Carebara diversa

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Carebara diversa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Carebara
Species: C. diversa
Binomial name
Carebara diversa
(Jerdon, 1851)

Pheidologeton diversus casent0906201 p 1 high.jpg

Pheidologeton diversus casent0906201 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Subspecies
Synonyms
Common Name
Yokozuna-ari
Language: Japanese

P. diversus forms large colonies, often found in the soil or under stones. It regularly forms long foraging columns. Arcades constructed of soil particles sometimes roof the trails. P. diversus is a predator of small animals such as insects (Moffett, 1986). It also collects nectivorous materials. This species is widely distributed from India through SE Asia to Taiwan. There are only two Japanese field records respectively from the Nansei Islands (Okinawa Island) and the Ogasawara Islands (Chicchi-jima Island). Specimens taken at the U.S. Air force base at Zama City, Kanagawa Prefecture, must have originated from a commercial introduction from SE Asia (Kubota, 1988). (Japanese Ant Image Database)

Identification

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Afrotropical Region: Guinea.
Indo-Australian Region: Borneo, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines.
Oriental Region: Bangladesh, Cambodia, India (type locality), Laos, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam (type locality).
Palaearctic Region: China, Japan.


Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Perhaps the best known member of what was formerly known as Pheidologeton, this species is commonly found in open and disturbed habitats, e.g. gardens, forest fringes, and are rarer in deep forests. They exhibit group-hunting behaviour, where masses of workers form long and dense trails, in an uninterrupted foraging effort (Moffett, 1988). These trails, also known as trunk trails, can last for days and are possible because of huge colonies, consisting of several hundreds of thousands of workers. This elaborate foraging behaviour has coined them the name, marauder ants.

Association with Other Organisms

  • This species is a prey for the tiger beetle Cicindela flavomaculata (a predator) in Western Ghats, India (Sinu et al., 2006).
  • This species is a prey for the tiger beetle Cicindela whithilli (a predator) in Western Ghats, India (Sinu et al., 2006).
  • This species is a host for the chrysidid wasp Rhadinoscelidia lixa (a parasite) in Thailand (Hisasue & Mita, 2020).

Life History Traits

  • Mean colony size: 250,000 (Moffet, 1988; Beckers et al., 1989)
  • Foraging behaviour: group hunter (Moffet, 1988; Beckers et al., 1989)

Castes

An outstanding feature is extreme polymorphism closely coupled with polyethism (Moffett, 1987). Soldiers can be many times bigger than workers, and several small workers can ride on the back of soldiers. In C. diversa, small workers make up the bulk of foraging parties, while scattered soldiers often carry large objects, food items, or lift debris off the trunk trails.

Soldier
Queen
Male
Major
Minor

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • diversa. Oecodoma diversa Jerdon, 1851: 109 (s.w.) INDIA (Kerala).
    • [Duplicated in Jerdon, 1854a: 51. Genus misspelled as Ocodoma in both publications.]
    • Emery, 1893e: 212 (q.m.); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1954a: 135 (l.); Imai, et al. 1984: 7 (k.).
    • Combination in Pheidole: Smith, F. 1858b: 174;
    • combination in Pheidologeton: Roger, 1863b: 30;
    • combination in Carebara: Fischer, et al. 2014: 71.
    • Status as species: Smith, F. 1858b: 174; Roger, 1863b: 30; Mayr, 1863: 440; Smith, F. 1871a: 331; Dalla Torre, 1893: 73; Emery, 1893e: 206; Emery, 1893f: 243; Emery, 1895k: 466; Emery, 1901g: 567; Forel, 1903a: 691; Rothney, 1903: 98; Bingham, 1903: 162; Emery, 1904b: 606; Forel, 1904b: 372; Forel, 1906b: 90; Forel, 1907a: 17; Forel, 1907e: 17; Forel, 1909b: 55; Wheeler, W.M. 1909d: 334, 340; Forel, 1910d: 123; Forel, 1912d: 105; Forel, 1913f: 191; Donisthorpe, 1915d: 337; Viehmeyer, 1916a: 136; Wheeler, W.M. 1919e: 85; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 880; Wheeler, W.M. 1923b: 1; Santschi, 1924c: 100; Emery, 1924d: 212; Stitz, 1925: 119; Stärcke, 1926: 86 (in key); Wheeler, W.M. 1927b: 45; Wheeler, W.M. 1927d: 6; Wheeler, W.M. 1927h: 90; Donisthorpe, 1927b: 387; Wheeler, W.M. 1929f: 7; Wheeler, W.M. 1929g: 44; Mukerjee, 1930: 154; Wheeler, W.M. 1930h: 68; Kutter, 1932: 207; Santschi, 1937h: 371; Teranishi, 1940: 58; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 159; Collingwood, 1962: 225; Baltazar, 1966: 257; Ettershank, 1966: 118; Moffett, 1984: 7; Morisita, et al. 1992: 43; Bolton, 1995b: 333; Wu, J. & Wang, 1995: 72; Tang, J., Li, et al. 1995: 76; Zhou & Zheng, 1997b: 163 (in key); Tiwari, 1999: 60; Zhou, 2001b: 90; Imai, et al. 2003: 131; Lin & Wu, 2003: 65; Ghosh, et al. 2005: 31; Jaitrong & Nabhitabhata, 2005: 36; Zhou, Zhao & Jia, 2006: 870 (in key); Terayama, 2009: 156; Pfeiffer, et al. 2011: 50; Guénard & Dunn, 2012: 51; Bharti, Guénard, et al. 2016: 34; Jaitrong, Guénard, et al. 2016: 34; Akbar & Bharti, 2017: 36 (in key).
    • Senior synonym of ficta: Lin & Wu, 2003: 66; Terayama, 2009: 156.
    • Senior synonym of megacephala: Dalla Torre, 1893: 73; Emery, 1893e: 206; Emery, 1924d: 212; Donisthorpe, 1932c: 464; Bolton, 1995b: 333; Zhou, 2001b: 90.
    • Senior synonym of megacephalotes: Dalla Torre, 1893: 73; Wheeler, W.M. 1919e: 86; Emery, 1924d: 212; Bolton, 1995b: 333.
    • Senior synonym of militaris: Donisthorpe, 1932c: 458, 463; Bolton, 1995b: 333; Zhou, 2001b: 90.
    • Senior synonym of ocellifera: Dalla Torre, 1893: 73; Emery, 1893e: 206; Emery, 1895k: 466; Bingham, 1903: 162; Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 170; Wheeler, W.M. 1919e: 85; Emery, 1924d: 212; Bolton, 1995b: 333; Tiwari, 1999: 60; Zhou, 2001b: 90.
    • Senior synonym of pabulator: Dalla Torre, 1893: 73; Emery, 1893e: 206; Wheeler, W.M. 1919e: 85; Emery, 1924d: 212; Donisthorpe, 1932c: 464; Bolton, 1995b: 333; Zhou, 2001b: 90.
    • Senior synonym of polita Smith, F.: Donisthorpe, 1932c: 458, 463; Bolton, 1995b: 333; Zhou, 2001b: 90.
    • Current subspecies: nominal plus draco, laotina, macgregori, philippina, standfussi, taprobanae, tenuirugosa, williamsi.
  • ficta. Pheidologeton diversus var. ficta Forel, 1911d: 386 (w.) VIETNAM.
    • Combination in Carebara: Fischer, et al. 2014: 71.
    • Subspecies of diversa: Forel, 1912a: 59; Emery, 1924d: 212; Wheeler, W.M. 1929g: 45; Wheeler, W.M. 1930a: 100; Wheeler, W.M. 1930h: 68; Teranishi, 1940: 57; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 159; Baltazar, 1966: 257; Ettershank, 1966: 118; Bolton, 1995b: 333; Zhou, Zhao & Jia, 2006: 870 (in key); Guénard & Dunn, 2012: 51 (error).
    • Junior synonym of diversa: Lin & Wu, 2003: 66; Terayama, 2009: 156.
  • megacephala. Pheidole megacephala Smith, F. 1860b: 112 (w.) INDONESIA (Bacan I.).
    • Combination in Pheidologeton: Roger, 1863b: 30.
    • Status as species: Smith, F. 1862a: 49; Smith, F. 1863: 22; Roger, 1863b: 30; Mayr, 1863: 441; Smith, F. 1865: 74; Smith, F. 1871a: 332.
    • Junior synonym of diversa: Dalla Torre, 1893: 73; Emery, 1893e: 206; Emery, 1924d: 212; Donisthorpe, 1932c: 464; Bolton, 1995b: 333; Zhou, 2001b: 90.
  • megacephalotes. Pheidole megacephalotes Dalla Torre, 1892: 90.
    • Unnecessary replacement name for megacephala Smith, F. 1860b: 112.
    • Junior synonym of megacephala: Dalla Torre, 1893: 73; Wheeler, W.M. 1919e: 86; Emery, 1924d: 212; Bolton, 1995b: 333.
  • militaris. Pheidole militaris Smith, F. 1860a: 74 (s.w.) INDONESIA (Sulawesi).
    • Status as species: Roger, 1863b: 31; Mayr, 1863: 441; Smith, F. 1871a: 332; Dalla Torre, 1893: 93; Emery, 1922e: 97; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 145 (error).
    • Junior synonym of diversa: Donisthorpe, 1932c: 458; Bolton, 1995b: 333; Zhou, 2001b: 90.
  • ocellifera. Pheidole ocellifera Smith, F. 1858b: 174 (w.) MYANMAR, CHINA (Hong Kong), PHILIPPINES (no island nominated).
    • Combination in Pheidologeton: Mayr, 1862: 750.
    • Status as species: Mayr, 1862: 750; Roger, 1863b: 30; Mayr, 1863: 442; Mayr, 1865: 103; Mayr, 1867a: 101 (redescription); Smith, F. 1871a: 331; Emery, 1887b: 465; Emery, 1889b: 504; André, 1892b: 53; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 160 (error).
    • Junior synonym of diversa: Dalla Torre, 1893: 73; Emery, 1893e: 206; Emery, 1895k: 466; Bingham, 1903: 162; Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 170; Wheeler, W.M. 1919e: 85; Emery, 1924d: 212; Bolton, 1995b: 333; Tiwari, 1999: 60; Zhou, 2001b: 90.
  • pabulator. Pheidole pabulator Smith, F. 1860b: 112 (s.w.) INDONESIA (Bacan I.).
    • Combination in Pheidologeton: Mayr, 1886b: 362.
    • Status as species: Roger, 1863b: 31; Mayr, 1863: 441; Smith, F. 1871a: 332; Mayr, 1886c: 362.
    • Junior synonym of diversa: Dalla Torre, 1893: 73; Emery, 1893e: 206; Wheeler, W.M. 1919e: 85; Emery, 1924d: 212; Donisthorpe, 1932c: 464; Bolton, 1995b: 333; Zhou, 2001b: 90.
  • polita. Myrmica polita Smith, F. 1860b: 108 (w.) INDONESIA (Bacan I.).
    • Status as species: Mayr, 1863: 434; Smith, F. 1871a: 325; Dalla Torre, 1893: 113; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 128.
    • Junior synonym of diversa: Donisthorpe, 1932c: 463; Bolton, 1995b: 333; Zhou, 2001b: 90.

The following notes on F. Smith type specimens have been provided by Barry Bolton (details):

Myrmica polita

Two worker syntypes in Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Labelled “Bac.” (= Batjan I.).

Pheidole militaris

One syntype worker major and one syntype worker minor in Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Labelled “Mak.”

Pheidole pabulator

Two syntypes worker major and two syntype worker minor (on a single card) in Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Labelled “Bac. 2.”

Description

Karyotype

  • 2n = 42, karyotype = 12M+30A (India) (Imai et al., 1984) (as Pheidologeton diversus).

References

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

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