Camponotus libanicus

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Camponotus libanicus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Camponotini
Genus: Camponotus
Subgenus: Myrmentoma
Species group: kiesenwetteri
Species: C. libanicus
Binomial name
Camponotus libanicus
André, 1881

Camponotus libanicus casent0906053 p 1 high.jpg

Camponotus libanicus casent0906053 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels


This species populates dry, often semi-desert habitats, building nests in soil (Radchenko 1997).


Salata et al. (2019) - A member of the Camponotus kiesenwetteri species group. Head, mesosoma, and gaster uniformly black; metanotal groove absent; propodeum without posterior protrusion; body densely punctate, appears dull; base of scape without extension; whole body bears long, thick, pale, dense and erect setae, and short appressed microsetae; petiolar scale thick (PI < 1.42).

Camponotus libanicus belongs to the species with mesosoma evenly convex in profile, not interrupted by the metanotal groove. It is very similar to Camponotus aegaeus and differs by having a thick petiolar scale with PI < 1.42, which in C. aegaeus is thinner at PI > 1.50. See also comments in C. aegaeus.

Ionescu-Hirsch (2009) - Israeli specimens show much greater variability of size than that described in Tohmé’s (1969b) redescription of the species, i.e., they are not monomorphic, as stated by Tohmé (1969b). The Israeli specimens vary in size and show allometric relationships between body measures. Major workers (n = 7) have a slightly wider than long head and a short scape (SL/HW = 0.86–1.01), while minor workers (n = 10) have a more elongate head (HW/HL = 0.91–0.96) and a relatively longer scape (SL/HW = 1.04–1.13). Petiolar scale thickness of C. libanicus is variable, and its shape in lateral view varies from thin, anteriorly concave proximally and moderately convex distally, to thick and anteriorly strongly convex.

Keys including this Species


Ionescu-Hirsch (2009) - Eastern Mediterranean to Iran (Radchenko, 1997c; Paknia et al., 2008).

Salata et al. (2019) - Known from Lebanon (André 1881, Tohmé 1969) and Cyprus: Limassol and Girne. It was also recorded from Adana, Diyarbakır, Elazığ, Hatay, Karaman, and Mersin provinces in Turkey (Forel 1913; Emery 1915; Bolu and Özgen 2018), Israel (Ionescu-Hirsch 2010) and Iran (Paknia et al. 2010).

The kiesenwetteri species group contains taxa of the subgenus Myrmentoma that are distributed almost exclusively in the Aegean. The two exceptions, Camponotus aegaeus and Camponotus libanicus, collectively extend the group's distributional range into Asia Minor and the Near East. These two species appear to be vicariant taxa, with C. aegaeus to the west and C. libanicus to the east. Niche modeling results showed minimum temperature of the coldest month was the variable that contributed most to the C. libanicus distribution model. Niche modeling for both species show similar areas with high suitability, especially along the south coast of Turkey and Cyprus. However, C. aegaeus has not been recorded from the island.

Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 38.433333° to 32.38333333°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Cyprus, Greece, Iran, Israel, Lebanon (type locality), Turkey.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.


See the Camponotus kiesenwetteri species group page for information about the biology of C. libanicus.

Association with Other Organisms

Explore-icon.png Explore: Show all Associate data or Search these data. See also a list of all data tables or learn how data is managed.
  • This species is a mutualist for the aphid Aphis craccivora (a trophobiont) (Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019).


Salata et al. 2019. Figure 17-18. Camponotus libanicus major (19) and minor (20).


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • libanicus. Camponotus libanicus André, 1881b: 54, pl. 3, figs. 14, 15 (w.) LEBANON.
    • Forel, 1889: 261 (w.); Forel, 1911d: 355 (q.); Tohmé, G. 1969: 11 (m.).
    • Combination in C. (Orthonotomyrmex): Forel, 1913d: 435; Santschi, 1921f: 310;
    • combination in C. (Myrmentoma): Emery, 1925b: 121.
    • Status as species: André, 1882a: 148 (in key); Forel, 1889: 261; Dalla Torre, 1893: 239; Emery, 1896d: 376 (in list); Forel, 1911d: 355; Emery, 1925b: 121; Finzi, 1930c: 24; Menozzi, 1936d: 304; Tohmé, G. 1969: 11; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 58; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b: 283 (in key); Kugler, J. 1988: 259; Bolton, 1995b: 108; Radchenko, 1996b: 1197 (in key); Radchenko, 1997b: 705; Petrov, 2006: 108 (in key); Paknia, et al. 2008: 153; Vonshak, et al. 2009: 39; Ionescu-Hirsch, 2010: 83; Paknia, et al. 2010: 31; Legakis, 2011: 31; Borowiec, L. & Salata, 2012: 479; Kiran & Karaman, 2012: 7; Karaman, C. & Aktaç, 2013: 50 (in key); Borowiec, L. 2014: 36; Tohmé, G. & Tohmé, 2014: 138; Lebas, et al. 2016: 136; Salata & Borowiec, 2018c: 43; Salata, Loss, et al. 2019: 93.
    • Senior synonym of nadimi: Salata, Loss, et al. 2019: 93.
    • Senior synonym of sahlbergi: Radchenko, 1996b: 1197 (in key); Radchenko, 1997b: 705; Kiran & Karaman, 2012: 7; Salata, Loss, et al. 2019: 93.
  • nadimi. Camponotus (Myrmentoma) nadimi Tohmé, G. 1969: 6, figs. 3, 4 (s.w.) LEBANON.
    • Status as species: Bolton, 1995b: 112; Vonshak, et al. 2009: 39; Ionescu-Hirsch, 2010: 84; Borowiec, L. 2014: 38; Tohmé, G. & Tohmé, 2014: 138.
    • Junior synonym of libanicus: Salata, Loss, et al. 2019: 93.
  • sahlbergi. Camponotus (Orthonotomyrmex) libanicus r. sahlbergi Forel, 1913d: 435 (s.w.) TURKEY.
    • Combination in C. (Myrmentoma): Emery, 1925b: 121.
    • Subspecies of libanicus: Emery, 1925b: 121; Bolton, 1995b: 121.
    • Junior synonym of libanicus: Radchenko, 1996b: 1197 (in key); Radchenko, 1997b: 705; Kiran & Karaman, 2012: 7.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Taxonomic Notes

Seifert (2019): This taxon has been described from Lebanon. The type specimens depicted in under CASENT0913700 shows an absent metanotal depression, a very convex overall dorsal profile line of mesosoma as well as a much stronger sculpture and much denser pubescence on all body surfaces than observed in any member of the C. lateralis group.



Ionescu-Hirsch (2009) - TL = 5.1–7.3, HL = 1.31–1.80, HW = 1.21–1.82, EL = 0.32–0.41, SL = 1.35–1.64, ML = 2.19–2.54, PW = 1.17–1.50, mTbL = 1.02–1.39, hTbL = 1.45–1.85 (n = 20). Gyne: TL = 11.6, HL = 2.23, HW = 2.11, EL = 0.51, SL = 1.72, ML = 3.98, PW = 2.09, mTbL = 1.56, hTbL = 2.34 (n = 1).

Type Material

Syntype worker, Lebanon (Musee National d'Histoire Naturelle) (Syntype worker AntWeb, CASENT0913700)

Determination Clarifications

Salata et al. (2019) - A record from Greece: Aegean Islands by Legakis (2011), based on unpublished manuscript (Taylor and Clee 2008), is likely based on a misidentification. Recent research on the ant fauna of the Aegean Islands has not confirmed the occurrence of this species in Greece. Additionally, an old record from İzmir in Turkey (Forel 1911) is doubtful. It was published before the description of C. aegaeus and it is located 500 km West of all the recently known localities of this species.


References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Bolu H., and I. Ozgen. 2018. Some observation about Formicidae (Hymenoptera) in almond agroecosystems in East-Southeast Anatolian region of Turkey. Mun. Ent. Zool. 13(2): 495-498.
  • Borowiec L. 2014. Catalogue of ants of Europe, the Mediterranean Basin and adjacent regions (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus (Wroclaw) 25(1-2): 1-340.
  • Borowiec L., and S. Salata. 2012. Ants of Greece - Checklist, comments and new faunistic data (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus 23(4): 461-563.
  • Emery, C.. "Escursioni zoologiche del Dr. Enrico Festa nell'Isola di Rodi. XII. Formiche." Bollettino del Museo di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparatadella Reale Università di Torino 30 (1915): 1-7.
  • Finzi B. 1930. Hymenopteren aus Palästina und Syrien. (Zoologische Studienreise von R. Ebner 1928 mit Unterstützung der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien.) Formicidae. Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse. Abteilung I 139:22-24.
  • Forel A. 1911. Fourmis nouvelles ou intéressantes. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 47: 331-400.
  • Forel, A.. "Ameisen aus den Sporaden, den Cykladen und Griechenland, gesammelt 1887 von Herrn von Oertzen." Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 32 (1889): 255-265.
  • Forel, A.. "Fourmis de la faune méditerranéenne récoltées par MM. U. et J. Sahlberg." Revue Suisse de Zoologie 21 (1913): 427-438.
  • Ionescu-Hirsch A. 2009. An annotated list of Camponotus of Israel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a key and descriptions of new species. ISRAEL JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY 39: 57–98.
  • Kiran K., and C. Karaman. 2012. First annotated checklist of the ant fauna of Turkey (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 3548: 1-38.
  • Kugler J. 1988. The zoogeography of Israel. 9. The zoogeography of social insects of Israel and Sinai. Monographiae biologicae 62: 251-275.
  • Paknia O., A. Radchenko, H. Alipanah, and M. Pfeiffer. 2008. A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Iran. Myrmecological News 11: 151-159.
  • Paknia, O., A. G. Radchenko, and M. Pfeiffer. "New records of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Iran." Asian Myrmecology 3, no. 29-38 (2010).
  • Radchenko A. G. 1997. A review of ants of the subgenus Myrmentoma, Genus Camponotus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), from Asian Palaearctic. Entomological Review 77(8): 1050-1059.
  • Salata S., A. C. Loss, C. Karaman, K. Kiran, and L. Borowiec. 2019. Review of the Camponotus kiesenwetteri group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Aegean with the description of a new species. ZooKeys 899: 85-107.
  • Salata S., and L. Borowiec. 2018. Taxonomic and faunistic notes on Greek ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annals of the Upper Silesian Museum in Bytom Entomology 27: 1-51.
  • Seifert B. 2019. A taxonomic revision of the members of the Camponotus lateralis species group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Europe, Asia Minor and Caucasia. Soil Organisms 91:7–32.
  • Shiran E., M. S. Mossadegh, and M. Esfandiari. 2012. Mutualistic ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) associated with aphids in central and southwestern parts of Iran. J. Crop Prot. 2013, 2 (1): 1-12.
  • Tohme G. 1996. Formicidae. Etude de la diversité biologique n° 4 . Ministère de l’Agriculture à Beyrouth (Eds.). P85-87.
  • Tohmé, G.. "Description d'espèces nouvelles de fourmis au Liban (Hymenoptera Formicoidea)." Publications de l'Universite Libanaise, Section des Sciences Naturelles 7 (1969): 1-15.
  • Vonshak M., and A. Ionescu-Hirsch. 2009. A checklist of the ants of Israel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Israel Journal of Entomology 39: 33-55.