Carebara rugiceps

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Carebara rugiceps
Temporal range: Messinian, Late Miocene Oeningen, Switzerland
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Carebara
Species: C. rugiceps
Binomial name
Carebara rugiceps
(Heer, 1849)



This taxon was described from Oeningen, Switzerland (Messinian, Late Miocene).



The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • rugiceps. †Myrmica rugiceps Heer, 1849: 160, pl. 13, fig. 2 (q.) GERMANY (Miocene).
    • [Also described as new by Heer, 1850: 160.]
    • Combination in Pheidologeton: Assmann, 1870: 40;
    • combination in *Paraphaenogaster: Dlussky & Putyatina, 2014: 271;
    • combination in Carebara: Fischer, et al. 2014: 72.
    • Status as species: Giebel, 1856: 179; Scudder, 1891: 719; Dalla Torre, 1893: 73; Handlirsch, 1907: 873; Bolton, 1995b: 333.

Taxonomic Notes

Radchenko et al. (2019): C. rugiceps were described based on the imprints and most of the important diagnostic generic features are barely visible, except the wings. However, forewing venation in Carebara gynes and males is very similar and often almost identical to those of some other Myrmicinae genera, e.g. Solenopsis, Lophomyrmex, some Aphaenogaster and Pheidole. As a result, a number of fossil species, including Myrmica rugiceps, were transferred from various genera to the morphogenus Paraphaenogaster (Dlussky and Perfilieva 2014; Dlussky and Putyatina 2014; Radchenko and Perkovsky 2016).