Carebara nosindambo

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Carebara nosindambo
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Carebara
Species: C. nosindambo
Binomial name
Carebara nosindambo
(Forel, 1891)

Carebara nosindambo casent0101633 profile 1.jpg

Carebara nosindambo casent0101633 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

Carebara nosindambo specimens have been collected via Winkler sampling, Berlese funnels, and pitfall traps. Individuals and colonies were found in sifted litter, leaf mold, rotten wood, rotten logs, root matter of Asplenium sp. (using Berlese trap), under stones, in ground nests, sifted litter, dead tree stumps, dead twigs above ground, and leaf litter.

Identification

Azorsa and Fisher (2018) - Antennae ten-segmented. Major: Head nearly subrectangular, longer than wide, lateral margins straight, posterior margin of head concave to deeply concave; dorsum of propodeum flat and declining posteriorly, posterodorsal corner with a pair of triangular teeth; head with longitudinal and parallel rugae, except the frons; gaster with short decumbent or appressed hairs, and long subdecumbent hairs. Minor: Head nearly subquadrate, longer than wide, narrowed anteriorly, lateral margins slightly convex, posterior margin of head nearly straight; dorsum of propodeum weakly convex, posterodorsal corner with a pair of triangular teeth; gaster with short subdecumbent to decumbent hairs and dispersed long suberect or subdecumbent hairs.

C. nosindambo have four intermediates in the major worker subcaste. The head is longer than wide, in full-face view nearly subquadrate, the posterolateral corners are rounded in intermediates 1 and 2, and slightly narrowed posteriorly in intermediates 3 and 4. The posterior margin of the head is concave in intermediates 1 and 2, and deeply concave in intemediates 3 and 4. The eyes are small and reduced to one ommatidium in intermediates 1 and 2, with up to twelve ommatidia in intermediate 4. Ocelli are absent in intermediates 1, 2 and 3, but present and well developed in intermediate 4 (one or two ocelli). Reduced flight sclerites are present in intermediate 4. The dorsum of the mesosoma is convex anteriorly and gradually slopes to the declivity in intermediate 4, while in intermediates 1, 2 and 3, the dorsum of the mesosoma is convex and slopes anteriorly, the propodeum is below the promesonotum, the promesonotum is nearly rounded. The propodeum is armed with a pair of small triangular teeth in all intermediates. The anterior margin of the petiole in intermediate 4 is nearly straight, but concave in the center in the other intermediates. The sculpture of the head is nearly the same in all the intermediates, with parallel and longitudinal rugae, the frontal area is smooth and shiny; the sculpture of the mesosoma is also the same in all intermediates. The pilosity on the head and body follows the same pattern, except for intermediate 4, which has more abundant, short appressed hairs on the gaster.

Carebara nosindambo can be confused with Carebara omasi but can be separated by the sculpture of the posterolateral portion of the cephalic dorsum, which is sculptured in C. nosindambo and lacking sculpture in C. omasi. C. nosindambo is widely distributed in the center and east of Madagascar, with one record in the southwestern part of the island, while C. omasi is present in central and southwestern parts of Madagascar. Thirteen other species were recorded at the same localities: Carebara bara, Carebara betsi, Carebara dota, Carebara grandidieri, Carebara hainteny, Carebara hiragasy, Carebara jajoby, Carebara kabosy, Carebara mahafaly, Carebara omasi, Carebara placida, Carebara raberi, and Carebara sampi.

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Azorsa and Fisher (2018) - A widespread endemic species found in the east, central and southwestern parts of Madagascar. Specimens have been found in: disturbed gallery, montane forest, ericoid thickets on sand, grassland, littoral forest, littoral rainforest, transition to montane forest, montane forest, montane rainforest, marsh edge, montane shrubland, park/garden, and rainforest. C. nosindambo has been found at elevations ranging from 10 m to 1580 m.

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Malagasy Region: Madagascar (type locality).


Distribution based on AntMaps

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Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Castes

Worker

Queen

Male

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • nosindambo. Aeromyrma nosindambo Forel, 1891b: 199, pl. 6, fig. 1 (q.m.) MADAGASCAR. Forel, 1892k: 523 (s.w.). Combination in Oligomyrmex: Santschi, 1919a: 339; Ettershank, 1966: 124; in Carebara: Fernández, 2004a: 235.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

Azorsa and Fisher (2018) - Major. (n = 41): HL 0.57–1.06; HW 0.50–0.86; SL 0.26–0.40; ML 0.12–0.28; EL 0.01–0.10; EM 0.17–0.28; HD 0.33– 0.63; WL 0.49–0.99; PSL 0.05–0.14; PW 0.30–0.57; MFL 0.28–0.57; MFW 0.07– 0.13; MTL 0.20–0.45; PTL 0.18–0.38; PNL 0.07–0.15; PTH 0.14–0.25; PTW 0.11–0.23; PPL 0.11–0.23; PPNL 0.10–0.21; PPH 0.07–0.26; PPW 0.15–0.33; GL 0.40–1.10; GW 0.35–1; CI 78–92; MI 18–29; SI 37–49; MLI 52–70; PPLI 53–79; PPI 126–167; PSI 10–16.

Head slightly longer than wide (CI 78–92), in full-face view nearly subrectangular, about 1.2 times longer than wide. Posterior margin of head medially concave, posterolateral corners well developed, and rounded, lateral margins nearly straight. Mandibles with six teeth. Anterior margin of clypeus weakly concave in the middle, and laterally convex. Antennae with ten or eleven segments (larger major workers). Scapes short (HL 0.57–1.06, SL 0.26–0.40, SI 37–49). Ocelli present or absent. Eyes present, consisting of one to ten ommatidia (EL 0.01–0.10). Supraclypeal area triangular and well defined.

In profile view, posterolateral corner of head with (larger major workers) or without (smaller major workers) a small, obtuse tooth resembling a horn. Promesonotum high and nearly rounded, metanotal groove deeply impressed. Propodeum lower than promesonotum and about 1.8 times higher than long, dorsal face of propodeum flat, sometimes weakly concave, and declining posteriorly, propodeum armed, posterodorsal corners each armed with a laminate triangular tooth, declivity weakly concave, with thin lateral laminae. Propodeal lobes nearly rounded. Propodeal spiracle rounded and situated slightly above mid-height of sclerite by half the diameter of the spiracle, and beyond mid-length of sclerite by the diameter of the spiracle, distance from propodeal spiracle to posterodorsal corner of propodeum about 2.5 times the diameter of the spiracle (PSL 0.05–0.14), and distance to declivity same as the diameter of the spiracle. In dorsal view, promesonotum about as long as wide, anterior margin and sides of rounded; sides of propodeum straight.

Petiole longer than high (PTL 0.18–0.38, PTH 0.14–0.25) and with a relatively long peduncle, ventral face weakly convex in the middle. Combined outile of dorsal surface of peduncle and anterior face of node concave, posterior face of node vertical and weakly convex, anterodorsal and posterodorsal corner rounded, dorsum convex. Subpetiolar process produced as a small denticle, almost as large as the diameter of the propodeal spiracle. Postpetiolar node convex and slightly lower than petiolar node. In dorsal view, petiolar node not as broad as postpetiolar node (PTW 0.11–0.23, PPW 0.15–0.33) and petiolar node wider than long (PNL 0.07–0.15, PTW 0.11–0.23), anterior and posterior margins of petiole and postpetiole straight, sides rounded in petiole and postpetiole.

Dorsal surface of mandibles, clypeus, supraclypeal area and frons smooth and shiny, with scattered piligerous punctae on head and mandibles. Head with longitudinal and parallel rugae in direction of posterior margin of head, and rugoreticulate close to posterior margin of head. Mesosoma smooth and shiny, except for katepisternum (areolate), metapleuron (finely areolate and with longitudinal rugae), and propodeum (areolate). Petiole and ventral face of postpetiole areolate. In dorsal view, promesonotum smooth and shiny medially, as well as postpetiole and gaster; propodeum and petiole areolate. Lateral margins of head with short decumbent or appressed hairs and long suberect hairs. Posterior margin of head with short subdecumbent hairs. Scapes with appressed hairs. Outer margin of mandible with short decumbent or appressed hairs. Mesosoma with short subdecumbent hairs and long erect or suberect hairs. Petiole and postpetiole with short decumbent hairs and long subdecumbent hairs. Tibia with decumbent to appressed hairs. Gaster with short decumbent or appressed hairs and long suberect or subdecumbent hairs. Color yellowish ferruginous.

Minor. (n=17): HL 0.35–0.42; HW 0.32–0.38; SL 0.20–0.27; ML 0.08–0.11; EL 0.01–0.02; EM 0.10–0.13; HD 0.22– 0.27; WL 0.35–0.44; PSL 0.03–0.06; PW 0.19–0.23; MFL 0.20–0.28; MFW 0.05– 0.07; MTL 0.16–0.22, PTL 0.13–0.16; PNL 0.06–0.08; PTH 0.10–0.12; PTW 0.08–0.10; PPL 0.08–0.10; PPNL 0.07–0.09; PPH 0.08–0.09; PPW 0.11–0.14; GL 0.28–0.43; GW 0.22–0.30; CI 86–92; MI 19–28; SI 57–64; MLI 63–78; PPLI 53– 77; PPI 120–150; PSI 9–17.

Head longer than wide (CI 86–92), in full-face view nearly subquadrate, about 1.1 times longer than wide, narrowed anteriorly. Posterior margin of head nearly straight, posterolateral corners rounded, lateral margins convex. Mandibles with five teeth. Anterior margin of clypeus slightly concave, and laterally angulate. Antennae with ten segments. Scape fails to reach the posterior margin of head (HL 0.35–0.42, SL 0.20–0.27, SI 57–64). Eyes present, consisting of one ommatidium (EL 0.01–0.02). Supraclypeal area triangular.

In profile, promesonotum weakly convex, metanotal groove deeply impressed. Propodeum about 1.5 times higher than long, dorsal face of propodeum nearly flat, weakly convex, and declining posteriorly, anterodorsal corner rounded, posterodorsal corners each armed with a triangular laminate tooth, declivity concave with thin lateral laminae. Propodeal lobes nearly rounded. Propodeal spiracle rounded and situated slightly above mid-height of sclerite by about half the diameter of the spiracle, and beyond mid-length of sclerite by about 1.5 times the diameter of the spiracle, distance from propodeal spiracle to posterodorsal corner of propodeum almost 1.5 times the diameter of the spiracle (PSL 0.03–0.06), and distance to declivity about half the diameter of the spiracle. In dorsal view, promesonotum about 1.2 times longer than wide, anterior margin nearly rounded and sides convex, and narrowed posteriorly; sides of propodeum weakly convex.

Petiole longer than high (PTL 0.13–0.16, PTH 0.10–0.12) and with relatively short peduncle, ventral face medially convex. Combined outline of dorsal surface of peduncle and anterior face of node medially concave, posterior face of node vertical and slightly convex, anterodorsal and posterodorsal corner rounded, dorsum convex. Subpetiolar process produced as a small denticle, almost as large as the diameter of the propodeal spiracle. Postpetiolar node nearly rounded and slightly lower than petiolar node. In dorsal view, postpetiolar node wider than petiolar node (PTW 0.08–0.10, PPW 0.11–0.14), and petiolar node wider than long (PNL 0.06–0.08, PTW 0.08– 0.10), anterior and posterior margin of petiole and postpetiole nearly straight, sides rounded in petiole and postpetiole.

Dorsal surface of head, mandibles, and clypeus smooth and shiny with scattered piligerous punctae on head and mandibles. Gena and frontal lobes with short longitudinal rugae. Mesosoma smooth and shiny, except for katepisternum, metapleuron and propodeum which are areolate. Petiole and ventral face of postpetiole areolate. In dorsal view, promesonotum, postpetiole and gaster smooth and shiny, propodeum and petiole areolate.

Lateral margins of head with short decumbent or appressed hairs posterior margin of head with subdecumbent hairs. Scapes with decumbent or appressed hairs. Outer margin of mandibles with decumbent hairs. Mesosoma with short subdecumbent hairs and long suberect hairs. Petiole and postpetiole with short appressed hairs and long subdecumbent hairs. Tibia with decumbent to appressed hairs. Gaster with abundant, short, subdecumbent to decumbent hairs and dispersed, long, suberect to subdecumbent hairs. Color yellowish ferruginous.

Type Material

  • Lectotype (designated by Azorsa & Fisher, 2018: 102), queen, Fianarantsoa, Imérina, Madagascar, P. Camboué, ANTC3175, CASENT0101937, Musee d'Histoire Naturelle Genève.

References

  • Azorsa, F. and B.L. Fisher. 2018. Taxonomy of the ant genus Carebara Westwood (Formicidae, Myrmicinae) in the Malagasy Region. ZooKeys. 767:1–149. (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.767.21105).
  • Ettershank, G. 1966. A generic revision of the world Myrmicinae related to Solenopsis and Pheidologeton (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Aust. J. Zool. 14: 73-171 (page 124, Combination in Oligomyrmex)
  • Fernández, F. 2004a. The American species of the myrmicine ant genus Carebara Westwood (Hymentoptera: Formicidae). Caldasia 26(1): 191-238 (page 235, Combination in Carebara)
  • Fisher, B. L. 1997a. Biogeography and ecology of the ant fauna of Madagascar (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Nat. Hist. 31: 269-302 (see also)
  • Forel, A. 1891c. Les Formicides. [part]. In: Grandidier, A. Histoire physique, naturelle, et politique de Madagascar. Volume XX. Histoire naturelle des Hyménoptères. Deuxième partie (28e fascicule). Paris: Hachette et Cie, v + 237 pp. (page 199, pl. 6, fig. 1 queen, male described)
  • Forel, A. 1892l. Nouvelles espèces de Formicides de Madagascar (récoltées par M. Sikora). Première série. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 36: 516-535 (page 523, soldier, worker described)
  • Santschi, F. 1919a. Cinq notes myrmécologiques. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 52: 325-350 (page 339, Combination in Oligomyrmex)