Carebara pygmaea

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Carebara pygmaea
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Carebara
Species: C. pygmaea
Binomial name
Carebara pygmaea
(Emery, 1887)

Pheidologeton pygmaeus casent0906203 p 1 high.jpg

Pheidologeton pygmaeus casent0906203 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Subspecies
Synonyms

Identification

Distribution

Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 14.68937705° to 3.7225°.

 
North
Temperate
North
Subtropical
Tropical South
Subtropical
South
Temperate

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Indo-Australian Region: Borneo, Indonesia (type locality), Malaysia, Philippines (type locality).
Oriental Region: Laos, Sri Lanka (type locality).

Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Castes

Worker

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • pygmaea. Pheidologeton pygmaeus Emery, 1887b: 465 (s.w.) INDONESIA (Ternate I.).
    • Type-material: syntype major and minor workers (numbers not stated).
    • Type-locality: Indonesia: Ternate I., Aqui Conora (O. Beccari).
    • Type-depository: MSNG.
    • Combination in P. (Aneleus): Emery, 1900c: 327;
    • combination in Aneleus (Aneleus): Emery, 1924d: 214;
    • combination in Pheidologeton: Ettershank, 1966: 119;
    • combination in Carebara: Fischer, et al. 2014: 72.
    • Status as species: Dalla Torre, 1893: 73; Forel, 1911e: 268; Emery, 1924d: 214; Ettershank, 1966: 119; Bolton, 1995b: 333; Jaitrong & Nabhitabhata, 2005: 36; Pfeiffer, et al. 2011: 50; Jaitrong, Guénard, et al. 2016: 34; Dias, R.K.S. et al. 2020: 66; Jaitrong, Pitaktunsakul & Jantarit, 2021: 13 (redescription).
    • Senior synonym of albipes: Fischer, et al. 2014: 72.
    • Senior synonym of bugnioni: Fischer, et al. 2014: 72.
    • Senior synonym of simalurensis: Fischer, et al. 2014: 72.
    • Distribution: Indonesia (Bacan, Sumatra, Ternate), Laos, Malaysia (Peninsula, Sabah, Sarawak), Philippines (Luzon), Sri Lanka, Thailand.
    • Current subspecies: nominal plus densistriatus.
  • albipes. Pheidologeton pygmaeus var. albipes Emery, 1893g: 266 (w.) PHILIPPINES (Luzon I.).
    • Type-material: holotype minor worker.
    • Type-locality: Philippines: Luzon, Antipolo, iii.-iv.1890 (E. Simon).
    • Type-depository: MSNG.
    • Wheeler, W.M. 1927h: 96 (in text) (m.).
    • Combination in Aneleus (Aneleus): Emery, 1924d: 214;
    • combination in Pheidologeton: Ettershank, 1966: 118.
    • Subspecies of pygmaea: Wheeler, W.M. 1909d: 340; Emery, 1924d: 214; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 154; Baltazar, 1966: 257; Ettershank, 1966: 118; Bolton, 1995b: 333.
    • Junior synonym of pygmaea: Fischer, et al. 2014: 72.
  • arnoldi. Pheidologeton perpusillum r. arnoldi Forel, 1914d: 242 (w.) ZIMBABWE.
    • Type-material: syntype minor workers (number not stated).
    • Type-locality: Zimbabwe (“Rhodesia”): Bulawayo, 1.iv.1913 (G. Arnold).
    • Type-depositories: BMNH, MHNG.
    • [Junior secondary homonym of Oligomyrmex arnoldi Forel, 1913a: 123.]
    • Arnold, 1916: 255 (s.); Arnold, 1926: 238 (q.).
    • Combination in Aneleus: Arnold, 1916: 255;
    • combination in Oligomyrmex: Ettershank, 1966: 123.
    • Subspecies of perpusilla: Arnold, 1916: 255; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 880; Emery, 1924d: 214; Arnold, 1926: 238.
    • Replacement name: Oligomyrmex perpusillus subsp. arnoldianus Ettershank, 1966: 123.
  • bugnioni. Pheidologeton (Aneleus) pygmaeus var. bugnioni Forel, 1915a: 28 (in text) (s.) SRI LANKA.
    • Type-material: syntype major worker(s) (number not stated).
    • Type-locality: Sri Lanka (“Ceylon”): (no further data).
    • Type-depository: MHNG.
    • Combination in Aneleus (Aneleus): Emery, 1924d: 214;
    • combination in Pheidologeton: Ettershank, 1966: 118.
    • Subspecies of pygmaea: Emery, 1924d: 214; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 154; Ettershank, 1966: 118; Bolton, 1995b: 333.
    • Junior synonym of pygmaea: Fischer, et al. 2014: 72.
  • simalurensis. Pheidologeton (Aneleus) pygmaeus var. simalurensis Forel, 1915a: 27 (s.w.q.) INDONESIA (Sumatra: Simeulue I.).
    • Type-material: syntype major and minor workers (numbers not stated), 1 syntype queen.
    • Type-locality: Indonesia: Sumatra, Simalur I. (= Simeulue I.), Sinabang (E. Jacobson).
    • Type-depository: MHNG.
    • Wheeler, W.M. 1924b: 246 (m.).
    • Combination in Aneleus (Aneleus): Emery, 1924d: 214;
    • combination in Oligomyrmex: Ettershank, 1966: 124;
    • combination in Carebara: Fernández, 2004a: 235.
    • Subspecies of pygmaea: Wheeler, W.M. 1924b: 246; Emery, 1924d: 214; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 154.
    • Status as species: Ettershank, 1966: 124; Bolton, 1995b: 300.
    • Junior synonym of pygmaea: Fischer, et al. 2014: 72.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Male

Wheeler (1924), as Aneleus pygmoeus var. simalurensis - Length: 4.5-5 mm. Head through the eyes broader than long, short and rounded behind, the cheeks short, the eyes and ocelli large and convex. Mandibles well-developed, 5-toothed, the apical tooth long and curved. Clypeus very convex in the middle, its anterior border entire in middle, sinuate on each side. Frontal groove broad and distinct. Antennal scapes stout and short, barely twice as long as broad, funiculi long, first joint small, nearly twice as broad as long, remaining joints rather long, cylindrical, the second distinctly longer than the third. Mesonotum large, convex, somewhat overarching the small pronotum, smooth and rounded, without Mayrian furrows, about two-thirds longer than broad. Scutellum convex, projecting. Epinotum shaped somewhat like that of the soldier but more sloping and with the teeth much stouter and blunter. Petiole and postpetiole also similar but the node of the former less compressed anteroposteriorly, the latter nearly half again as broad as the petiole. Gaster with well-developed cerci and large exserted genitalia, the outer appendages of which are straight. with rather slender. pointed tips, the median appendages with short acute lateral and long bladeshaped internal rami. Legs slender. Wing venation as in Pheidologeton and Oligomyrmex, with closed submarginal cell and a small discoidal cell.

Shining; head more opaque, densely and indistinctly punctate. Mesonotum coarsely punctate. Epinotum obscurely and finely punctate-rugulose.

Hairs yellowish, abundant but rather short on the head, thorax and gaster; pubescence on the appendages, gaster, gula and pleurae longer and more abundant1han in the soldier.

Black or dark brown; mandibles, antennae and legs pale brown; genitalia sordid whitish brown. Wings distinctly infuscated, with dark brown veins and stigma.

References

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

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  • Chapman, J. W., and Capco, S. R. 1951. Check list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Asia. Monogr. Inst. Sci. Technol. Manila 1: 1-327
  • Dias R. K. S. 2006. Current taxonomic status of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Sri Lanka. The Fauna of Sri Lanka: 43-52. Bambaradeniya, C.N.B. (Editor), 2006. Fauna of Sri Lanka: Status of Taxonomy, Research and Conservation. The World Conservation Union, Colombo, Sri Lanka & Government of Sri Lanka. viii + 308pp.
  • Dias R. K. S., K. R. K. A. Kosgamage, and H. A. W. S. Peiris. 2012. The Taxonomy and Conservation Status of Ants (Order: Hymenoptera, Family: Formicidae) in Sri Lanka. In: The National Red List 2012 of Sri Lanka; Conservation Status of the Fauna and Flora. Weerakoon, D.K. & S. Wijesundara Eds., Ministry of Environment, Colombo, Sri Lanka. p11-19.
  • Eguchi K., and S. Yamane. 2003. Species diversity of ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in a lowland rainforest, northwestern Borneo. New Entomol. 52(1,2): 49-59.
  • Emery C. 1887. Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte terza. Formiche della regione Indo-Malese e dell'Australia (continuazione e fine). [concl.]. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 25(5): 427-473.
  • Emery C. 1900. Formicidarum species novae vel minus cognitae in collectione Musaei Nationalis Hungarici quas in Nova-Guinea, colonia germanica, collegit L. Biró. Publicatio secunda. Természetrajzi Füzetek 23: 310-338.
  • Ettershank G. 1966. A generic revision of the world Myrmicinae related to Solenopsis and Pheidologeton (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Aust. J. Zool. 14: 73-171.
  • Fayle T. M., D. P. Edwards, E. C. Turner, A. J. Dumbrell, P. Eggleton, and W. A. Foster. 2012. Public goods, public services and by-product mutualism in an ant–fern symbiosis. Oikos 121(8): 1279-1286.
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