Cardiocondyla bulgarica

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Cardiocondyla bulgarica
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Cardiocondyla
Species: C. bulgarica
Binomial name
Cardiocondyla bulgarica
Forel, 1892

Cardiocondyla bulgarica casent0179879 p 1 high.jpg

Cardiocondyla bulgarica casent0179879 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels


The few databased specimens show this species has been found in pine forest and in urban habitats.


Seifert (2003) - A member of the Cardiocondyla bulgarica group. C. bulgarica has a very large CL/CW (1.231 ± 0.004), PoOc/CL (0.461 ± 0.004), and PEW/PPW (0.640 ± 0.009); cephalic and mesosomal microsculpture, and a warm yellowish mesosoma contrasting with a the darker head and gaster.

C. bulgarica is close to Cardiocondyla sahlbergi from which a perfect discrimination by the set of external characters considered here was not possible. Genetic evidence from mitochondrial DNA, however, indicates a heterospecifity of both taxa (Trindl and Heinze, pers. comm., October 2002).

Keys including this Species


Cardiocondyla bulgarica seems to have a rather limited geographic range extending from the S Balkans across Asia Minor. (Seifert 2003)

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Bulgaria (type locality), Greece, Turkey.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb




The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • bulgarica. Cardiocondyla elegans var. bulgarica Forel, 1892i: 312, pl. 5, fig. 4 (w.q.) BULGARIA. Raised to species: Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 56; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 174. Junior synonym of elegans: Radchenko, 1995b: 449. Revived from synonymy and senior synonym of eleonorae: Seifert, 2003a: 233.
  • eleonorae. Cardiocondyla elegans var. eleonorae Forel, 1911d: 337 (w.) TURKEY. Junior synonym of elegans: Radchenko, 1995b: 449; of bulgarica: Seifert, 2003a: 233.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



Seifert (2003) - Head elongated, CL/CW 1.203. Postocular distance large, PoOc/CL 0.451. Eyes of medium size, EYE 0.241. Vertex with shallow but well-demarcated foveolae; interspaces about as wide as foveolae and glabrous. Frontal lobes and area posterior of frontal lobes finely longitudinally carinulate-rugulose. Frontal carinae immediately posterior of the FRS level almost parallel. Clypeus rather smooth, in some specimens with weak lateral carinulae and suggestions of foveolae. Mesosoma in overall impression, more or less glabrous; promesonotum with scattered, shallow foveolae; meso- and metapleurae with suggestions of longitudinal carinulae. Petiole wide, PEW/PPW 0.619. Postpetiolar sternite with weak anteromedian bulge. Head usually medium brown with warm yellowish tinge, sometimes dark brown. Mesosoma and petiole varying between yellow and medium brown, but warm yellowish tinge even in darkest specimens always visible. Postpetiole yellowish brown to dark brown. Gaster dark brown. Pigmentation contrast between dorsal head and mesosoma always expressed PigCap/PigMes 1.492 ± 0.250 [1.14, 2.00].


Seifert (2003) - Head elongated, CL/CW 1.185. Postocular index large, PoOC/CL 0.444. Vertex with shallow but well-demarcated foveolae of 17 - 19 mm diameter, interspaces frequently smaller than foveolar diameter and shining, almost without microstructures. Frontal carinae immediately posterior of FRS level parallel or slightly diverging. Frontal lobes and vertex posterior of frontal lobes shining but weakly longitudinally carinulate-rugulose. Clypeus more or less smooth. Mesosoma in overall impression smooth and shining; mesonotum with scattered, praescutellum and scutellum with more numerous, shallow foveolae of 10 - 15 mm diameter and glabrous interspaces; lateral area of metapleuron longitudinally carinulate-rugulose. Petiole in profile with caudomediodorsal corner, wider than in related species: PEW/PPW 0.735. Postpetiole in dorsal view with deeply concave anterior margin, its sternite with conspicuous anteromedian corner. Head and postpetiole medium to dark brown. Mesosoma and petiole yellow to darker yellowish brown, warm yellowish tinge even in darkest specimens well-expressed. Gaster dark to blackish brown. Brightness contrast between dorsal head and lateral area of mesosoma notable, PigCap/PigMes 1.50 ± 0.25 [1.25, 2.00].

Type Material

Seifert (2003) - Cardiocondyla elegans var. bulgarica: 4 syntype workers and 2 syntype gynes, labelled “C. elegans var. bulgarica Forel, 16 VIII, Anchialo (Bulgarien)”, Musee d'Histoire Naturelle Genève Geneve. 1 worker and 1 syntype gyne, labelled “Anchialo”, Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna Wien. 5 syntype workers, labelled “Sozopolis 15 VIII, type bulgarica”, Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel.


  • Agosti, D.; Collingwood, C. A. 1987a. A provisional list of the Balkan ants (Hym. Formicidae) and a key to the worker caste. I. Synonymic list. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 60: 51-62 (page 56, Raised to species)
  • Atanassov, N.; Dlussky, G. M. 1992. Fauna of Bulgaria. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Fauna Bûlg. 22: 1-310 (page 174, Raised to species)
  • Forel, A. 1892j. Die Ameisenfauna Bulgariens. (Nebst biologischen Beobachtungen.). Verh. K-K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 42: 305-318 (page 312, pl. 5 fig. 4 worker, queen described)
  • Radchenko, A. G. 1995g. Palearctic ants of the genus Cardiocondyla (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Entomol. Obozr. 74: 447-455 (page 449, Junior synonym of elegans)