Camponotus fallax

Every Ant Tells a Story - And Scientists Explain Their Stories Here
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Camponotus fallax
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Camponotini
Genus: Camponotus
Species: C. fallax
Binomial name
Camponotus fallax
(Nylander, 1856)

Camponotus fallax casent0103341 profile 1.jpg

Camponotus fallax casent0103341 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

Synonyms

This species is widely distributed in Europe, and can be found as far north as southern Sweden, while also present in north-west Africa, the Caucasus, north-west Kazakhstan, and in the southern part of western Siberia (Czechowski et al. 2002). It lives mainly in light, warm forests, or even orchards and city parks. Nests are built in dead trees, or dead twigs of living trees, but also in wooden parts of buildings (Marko et al., 2009). In Russia it was found in oak forests nesting in dead, dry branches and sometimes in wooden buildings (Zryanin & Zryanina, 2007).


Photo Gallery

  • Worker with larva. Photo by Michal Kukla.
  • Camponotus fallax worker with aphids. Photo by Michal Kukla.
  • Camponotus fallax queen. Photo by Michal Kukla.
  • Camponotus fallax queen and worker. Photo by Michal Kukla.
  • Foraging worker. Photo by Michal Kukla.

Identification

Dark brownish red to black with legs and antennae paler; body hairs sparse; microsculpture on head and alitrunk dense, giving somewhat opaque appearance; gaster shining. Clypeus not projecting forward beyond mandibular insertions, middle of front border incised; in the larger examples the cleft is deep, giving a bidentate appearance. Mandibles broad with five distinct teeth. In profile dorsum of alitrunk rather flat, propodeum with steep descending basal face; petiole broadly oval in front view. Length: variable 4-9 mm (Collingwood 1979).

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Central and South Europe, Portugal to Ukraine and Morocco to Poland (Collingwood 1979).

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Balearic Islands, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France (type locality), Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iberian Peninsula, Iran, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Macedonia, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine.


Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Collingwood (1979) - This species lives in small colonies of 30-50 individuals under bark or in dead wood of old trees up to 2m or more above ground in open deciduous woodland or parkland. Workers forage singly and are fugitive. Alatae have been recorded in early summer, May and June.

Associations with other Organisms

Other Insects

This ant has been observed tending butterfly larvae of Polyommatus celina that were feeding on the plant Medicago sativa (Obregon et al. 2015).

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • fallax. Formica fallax Nylander, 1856b: 57 (s.w.) FRANCE.
    • Roger, 1859: 230 (q.m.).
    • Combination in Camponotus: Mayr, 1861: 36 (in key);
    • combination in C. (Camponotus): Forel, 1914a: 266;
    • combination in C. (Myrmentoma): Emery, 1920b: 257.
    • As unavailable (infrasubspecific) name: Emery, 1925b: 118.
    • Junior synonym of marginata: Roger, 1862c: 292; Roger, 1863b: 1; Mayr, 1863: 400; Dours, 1873: 164; André, 1874: 201 (in list); Forel, 1874: 96 (in list); Mayr, 1877: 20 (in list); Emery & Forel, 1879: 448; Forel, 1879a: 82; Mayr, 1880: 24; Mayr, 1886d: 423; Nasonov, 1889: 10; Pergande, 1893: 28; Dalla Torre, 1893: 242; Emery, 1896d: 373; Ruzsky, 1905b: 244.
    • Subspecies of caryae: Wheeler, W.M. 1917c: 27; Wheeler, W.M. 1917i: 466 (in text); Donisthorpe, 1927b: 403; Karavaiev, 1927a: 295; Karavaiev, 1936: 188 (redescription); Karavaiev, 1937: 175.
    • Status as species: Smith, F. 1858b: 11; Roger, 1859: 230; Mayr, 1861: 36 (in key); Emery, 1869b: 2; Wheeler, W.M. 1910f: 217 (redescription); Wheeler, W.M. 1913c: 117; Forel, 1914a: 266; Forel, 1915d: 67 (in key); Emery, 1916b: 226; Wheeler, W.M. 1916m: 600; Wheeler, W.M. 1917a: 558; Escherich, 1917: 330 (in key); Bondroit, 1918: 71; Soudek, 1922: 94; Müller, 1923b: 160; Finzi, 1924a: 14; Soudek, 1925b: 15; Karavaiev, 1927c: 277 (in key); Lomnicki, 1928: 10; Arnol'di, 1933b: 601 (in key); Grandi, 1935: 102; Zimmermann, 1935: 58; Teranishi, 1940: 26; Novák & Sadil, 1941: 109 (in key); Pisarski, 1961a: 167; Bernard, 1967: 342 (redescription); Kutter, 1968a: 60; Collingwood & Yarrow, 1969: 81; Baroni Urbani, 1971c: 190; Collingwood, 1971: 163; Banert & Pisarski, 1972: 353; Pisarski, 1975: 31; Hamann & Klemm, 1976: 674; Kutter, 1977c: 206; Collingwood, 1978: 90 (in key); Collingwood, 1979: 88; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 58; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b: 283 (in key); Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 220; Bolton, 1995b: 98; Douwes, 1995: 92; Poldi, et al. 1995: 7; Cagniant, 1996b: 92; Radchenko, 1996b: 1200 (in key); Espadaler, 1997b: 27; Radchenko, 1997b: 703; Collingwood & Prince, 1998: 24 (in key); Gallé, et al. 1998: 216; Czechowski, et al. 2002: 98; Csösz, & Markó, 2005: 227; Bračko, 2006: 145; Cagniant, 2006a: 194; Markó, Sipos, et al. 2006: 66; Bračko, 2007: 19; Seifert, 2007: 267; Werner & Wiezik, 2007: 143; Zryanin & Zryanina, 2007: 233; Gratiashvili & Barjadze, 2008: 131; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowsky, 2009: 479; Boer, 2010: 19; Lapeva-Gjonova, et al. 2010: 43; Paknia, et al. 2010: 31; Csösz, et al. 2011: 58; Karaman, M.G. 2011b: 69; Legakis, 2011: 30; Borowiec, L. & Salata, 2012: 475; Czechowski, et al. 2012: 247; Kiran & Karaman, 2012: 6; Karaman, C. & Aktaç, 2013: 51 (in key); Borowiec, L. & Salata, 2013: 351; Borowiec, L. 2014: 30; Bračko, et al. 2014: 18; Lebas, et al. 2016: 134; Radchenko, 2016: 332; Salata & Borowiec, 2018c: 43; Seifert, 2018: 260.
    • Senior synonym of kamensis: Radchenko, 1997b: 703; Radchenko, 2016: 332.
    • Senior synonym of pageti: Radchenko, 1997b: 703; Legakis, 2011: 32; Radchenko, 2016: 332.
    • Senior synonym of ruzskyi: Radchenko, 1997b: 703; Gratiashvili & Barjadze, 2008: 131; Radchenko, 2016: 332.
  • kamensis. Camponotus marginatus var. kamensis Ruzsky, 1903b: 302 (w.) RUSSIA (Tatarstan).
    • Combination in C. (Myrmentoma): Emery, 1925b: 118.
    • As unavailable (infrasubspecific) name: Emery, 1925b: 118.
    • Subspecies of marginata: Ruzsky, 1905b: 248.
    • Subspecies of caryae: Wheeler, W.M. 1917c: 29; Bolton, 1995b: 106.
    • Junior synonym of fallax: Radchenko, 1997b: 703; Radchenko, 2016: 332.
  • pageti. Camponotus (Myrmentoma) fallax subsp. pageti Hamann & Klemm, 1976: 674, fig. 1 (q.) GREECE (Rhodes I.).
    • Subspecies of fallax: Bolton, 1995b: 116.
    • Junior synonym of fallax: Radchenko, 1997b: 703; Legakis, 2011: 32; Radchenko, 2016: 332.
  • ruzskyi. Camponotus marginatus var. ruzskyi Emery, 1898c: 150 (w.) RUSSIA.
    • [C. marginatus var. ruzskyi Emery, 1898a: 226. Nomen nudum.]
    • Combination in C. (Myrmentoma): Emery, 1925b: 118.
    • As unavailable (infrasubspecific) name: Emery, 1925b: 118; Karavaiev, 1926e: 192; Karavaiev, 1937: 175.
    • Subspecies of caryae: Wheeler, W.M. 1917d: 29; Arnol'di, 1948: 212 (in list).
    • Subspecies of marginatus: Ruzsky, 1903b: 301; Ruzsky, 1905b: 247; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1929b: 36; Ruzsky, 1946: 69.
    • Status as species: Arakelian, 1994: 88; Bolton, 1995b: 121.
    • Junior synonym of fallax: Radchenko, 1997b: 703; Gratiashvili & Barjadze, 2008: 131; Radchenko, 2016: 332.

Description

References

  • Atanassov, N.; Dlussky, G. M. 1992. Fauna of Bulgaria. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Fauna Bûlg. 22: 1-310 (page 220, see also)
  • Bondroit, J. 1918. Les fourmis de France et de Belgique. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 87: 1-174 (page 71, revived status as species)
  • Borowiec, L. & Salata, S. 2013. Ants of Greece – additions and corrections (Hymenoptera Formicidae). Genus (Wroclaw) 24, 335-401.
  • Collingwood, C. A. 1979. The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomol. Scand. 8: 1-174 (page 88, see also)
  • Emery, C. 1916a [1915]. Fauna entomologica italiana. I. Hymenoptera.-Formicidae. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 47: 79-275 (page 226, revived from synonymy)
  • Emery, C. 1920b. Le genre Camponotus Mayr. Nouvel essai de la subdivision en sous-genres. Rev. Zool. Afr. (Bruss.) 8: 229-260 (page 257, combination in C. (Myrmentoma))
  • Finzi, B. 1924a. Formiche dell'isola d'Elba e Monte Argentario. Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 56: 12-15 (page 14, revived status as species)
  • Forel, A. 1914a. Le genre Camponotus Mayr et les genres voisins. Rev. Suisse Zool. 22: 257-276 (page 266, combination in C. (Camponotus))
  • Forel, A. 1915d. Fauna insectorum helvetiae. Hymenoptera. Formicidae. Die Ameisen der Schweiz. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 12(B Beilage: 1-77 (page 67, revived from synonymy)
  • Karavaiev, V. 1927d. The ant fauna of Ukraine. Zb. Prats Zool. Muz. 2:1-52 [= Tr. Ukr. Akad. Nauk Fiz.-Mat. Vidd. 4:247-296] (page 277, revived status as species)
  • Kutter, H. 1977c. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Insecta Helv. Fauna 6: 1-298 (page 206, see also)
  • Marko, B., Ionescu-Hirsch, A., Szasz-Len, A. 2009. Genus Camponotus Mayr, 1861 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Romania: distribution and identification key to the worker caste. Entomologica romanica 14: 29-41.
  • Mayr, G. 1861. Die europäischen Formiciden. Nach der analytischen Methode bearbeitet. Wien: C. Gerolds Sohn, 80 pp. (page 36, combination in Camponotus)
  • Mayr, G. 1886d. Die Formiciden der Vereinigten Staaten von Nordamerika. Verh. K-K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 36: 419-464 (page 423, junior synonym of marginatus)
  • Nasonov, N. V. 1889. Contribution to the natural history of the ants primarily of Russia. 1. Contribution to the ant fauna of Russia. Izv. Imp. Obshch. Lyubit. Estestvozn. Antropol. Etnogr. Imp. Mosk. Univ. 58: 1-78 (page 10, junior synonym of marginatus)
  • Nylander, W. 1856b. Synopsis des Formicides de France et d'Algérie. Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. (4) 5: 51-109 (page 57, soldier, worker described)
  • Obregon, R., M. R. Shaw, J. Fernandez-Haeger, and D. Jordano. 2015. Parasitoid and ant interactions of some Iberian butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera). Shilap-Revista De Lepidopterologia. 43:439-454.
  • Radchenko, A.G. 1997. A review of ants of the subgenus Myrmentoma, genus Camponotus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), from Asian Palaearctic. Entomological Review 77: 1050-1059 (translated from Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 76: 703-711).
  • Roger, J. 1859. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Ameisenfauna der Mittelmeerländer. I. Berl. Entomol. Z. 3: 225-259 (page 230, queen, male described)
  • Roger, J. 1863b. Verzeichniss der Formiciden-Gattungen und Arten. Berl. Entomol. Z. 7(B Beilage: 1-65 (page 1, junior synonym of marginatus)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1913d. Ants collected in Georgia by Dr. J. C. Bradley and Mr. W. T. Davis. Psyche (Camb.) 20: 112-117 (page 117, revived from synonymy)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1917a. The mountain ants of western North America. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci. 52: 457-569 (page 558, revived status as species)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1917c. The North American ants described by Asa Fitch. Psyche (Camb.) 24: 26-29 (page 27, variety of caryae)
  • Zryanin, V.A. and Zryanina, T.A. 2007. Novye dannye o faune murav’ev Srednego Povolzh’ya. Uspekhi Sovremennoj Biologii. 127:226-240. [in Russian]

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Aldawood AS, Sharaf MR (2011) Monomorium dryhimi sp. n., a new ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the M. monomorium group from Saudi Arabia, with a key to the Arabian Monomorium monomorium-group. ZooKeys 106: 47–54. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.106.139
  • Alvarado M., and L. Galle. 2000. Ant assemblages associated with lowland forests in the southern part of the great Hungarian plain. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientarum Hungaricae 46(2): 79-102.
  • Andoni V. 1977. Kontribut mbi Himenopteret e familjes Formicidae te vendit tone. Buletini I Shkencave te Natyres 31(2): 93-101.
  • AntArea. Accessed on February 5th 2014 at http://antarea.fr/fourmi/
  • Antarea (Personal Communication - Rumsais Blatrix- 27 April 2018)
  • Antarea (at www.antarea.fr on June 11th 2017)
  • Antonova V., and L. Penev. 2008. Classification of assemblages of ants in the green areas in Sofia City. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 60(2): 103-110.
  • Arnan, X., A. Rodrigo and J. Retana. 2006. Post-fire recovery of Mediterranean ground ant communities follows vegetation and dryness gradients. Journal of Biogeography 33(7):1246-1258
  • ArtDatabanken Bugs (via GBIG)
  • Asociacion Iberica de Mirmecologia. 2012. List of species collected during the Taxomara Tres Cantos 2012. Iberomyrmex 4: 17-18.
  • Asociacion Iberica de Mirmecologia. 2016. List of species collected during the Taxomara Murcia 2016. Iberomyrmex 8: 48-49.
  • Barrett K. E. J. 1968. Ants in western France. Entomologist 101: 153-155.
  • Barrett K. E. J. 1970. Ants in France, 1968-69. Entomologist 103: 270-274.
  • Bernard F. 1967. Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp.
  • Bernard, F.. "Notes sur les fourmis de France. II. Peuplement des montagnes méridionales." Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 115 (1950): 1-36.
  • Berville L., C. Santelli, J. Reybaud, M. Renucci, P. Ponel, O. Blight, and E. Provost. 2014. Suivi d’un site atelier dans le golfe de Fos: Une diversite myrmecologique insoupconne. Etudes Vauclusiennes 82: 71-78.
  • Berville L., M. Renucci, and E. Provost. 2012. Mise en place de protocoles de contrôle de la fourmi d’Argentine (Linepithema humile) sur les îles de Port-Cros et de Porquerolles (Var, France). Sci. Rep. Port-Cros natl. Park, 26: 91-108.
  • Bezdecka P. 1996. The ants of Slovakia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomofauna carpathica 8: 108-114.
  • Blinov V. V. 1984. New for the fauna of Byelorussia ant species. Vestsi Akademii Navuk BSSR. Seryia Biialahichnykh Navuk 1984(5): 113-115.
  • Borowiec L. 2014. Catalogue of ants of Europe, the Mediterranean Basin and adjacent regions (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus (Wroclaw) 25(1-2): 1-340.
  • Borowiec L., and S. Salata. 2012. Ants of Greece - Checklist, comments and new faunistic data (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus 23(4): 461-563.
  • Borowiec L., and S. Salata. 2013. Ants of Greece – additions and corrections (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus (Wroclaw) 24(3-4): 335-401.
  • Borowiec L., and S. Salata. 2017. Ants of the Peloponnese, Greece (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Polish Journal of Entomology 86: 193-236.
  • Borowiec M. L., and L. Borowiec. 2013. New data on the occurrence of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Lower Silesia and other regions of Poland. Wiadomo?ci Entomologiczne 32: 49-57.
  • Bracko G. 2007. Checklist of the ants of Slovenia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Natura Sloveniae 9: 15-24
  • Bracko G., K. Kiran, C. Karaman, S. Salata, and L. Borowiec. 2016. Survey of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Greek Thrace. Biodiversity Data Journal 4: e7945. doi: 10.3897/BDJ.4.e7945
  • Bracko, G. 2006. Review of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera:Formicidae) of Croatia. Acta Entomologica Slovenica 14(2): 131-156.
  • Bracko, G.. "Review of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Croatia." Acta Entomologica Slovenica Vol 14 st (2006): 131-156.
  • Cagniant, H. 2006. Liste actualisée des fourmis du Maroc. Myrmecologische Nachrichten 8: 193-200.
  • Cagniant, H.. "Les Camponotus du Maroc (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): clé et catalogue des espèces." Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (N.S.) 32 (1996): 87-100.
  • Cammell, M. E., M. J. Way, and M. R. Paiva. "Diversity and structure of ant communities associated with oak, pine, eucalyptus and arable habitats in Portugal." Insectes Sociaux 43 (1996): 37-46.
  • Casevitz-Weulersse J. 1990. Etude Systematique de la Myrmecofaune Corse (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), deuxieme partie. Bull. Mus. Natn. Hist. Nat. Paris. 4eme serie 12, section A(2): 415-442.
  • Casevitz-Weulersse J., and C. Galkowski. 2009. Liste actualisee des Fourmis de France (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 114: 475-510.
  • Casevitz-Weulersse J., and M. Prost. 1991. Fourmis de la Côte-d'Or présentes dans les collections du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de Dijon. Bulletin Scientifique de Bourgogne 44: 53-72.
  • Casevitz-Weulersse, J.. "Contribution a la connaisance des fourmis de la Corse (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." These de Doctorat Museum Nat (1989): 379pp.
  • Castracani C., D. A. Grasso, A. Fanfani, and A. Mori. 2010. The ant fauna of Castelporziano Presidential Reserve (Rome, Italy) as a model for the analysis of ant community structure in relation to environmental variation in Mediterranean ecosystems. J Insect Conserv 14: 585–594.
  • Colindre L. 2015. Les fourmis en Picardie: bilan 2014 (Hymenoptera/ Formicidae). Entomologiste Picard 26, 15 pages.
  • Collingwood C. A. 1971. A synopsis of the Formicidae of north Europe. Entomologist 104: 150-176
  • Collingwood C., and A. Prince. 1998. A guide to ants of continental Portugal (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Entomologia. Suplemento 5: 1-49.
  • Collingwood, C. A.. "A provisional list of Iberian Formicidae with a key to the worker caste." EOS (Revista española de entomología) Nº LVII (1978): 65-95.
  • Collingwood, C. A.. "The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark." Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8 (1979): 1-174.
  • Csosz S., B. Marko, K. Kiss, A. Tartally, and L. Galle. 2002. The ant fauna of the Ferto-Hansag National Park (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). In: Mahunka, S. (Ed.): The fauna of the Fert?-Hanság National Park. Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, pp. 617-629.
  • Csősz S. and Markó, B. 2005. European ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the ant collection of the Natural History Museum of Sibiu (Hermannstadt/Nagyszeben), Romania II. Subfamily Formicinae. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 97: 225-240.
  • Csősz S., B. Markó, and L. Gallé. 2001. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Stana Valley (Romania): Evaluation of the effectiveness of a myrmecological survey. – Entomologica Romanica 6 : 121-126.
  • Csősz S., B. Markó, and L. Gallé. 2011. The myrmecofauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Hungary: an updated checklist. North-Western Journal of Zoology 7: 55-62.
  • Czechowski W., A. Radchenko, W. Czechowska and K. Vepsäläinen. 2012. The ants of Poland with reference to the myrmecofauna of Europe. Fauna Poloniae 4. Warsaw: Natura Optima Dux Foundation, 1-496 pp
  • Della Santa E. 1994. Guide pour l'identification des principales espèces de fourmis de Suisse. Miscellanea Faunistica Helvetiae 3: 1-124.
  • Della Santa E. 1995. Fourmis de Provence. Faune Provence 16: 5-37.
  • Du Merle P. 1978. Les peuplements de fourmis et les peuplements d'acridiens du Mont Ventoux II. - Les peuplements de fourmis. Terre Vie 32(1): 161-218.
  • Dubovikoff D. A., and Z. M. Yusupov. 2018. Family Formicidae - Ants. In Belokobylskij S. A. and A. S. Lelej: Annotated catalogue of the Hymenoptera of Russia. Proceedingss of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences 6: 197-210.
  • Dvorak, L., P. BOGUSCH, I. MALENOVSKÝ, P. BEZDÌÈKA, K. BEZDÌÈKOVÁ, K. HOLÝ, P. LIŠKA, J. MACEK, L. ROLLER, M. RÍHA et al. "Hymenoptera of Hády Hill, near the city of Brno (Czech Republic), collected during the Third Czech-Slovak Hymenoptera meeting." Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae biologicae (Brno) 93 (2008): 53-92.
  • Emery C. 1869. Enumerazione dei formicidi che rinvengonsi nei contorni di Napoli con descrizioni di specie nuove o meno conosciute. Ann. Accad. Aspir. Nat. Secunda Era 2: 1-26.
  • Emery C. 1916. Fauna entomologica italiana. I. Hymenoptera.-Formicidae. Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 47: 79-275.
  • Espadaler, X., and L. Lopez Soria. "Rareness of certain Mediterranean ant species: fact or artifact?" Insectes Sociaux 38 (1991): 365-377.
  • Espadaler, X.. "Formicidos de las sierras de Cazorla, del Pozo y Segura (Jaén, España)." Ecología 11 (1997): 489-499.
  • Fiedler, K., F. Kuhlmann, B. C. Schlick-Steiner, F. M. Steiner and G. Gebauer. 2007. Stable N-isotope signatures of central European ants – assessing positions in a trophic gradient. Insectes Sociaux 54(4):393-402.
  • Finzi, B.. "Formiche dell'isola d'Elba e Monte Argentario." Bollettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 56 (1924): 12-15.
  • GRETIA. 2017. Bilan annuel de l'enquete sur la repartition des fourmis armoricaines. 23 pages.
  • Galle L. 1981. The Formicoid fauna of the Hortobagy. Pp. 307-311 in: Mahunka, S. (ed.) 1981. The fauna of the Hortobágy National Park. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 415 pp.
  • Galle L., and G. Szonyi. 1988. A check list of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicoidea) of a sandy grassland in Kiskunsag National Park (Hungary). Acta Biol. Szeged 34: 167-168.
  • Gallé L., B. Markó, K. Kiss, E. Kovács, H. Dürgő, K. Kőváry, and S. Csősz. 2005. Ant fauna of Tisza river basin (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). — In: Gallé, L. (szerk.): Vegetation and Fauna of Tisza River Basin I. Tiscia Monograph Series 7; Szeged, pp. 149-197.
  • Glaser F., T. Kopf, and K. H. Steiberger. 2003. Ameisen (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) im Frastanzer Ried und den Illauen (Vorarlberg, Österreich) Artenspektrum, Gefährdung und Schutzempfehlungen. Vorarlberger Naturschau 13: 287-310.
  • Gomez K., D. Martinez, and X. Espadaler. 2018. Phylogeny of the ant genus Aphaenogaster (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Iberian Peninsula, with the description of a new species. Sociobiology 65: 215-224.
  • Gouraud C. 2015. Bilan de l’année 2014 : Atlas des fourmis de Loire-Atlantique (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Atlas des Formicidae de Loire-Atlantique, compte rendu de la première année d’étude (2014)
  • Grandi G. 1935. Contributi alla conoscenza degli Imenotteri Aculeati. XV. Boll. R. Ist. Entomol. Univ. Studi Bologna 8: 27-121.
  • Gratiashvili N., Barjadze S. 2008. Checklist of the ants (Formicidae Latreille, 1809) of Georgia. Proceedings of the Institute of Zoology (Tbilisi) 23: 130-146.
  • Hamann H. H. F., and W. Klemm. 1976. Ergebnisse der von Dr. O. Paget und Dr. E. Kritscher auf Rhodos durchgeführten zoologischen Exkursionen. XVI. Formicidae. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 80: 669-679.
  • Ionescu-Hirsch A. 2009. An annotated list of Camponotus of Israel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a key and descriptions of new species. ISRAEL JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY 39: 57–98.
  • Ivanov S. P., A. V. Fateryga, and V. Yu Zhidkov. 2019. Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera, Aculeata) inhabiting trap nests in Crimea. Entomological Review 99(2): 163–179.
  • Karaman M. G. 2009. An introduction to the ant fauna of Macedonia (Balkan Peninsula), a check list (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Natura Montenegrina 8(3): 151-162.
  • Karaman M. G. 2011. A catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Montenegro. Podgorica: Catalogues 3, Volume 2, Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts, 140 pp.
  • Karaman M. G., and G. S. Karaman. 2007. Contribution to the Knowledge of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Special nature reserve Zasavica , Serbia. Zbornik “Naucno-strucni skup Zasavica 2007, Sremska Mitrovica, 67-75.
  • Karavaiev V. 1927. Übersicht der Ameisenfauna der Krim nebst einigen Neubeschreibungen. Konowia 5: 281-303.
  • Kiran K., and C. Karaman. 2012. First annotated checklist of the ant fauna of Turkey (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 3548: 1-38.
  • Kiran K., and N. Aktac. 2006. The vertical distribution of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Samanh Mountains, Turkey. Linzer Biol. Beitr. 38(2): 1105-1122.
  • Kofler A. 1995. Nachtrag zur Ameisenfauna Osttirols (Tirol, Österreich) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecologische Nachrichten 1: 14-25.
  • Lapeva-Gjonova, L., V. Antonova, A. G. Radchenko, and M. Atanasova. "Catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Bulgaria." ZooKeys 62 (2010): 1-124.
  • Legakis Collection Database
  • Lomnicki J. 1928. Spis mrówek Lwowa i okolicy. Ksiegi Pamiatkowej (Lecia Gimn. IV Jana Dlugosza Lwowie) 50: 1-10.
  • Luque-García, G., J. L. Reyes-López, and J. Fernández-Haeger. "Estudio faunístico de las hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de la cuenca del río Guadiamar: Primeras aportaciones." Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 30 (2002): 153-159.
  • Majzlan O., and P. Devan. 2009. Selected insect groups (Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, Mecoptera, Raphidioptera) of the Rokoš Massif (Strážovské vrchy Mts.). Rosalia (Nitra), 20, p. 63–70.
  • Marko B. 1999. Contribution to the knowledge of the myrmecofauna of the River Somes valley. In: Sárkány-Kiss, A., Hamar, J. (szerk.): The Somes/Szamos River Valley. A study of the geography, hydrobiology and ecology of the river system and its environment. Tiscia Monograph Series 3, Szolnok-Szeged-Tîrgu Mure?, pp. 297-302.
  • Marko B. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the “Sand Dunes of Foieni” Protected Area and Its Surroundings (Satu Mare County, Romania), and a New Species for the Romanian Fauna. Acta Scientiarum Transylvanica 16(3): 87-99.
  • Markó B., A. Ionescu-Hirsch, and A. Szász-Len. 2009. Genus Camponotus Mayr, 1861 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Romania: distribution and identification key to the worker caste. Entomologica Romanica 14: 29-41.
  • Markó B., B. Sipos, S. Csősz, K. Kiss, I. Boros, and L. Gallé. 2006. A comprehensive list of the ants of Romania (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecologische Nachrichten 9: 65-76.
  • Martínez Ibáñez, M. D., and X. Espadaler. "Revisión de las hormigas ibéricas de la colección M. Medina y nuevos datos de distribución." Actas de las VIII Jornadas de la Asociación Española de Entomología (1986): 1022-1034.
  • Moscaliuc L. 2008. Notes on the ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Rarau mountain. Analele Facult??ii de Biologie, Univ A.I. Cuza Ia?i 54: 53-55.
  • Neumeyer R., and B. Seifert. 2005. Commented check list of free living ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) species of Switzerland. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique Suisse 78: 1-17.
  • Núñez-Pérez, E.. "Bases para el desarrollo del control integrado de los pulgones (Hom. Aphididae) de los cultivos de la provincia de León." Universidad de León, Secretariado de Publicaciones Tesis doct (1992): 7 páginas y 4 microfichas. León.
  • Ordóñez-Urbano C., J. Reyes-López, and S. Carpintero-Ortega. 2007. Estudio faunísidos de los formícidos (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) asociados a los bosques de ribera en la Provincia de Córdoba (España). Primeras Aportaciones. Boletin Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 40: 367-375.
  • Ortiz, F. J., and A. Tinaut. "Citas nuevas o interesantes de Formícidos para Andalucía." Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 11 (1987): 31-34.
  • Ortiz, F. J.. "Formícidos del litoral granadino." Memoria de Licenciatura Universida (1985): 206 pp.
  • Paknia, O., A. G. Radchenko, and M. Pfeiffer. "New records of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Iran." Asian Myrmecology 3, no. 29-38 (2010).
  • Paraschivescu D. 1978. Elemente balcanice in mirmecofauna R. S. Romania. Nymphaea 6: 463- 474.
  • Petrov I. Z. 2002. Contribution to the myrmecofauna (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) of the Banat Province (Serbia). Archives of Biological Sciences, Belgrade, 54(1–2): 57-64.
  • Petrov I. Z., and C. A. Collingwood. 1992. Survey of the myrmecofauna (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) of Yugoslavia. Archives of Biological Sciences (Belgrade) 44: 79-91.
  • Pisarski B. 1961. Studien über die polnischen Arten der Gattung Camponotus Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Annales Zoologici (Warsaw) 19: 147-207.
  • Pisarski, B.. "Studien über die polnischen Arten der Gattung Camponotus Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)." Annales Zoologici, Warszawa 19 (1961): 147-207.
  • Poldi B., M. Mei, and F. Rigato. 1995. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Vol 102. Checklist delle specie della fauna Italiana: 1-10.
  • Radchenko A. G. 1997. A review of ants of the subgenus Myrmentoma, Genus Camponotus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), from Asian Palaearctic. Entomological Review 77(8): 1050-1059.
  • Reyes Lopez J., and A. Taheri. 2016. Relacion provisional de los formicidos del Poryecto del Parque Natural Regional de Bouhachem (Marruecos). Iberomyrmex 8: 35-36.
  • Reyes-Lopez J., S. Carpintero. 2014. Comparison of the exotic and native ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in urban green areas at inland, coastal and insular sites in Spain. Eur. J. Entomol. 111(3): 421–428.
  • Rigato F., and J. K. Wetterer. 2018. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of San Marino. Natural History Sciences. Atti Soc. it. Sci. nat. Museo civ. Stor. nat. Milano, 5(2): https://doi.org/10.4081/nhs.2018.367
  • Rodríguez, A.. "Contribución al conocimiento de las hormigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) de Sierra Morena Central." Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 5 (1982): 181-188.
  • Salata S., P. Zurawlew, and J. K. Kowalczyk. 2018. New distribution records of several ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Poland. Wiadomosci Entomologiczne 37(1): 46-53.
  • Salata S., and L. Borowiec. 2018. Taxonomic and faunistic notes on Greek ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annals of the Upper Silesian Museum in Bytom Entomology 27: 1-51.
  • Salata S., and L. Borowiec. 2019. Preliminary division of not socially parasitic Greek Temnothorax Mayr, 1861 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) with a description of three new species. ZooKeys 877: 81-131.
  • Sanchez-Gil Jimeno R., and J. L. Reyes-Lopez. 2016. Study of ants species of the Sierra de San Carlos del Valle (Ciudad Real) and updating the provincial check list (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Boln. Asoc. esp. Ent. 40 (1-2): 93-109.
  • Schlick-Steiner B. C., and F. M. Steiner. 1999. Faunistisch-ökologische Untersuchungen an den freilebenden Ameisen (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Wiens. Myrmecologische Nachrichten 3: 9-53.
  • Seifert B. 1998. Rote Liste der Ameisen. - in: M. Binot, R. Bless, P. Boye, H. Gruttke und P. Pretscher: Rote Liste gefährdeter Tiere Deutschlands. Bonn-Bad Godesberg 1998: 130-133.
  • Sellier Y., C. Galkowski, C. Lebas, and P. Wegnez. 2016. Découverte de Temnothorax pardoi (Tinaut, 1987) dans la réserve naturelle nationale du Pinail (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Revue de l’Association Roussillonnaise d’Entomologie 25(2): 106-113.
  • Sommer F., and H. Cagniant. 1988. Peuplements de fourmis des Albères Orientales (Pyrénées-Orientales, France) (Première partie). Vie Milieu 38: 189-200.
  • Sonnenburg H. 2005. Die Ameisenfauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Niedersachsens und Bremens. Braunschweiger Naturkundliche Schriften 7: 377-441.
  • Soudek, S.. "Dalmatsti mravenci." Casopis Csl. Spolecnosti Entomologické 20 (1-2) (1925): 12-17.
  • Steiner F. M., S. Schödl, and B. C. Schlick-Steiner. 2002. Liste der Ameisen Österreichs (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Stand Oktober 2002. Beiträge zur Entomofaunistik 3: 17-25.
  • Stukalyuk S. V. 2015. Structure of the ant assemblages (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the broad-leaved forests of Kiev. Entomological Review 95(3): 370–387.
  • Stukalyuk S. V. 2016. Crematogaster subdentata Mayr, 1877, a potentially invasive species of ant (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) new to the fauna of Crimea. Entomological Review 95(8)
  • Stukalyuk S. V. 2017. Stratification of the ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the urban broadleaf woodlands of the city of Kiev. Entomological Review 97(3): 320-343.
  • Suñer i Escriche, David. "Contribució al coneixement mirmecologic de Gavarres, Montgrí, Guilleríes i la Serralada Transversal." Tesis Doctoral Universida (1991): 577 pp.
  • Taheri A., J. Reyes-Lopez, and N. Bennas. 2014. Contribution a l'etude de la fauna myrmecologique du parc national de Talassemtane (nord du Maroc): biodiversite, biogeographie et especes indicatrices. Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa (S.E.A.), 54: 225–236.
  • Tausan I. 2016. First record of Camponotus lateralis (Olivier, 1792)(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Dobrogea (Romania). Brukenthal. Acta Musei, 11: 443-446.
  • Tausan I., M. M. Jerpel, I. R. Puscasu, C. Sadeanu, R. E. Brutatu, L. A. Radutiu, and V. Giurescu. 2012. Ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Sibiu County (Transylvania, Romania). Brukenthal. Acta Musei 7(3): 499-520.
  • Tinaut A. 2016. Ants of the Tejeda, Almijara and Alhama Mountains Natural Park (Andalusia, Spain) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Boln. Asoc. esp. Ent., 40 (1-2): 125-159.
  • Tinaut, A., M. D. Martínez Ibáñez, and F. Ruano. "Inventario de las especies de formícidos de Sierra Nevada, Granada (España) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)." Zoología Baetica 18 (2007): 49-68.
  • Trigos Peral G., M. Witek, P. Slipinski, H. Babik, and W. Czechowski. 2016. Urban parks in Warsaw: more managed, more suitable for ants? Iberomyrmex 8: 24.
  • Vagalinski B., and A. Lapeva-Gjonova. 2012. The ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Plana Mountain (Bulgaria). Historia naturalis bulgarica 20: 87-101.
  • Verhaagh M. 1994. Neue fundstellen einiger ameisen in Sudwest-deutschland. Carolinea 52: 115-118.
  • Vogrin, V.. "Prilog fauni Hymenoptera - Aculeata Jugoslavije." Zast. Bilja 31(suppl.) (1955): 1-74.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1910. The North American forms of Camponotus fallax Nylander. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 18: 216-232.
  • Wiezik M., A. Wieziková, and L. Ma?áková. 2010. Ant assemblages (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of typical habitats at Boky National Nature Reserve. Naturae Tutela 14(1): 91-98.
  • Zryanin V. A., and T. A. Zryanina. 2007. New data on the ant fauna Hymenoptera, Formicidae in the middle Volga River Basin. Uspekhi Sovremennoi Biologii 127(2): 226-240.
  • de Haro, Andrés, and C. A. Collingwood. "Prospección mirmecológica por Extremadura (España) y Sao Brás-Almodovar, Alcácer do Sal, Serra da Estrela (Portugal)." Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Entomologia Suplemento 3(1) (1992): 95-104.
  • de Haro, Andrés, and C. A. Collingwood. "Prospección mirmecológica por la península Tingitana al norte del Rif (Marruecos)." Orsis (Organismes i Sistemes) 12 (1997): 93-99.