur ; il ne se prolonge pas ou presque pas entre les articulations des antennes (entre les aretes frontales). Aire frontale distincte, triangulaire, souvent un peu arrondie a son angle posterieur. Sillon frontal distinct. Aretes frontales courtes, divergentes, a peine recourbees. La tete, un peu aplatie en dessus, basse en arriere, est echancree a son bord posterieur. Premier article du fouet des antennes un peu plus long que les deux suivants ensemble ; dernier (8m.) article du fouet aussi long que les trois qui le precedent a. la fois (fg.) Thorax tres court, surtout le mesonotum et le pronotum qui sont voutesis et forment ensemble seulement les 2/5 de sa longueur totale. Un sillon transversal enfonce, assez etroit, separe le mesonotum du metanotum; ce sillon ne renferme pas de petite spirale (il en renferme une chez le Brachymyrmex tristis). La face basale du metanotum est extremement courte, convexe (mtb); sa face declive, longue, large et plate (mtd), va en pente douce et egale jusqu'au pedicule. Eperons des pattes anterieures tres forts. Ecaille encore plus fortement inclinee en avant que chez la Plagiolepis pygmaea (e). Premier segment de l'abdomen prolonge en avant et recouvrant l'ecaille ; abdomen grand. D'un jaune plus on moins brunatre, grisatre ou rougeatre. Dessus de la tete et de l'abdomen plus fonce. Tout le corps luisant; chaperon et face declive du metanotum lisses; quelques rugosites assez grossieres sur les joues; tout le reste tres finement rugueux ponctue. Pubescence grisatre, assez forte sur l'abdomen, un peu moins forte sur la tete, plus faible sur le thorax, les pattes et les antennes, nulle sur le chaperon et sur la face declive du metanotum. Poils epars, un peu partout, sauf sur les pattes et sur les antennes. Les deux stigmates posterieurs sont gros et tres distincts.

Type Locality

Forel (1874) reported "Jardin botanique de Zurich, dans la serre des Orchidees tropicales. (Botanical Garden of Zurich, in the greenhouse of tropical orchids.)" It is now clear that the type specimens must have been transported to the European botanical garden in tropical plant material. This has created the odd situation of Brachymyrmex heeri being a New World species with a type locality of Switzerland.

References

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

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