Crematogaster curvispinosa

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Crematogaster curvispinosa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Crematogaster
Species: C. curvispinosa
Binomial name
Crematogaster curvispinosa
Mayr, 1862

Crematogaster curvispinosa casent0173308 profile 1.jpg

Crematogaster curvispinosa casent0173308 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels


This is an inconspicuous species with small colonies of a few dozen workers. Their nests can be common nesting in disturbed areas, with colonies opportunistically inhabiting small cavities in dead and live plants.


Longino (2003) - This species has uniquely shaped propodeal spines, with broad divergent bases and an abrupt transition to small posteriorly directed tips. Other characters include abundant short stiff setae on the face, clathrate or lattice-like sculpture on the pronotum, and appressed tibial pilosity. In Costa Rica the species cannot be confused with any others. Crematogaster curvispinosa appears relatively uniform over a broad range, usually with no closely related species. Only in Peru have I found what appear to be two morphospecies with the same general habitus as curvispinosa but differing in details of sculpture and pilosity. The type worker of curvispinosa is headless, but it is clearly the widespread species I have called curvispinosa. The diagnostic characters are clearly visible: clathrate sculpture on pronotum, raised mesonotum, broad-based curving spines, punctate petiole with ventral tooth, and stiff erect setae throughout.

Keys including this Species


Longino (2003) - Throughout Neotropics, from southern Mexico to northern Argentina, Antilles.

Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 25.68015° to -64.3°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Neotropical Region: Argentina, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil (type locality), Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Galapagos Islands, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Lesser Antilles, Martinique, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.


Longino (2003) - Crematogaster curvispinosa is a very common but inconspicuous ant. It is most common in brushy habitats, road edges, young second growth, and other highly disturbed areas. Colonies are small, and there is no evidence of polydomy. They are most often found nesting in narrow gauge dead stems. Nests may occur in dead grass stalks or vine stems that are only 2mm outside diameter. They also occur opportunistically in single chambers of antplants such as Cecropia, Cordia alliodora, Triplaris, and myrmecophytic melostomes.

Colonies are small, a few dozen workers at most. Ergatogynes are common, and the reproductive structure of colonies is variable. Along with workers and brood, I have collected nests that contained (1) no apparent reproductive, (2) one ergatogyne, (3) one physogastric queen, or, in one case, (4) two ergatogynes and one physogastric queen. I have never seen a nest with multiple queens, or multiple ergatogynes in the absence of a queen. In one case I collected a nest with workers, brood, and one ergatogyne and kept it alive in the laboratory for about one year. The colony was not closely monitored or cared for, but sporadic feeding and observations yielded a surprising result. After about two months I found the ergatogyne wandering alone outside the nest tube, and she soon died. What remained in the tube were some adult workers, several large larvae, some queen pupae, and one callow alate queen. There was no worker brood. Several months later there were some adult males in the nest, but my notes are incomplete regarding other contents. Nearly a year from the time of collection the nest contained 14 queens, some with ragged wing stubs but most fully alate, a few workers, and a brood pile. Thus the colony began with an ergatogyne, workers, and brood, went through a bottleneck with only workers and unmated queens (no males), then later reconstituted a colony capable of producing new queens and workers. There were no other nests of curvispinosa in the laboratory, and the laboratory was in the United States, far from the native range of curvispinosa, so contamination from other colonies or access to males from other colonies was not possible. It appears that C. curvispinosa can produce female offspring from only workers and virgin queens. This is similar to Soulié's (1960) observation of thelytokous parthenogenesis in Crematogaster scutellaris.

Crematogaster curvispinosa can tolerate nesting in close proximity to larger ant species. Twice I have found curvispinosa nesting in the same hollow stem with another ant species, Camponotus in one case and Dolichoderus in another, with the two nests separated by only a narrow sawdust plug. Colonies can occupy single Cecropia internodes that are sandwiched between internodes occupied by Azteca.

Workers appear to forage day and night. Isolated foragers are common on low vegetation, and they are frequent visitors at extrafloral nectaries.

Schmid et al. (2014) found this ant nesting in infructescences (the stem and remains of buds and fruits above the level of the water reservoir in the rosette) of the bromeliad Vriesea friburgensis on Santa Catarina Island, Brazil. De Oliveira et al. (2015), studying ant occupancy of Cecropia trees in southwest Bahia, Brazil, found two colonies of Crematogaster curvispinosa opportunistically nesting in Cecropia pachystachya trees. Gillette et al. (2015) in a Chaipas, Mexico field study of twig-nesting ants in coffee plants found C. curvispinosa nesting on plants between 500-1200 m in elevation.

Association with Other Organisms

Explore-icon.png Explore: Show all Associate data or Search these data. See also a list of all data tables or learn how data is managed.

This species is a host for the encyrtid wasp Aenasius tachigaliae (a parasite) (Universal Chalcidoidea Database) (associate).

Life History Traits

  • Queen number: monogynous (Frumhoff & Ward, 1992)



Images from AntWeb

Crematogaster curvispinosa castype00627 head 1.jpgCrematogaster curvispinosa castype00627 profile 1.jpgCrematogaster curvispinosa castype00627 dorsal 1.jpgCrematogaster curvispinosa castype00627 label 1.jpg
Syntype of Crematogaster sculpturataWorker. Specimen code castype00627. Photographer April Nobile, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by CAS, San Francisco, CA, USA.
Crematogaster curvispinosa casent0173936 head 1.jpgCrematogaster curvispinosa casent0173936 dorsal 1.jpgCrematogaster curvispinosa casent0173936 label 1.jpg
Worker. Specimen code casent0173936. Photographer April Nobile, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by ALWC, Alex L. Wild Collection.


Images from AntWeb

Crematogaster curvispinosa casent0173937 head 1.jpgCrematogaster curvispinosa casent0173937 profile 1.jpgCrematogaster curvispinosa casent0173937 dorsal 1.jpgCrematogaster curvispinosa casent0173937 label 1.jpg
Queen (alate/dealate). Specimen code casent0173937. Photographer April Nobile, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by ALWC, Alex L. Wild Collection.


Images from AntWeb

Crematogaster curvispinosa casent0173938 head 1.jpgCrematogaster curvispinosa casent0173938 profile 1.jpgCrematogaster curvispinosa casent0173938 profile 2.jpgCrematogaster curvispinosa casent0173938 dorsal 1.jpgCrematogaster curvispinosa casent0173938 label 1.jpg
Male (alate). Specimen code casent0173938. Photographer April Nobile, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by ALWC, Alex L. Wild Collection.


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • curvispinosa. Crematogaster curvispinosa Mayr, 1862: 768 (w.) BRAZIL (Rio de Janeiro).
    • Type-material: holotype (?) worker.
    • [Note: no indication of number of specimens is given.]
    • [Note: Longino, 2003a: 55, refers only to holotype worker. However, Morgan & Mackay, 2017: 143, include 5 syntype workers, 2 syntype queens and 1 syntype male (queen and male are not mentioned in the original description).]
    • Type-locality: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro (Novara Expd.).
    • Type-depository: NMHW.
    • Forel, 1911c: 301 (q.); Forel, 1912f: 216 (m.).
    • Combination in C. (Orthocrema): Emery, 1922e: 134.
    • Status as species: Mayr, 1863: 404; Roger, 1863b: 37; Mayr, 1865: 106 (redescription); Mayr, 1870b: 991 (in key); Mayr, 1887: 625; Emery, 1890a: 66; Dalla Torre, 1893: 80; Forel, 1895b: 131; Forel, 1899c: 83; Forel, 1907a: 25; Forel, 1907e: 5; Forel, 1908c: 366; Forel, 1909a: 259; Forel, 1911c: 301; Forel, 1912f: 216; Santschi, 1912e: 527; Luederwaldt, 1918: 41; Emery, 1922e: 134; Borgmeier, 1927c: 93; Menozzi, 1927c: 267; Santschi, 1929f: 88; Gallardo, 1934: 30; Wheeler, W.M. 1942: 195; Kempf, 1970b: 332; Kempf, 1972a: 87; Brandão, 1991: 338; Bolton, 1995b: 151; Longino, 2003a: 55 (redescription); Wild, 2007b: 32; Branstetter & Sáenz, 2012: 258; Bezděčková, et al. 2015: 116; Wetterer, et al. 2016: 11; Morgan & Mackay, 2017: 136 (redescription); Pedraza & Fernández, 2019: 896.
    • Senior synonym of accola: Longino, 2003a: 55; Morgan & Mackay, 2017: 136.
    • Senior synonym of antillana: Longino, 2003a: 55; Morgan & Mackay, 2017: 136.
    • Senior synonym of fuliginea: Santschi, 1929f: 88; Kempf, 1972a: 87; Bolton, 1995b: 151; Longino, 2003a: 55; Morgan & Mackay, 2017: 136.
    • Senior synonym of kemali: Longino, 2003a: 55; Morgan & Mackay, 2017: 136.
    • Senior synonym of obscura Santschi: Longino, 2003a: 55; Morgan & Mackay, 2017: 136.
    • Senior synonym of panamana: Longino, 2003a: 55; Morgan & Mackay, 2017: 136.
    • Senior synonym of phytoeca: Longino, 2003a: 55; Morgan & Mackay, 2017: 136.
    • Senior synonym of sculpturata: Longino, 2003a: 55; Morgan & Mackay, 2017: 136.
    • Distribution: Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Martinique, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St Vincent, U.S.A.
  • accola. Crematogaster (Orthocrema) sculpturata subsp. accola Wheeler, W.M. 1934g: 175 (w.) MEXICO (Veracruz).
    • Type-material: 11 syntype workers.
    • Type-locality: Mexico: Veracruz, Mirador, in Tillandsia streptophylla (nos 595, 662), in Conostegia xalapensis (nos 13, 104), 1929 (E. Skwarra).
    • Type-depository: MCZC.
    • Subspecies of sculpturata: Kempf, 1972a: 89; Bolton, 1995b: 146.
    • Junior synonym of curvispinosa: Longino, 2003a: 55; Morgan & Mackay, 2017: 136.
  • antillana. Crematogaster curvispinosa var. antillana Forel, 1893g: 399 (w.) ST VINCENT & THE GRENADINES (St Vincent I.).
    • Type-material: syntype workers (number not stated).
    • Type-localities: St Vincent & the Grenadines: St Vincent I., Richmond Estate, no. 7b (H.H. Smith), St Vincent I., Morne à Garou, 1500-2000 ft, 1.xi., no 7c (H.H. Smith).
    • Type-depository: MHNG.
    • Forel, 1912f: 216 (q.).
    • Combination in C. (Orthocrema): Emery, 1922e: 134.
    • Subspecies of curvispinosa: Wheeler, W.M. 1905b: 126; Forel, 1912f: 216; Emery, 1922e: 134; Kempf, 1972a: 87; Bolton, 1995b: 147.
    • Junior synonym of curvispinosa: Longino, 2003a: 55; Morgan & Mackay, 2017: 136.
  • fuliginea. Crematogaster (Orthocrema) fuliginea Santschi, 1925d: 231 (w.) BRAZIL (Minas Gerais).
    • Type-material: 2 syntype workers.
    • Type-locality: Brazil: Minas Gerais (E. Luja).
    • Type-depository: NHMB.
    • [Misspelled as fuliginosa by Santschi, 1929f: 88.]
    • Status as species: Borgmeier, 1927c: 94.
    • Junior synonym of curvispinosa: Santschi, 1929f: 88; Kempf, 1972a: 87; Bolton, 1995b: 153; Longino, 2003a: 55; Morgan & Mackay, 2017: 136.
  • kemali. Crematogaster (Orthocrema) curvispinosa var. kemali Santschi, 1923c: 250 (w.q.) BRAZIL (Santa Catarina).
    • Type-material: syntype workers (number not stated), 1 syntype ergatoid queen.
    • Type-locality: Brazil: Santa Cataria, Blumenau (Reichensperger).
    • Type-depository: NHMB.
    • Subspecies of curvispinosa: Borgmeier, 1927c: 93; Kempf, 1972a: 87; Bolton, 1995b: 155.
    • Junior synonym of curvispinosa: Longino, 2003a: 55; Morgan & Mackay, 2017: 136.
  • obscura. Crematogaster (Orthocrema) curvispinosa var. obscura Santschi, 1929d: 293 (w.) ARGENTINA (Jujuy).
    • Type-material: holotype worker.
    • Type-locality: Argentina: Jujuy (Nneiva).
    • Type-depository: NHMB.
    • [Unresolved junior primary homonym of Crematogaster obscurus Smith, F. 1857a: 76 (Bolton, 1995b: 159.]
    • Subspecies of curvispinosa: Gallardo, 1934: 32; Kempf, 1972a: 87; Bolton, 1995b: 159.
    • Junior synonym of curvispinosa: Longino, 2003a: 55; Morgan & Mackay, 2017: 136.
  • panamana. Crematogaster (Orthocrema) curvispinosa var. panamana Wheeler, W.M. 1942: 195 (w.q.) PANAMA.
    • Type-material: syntype workers, syntype queens (number not stated, “numerous specimens”).
    • Type-locality: Panama: Tumba Muerte Road, nr Las Sabanas, in thorns of Acacia penonomensis (W.M. Wheeler).
    • Type-depository: MCZC.
    • Subspecies of curvispinosa: Kempf, 1972a: 87; Bolton, 1995b: 159.
    • Junior synonym of curvispinosa: Longino, 2003a: 55; Morgan & Mackay, 2017: 136.
  • phytoeca. Crematogaster sculpturata subsp. phytoeca Wheeler, W.M. 1934g: 173 (w.q.m.) MEXICO (Veracruz).
    • Type-material: syntype workers, syntype queens, syntype males (numbers not stated, “numerous specimens”), 1 syntype ergatoid queen.
    • Type-locality: Mexico: Veracruz, Mirador, in Tillandsia streptophylla (nos 213, 519, 550, 606), in T. dasyliriifolia (no. 362), in T. balbisiana (nos 620, 651), in Conostegia xalapensis (nos 209a, 209b), in Cecropia schiedeana (no.253), in hollow stems (no. 564), 1929 (E. Skwarra).
    • Type-depositories: LACM, MCZC.
    • [Crematogaster sculpturata subsp. phytoeca Wheeler, W.M. 1934f: 139. Nomen nudum.]
    • Subspecies of sculpturata: Wheeler, W.M. 1935g: 21; Kempf, 1972a: 89; Bolton, 1995b: 160.
    • Junior synonym of curvispinosa: Longino, 2003a: 55; Morgan & Mackay, 2017: 136.
  • sculpturata. Crematogaster sculpturata Pergande, 1896: 876 (w.) MEXICO (Nayarit).
    • Type-material: syntype workers (number not stated).
    • Type-locality: Mexico: Nayarit, Tepic, x.-xi.1894 (Eisen & Vaslit).
    • Type-depositories: MCZC, USNM.
    • Combination in C. (Orthocrema): Emery, 1922e: 136.
    • Status as species: Forel, 1899c: 82; Emery, 1922e: 136; Wheeler, W.M. 1934g: 171 (redescription). Wheeler, W.M. 1942: 197; Kempf, 1972a: 89; Bolton, 1995b: 162.
    • Junior synonym of curvispinosa: Longino, 2003a: 55; Morgan & Mackay, 2017: 136.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



Longino (2003) - HL 0.572, 0.586, 0.632; HW 0.610, 0.580, 0.664; HC 0.565, 0.561, 0.626; SL 0.513, 0.523, 0.576; EL 0.142, 0.152, 0.140; A11L 0.236; A11W 0.105; A10L 0.126; A10W 0.091; A09L 0.050; A09W 0.060; A08L 0.046; A08W 0.056; WL 0.626, 0.602, 0.678; SPL 0.125, 0.154, 0.180; PTH 0.159, 0.150, 0.166; PTL 0.185, 0.194, 0.217; PTW 0.177, 0.161, 0.187; PPL 0.158, 0.154, 0.184; PPW 0.188, 0.164, 0.205; CI 107, 99, 105; OI 25, 26, 22; SI 90, 89, 91; PTHI 86, 77, 76; PTWI 96, 83, 86; PPI 119, 106, 111; SPI 20, 26, 27; ACI 2.66.

Color usually dark red brown to black.

Mandibles smooth and shiny; face largely smooth and shiny, with variable extent of microareolate sculpture around antennal insertions; scapes with 5-10 long, erect, delicate setae and abundant long decumbent setae; antennal club 2-segmented; clypeus with 2-4 longitudinal rugae; face with 20-30 short, stiff, erect setae; ventral surface of head with 0- few erect setae.

In lateral view, dorsal profile of pronotum, mesonotum, and propodeum usually forming continuous curve, mesonotum sometimes somewhat elevated, forming weak promesonotal suture, dorsal and posterior faces of propodeum in same plane, sloping to petiolar insertion; propodeal spines projecting posterodorsally; pronotal dorsum with clathrate sculpture forming a lattice of longitudinal and transverse carinae with smooth and shiny interspaces; mesonotal dorsum with two elevated longitudinal carinae laterally, irregular clathrate rugulae medially; propodeal suture impressed medially but not visible in side view because lateral mesonotal carinae continue onto dorsal face of propodeum; mesonotal carina may have slight tooth at propodeal suture; dorsal face of propodeum with faint aerolate rugulose sculpture, posterior face smooth and shining; in dorsal view propodeal spines highly distinctive, with bases broad, weakly tapering, divergent, then abruptly bent to form short, sharp, posteriorly directed tips; side of pronotum flat, largely smooth and shining, with faint line of punctation dorsally; medial portion of katepisternum with variable extent smooth and shining, perimeter strip and anepisternum punctate to faintly microareolate; side of propodeum with variable extent and strength of punctate sculpture, densest ventrally, becoming smoother dorsally; setae on mesosomal dorsum stiff, relatively short, of variable length, longest approximately 0.16mm long, dorsum of pronotum with anterior row of four setae, anterolateral and posterolateral dorsum of mesonotum (at propodeal suture) each with a seta; propodeal spine with 1-2 setae at angle where spine bends posteriorly; additional short setae variably present on mesosomal dorsum; legs with dilute appressed pubescence and no erect setae.

Petiole in side view trapezoidal; side faintly microareolate/punctate; anteroventral tooth produced, forming a right angle or more often acute; dorsal face subrectangular, somewhat longer than wide or more often almost as wide as long, smooth and shining; posterolateral tubercles each with two stiff setae; postpetiole globular, with no trace of median sulcus or posterior emargination; with small anteroventral tooth; dorsum smooth and shining or faintly microareolate; with 4-6 stiff erect setae; fourth abdominal tergite smooth and shining, with 15-25 stiff erect setae and very dilute short appressed pubescence; although setae of fourth abdominal tergite vary in density, length, and stiffness; one specimen from Santarem is an outlier with about 40 distinctly shorter, stiff erect setae.


Longino (2003) - A normal queen (dorsal face of propodeum drops steeply from postscutellum and much of propodeum appears ventral to scutellum and postscutellum) with general shape, sculpture, and pilosity characters of the worker; size characters as in Figures.

Type Material

Longino (2003) - Holotype worker: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro (Novara) Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna (examined).


References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Adams B. J., S. A. Schnitzer, and S. P. Yanoviak. 2016. Trees as islands: canopy ant species richness increases with the size of liana-free trees in a Neotropical forest. Ecography doi: 10.1111/ecog.02608
  • Adams B. J., S. A. Schnitzer, and S. P. Yanoviak. 2019. Connectivity explains local ant community structure in a Neotropical forest canopy: a large-scale experimental approach. Ecology 100(6): e02673.
  • Armbrecht I., I. Tischer, and P. Chacon. 2001. Nested subsets and partition patterns in ant assemblages (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Colombian dry forest fragments. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 77(3): 196-209.
  • Arruda F. V., M. A. Pesquero, D. G. Marcelino, G. A. Leiter, J. H. C. Delabie, and R. Fagundes. 2015. Size and condition of bamboo as structural factors behind the vertical stratification of the bamboo-nesting ant community. Insectes Sociaux DOI 10.1007/s00040-015-0440-4
  • Brandao, C.R.F. 1991. Adendos ao catalogo abreviado das formigas da regiao neotropical (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 35: 319-412.
  • Christianini A. V., A. J. Mayhé-Nunes, and P. S. Oliveira. 2012. Exploitation of Fallen Diaspores By Ants: Are There Ant-Plant Partner Choices? Biotropica 44: 360-367.
  • Coelho M. S., G. W. Fernandes, J. C. Santos, and J. H. C. Delabie. 2009. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as bioindicators of land restoration in a Brazilian Atlantic forest fragment. Sociobiology 54(1): 51-63.
  • Cuezzo, F. 1998. Formicidae. Chapter 42 in Morrone J.J., and S. Coscaron (dirs) Biodiversidad de artropodos argentinos: una perspectiva biotaxonomica Ediciones Sur, La Plata. Pages 452-462.
  • Dattilo W. et al. 2019. MEXICO ANTS: incidence and abundance along the Nearctic-Neotropical interface. Ecology
  • Dejean, A., S. Durou, I. Olmsted, R.R. Snelling and J. Orivel. 2003. Nest Site Selection by Ants in a Flooded Mexican Mangrove, with Special Reference to the Epiphytic Orchid Myrmecophila christinae. Journal of Tropical Ecology 19(3) :325-331
  • Dejean, A., S. Durou, I. Olmsted, R.R. Snelling and J. Orivel. 2003. Nest Site Selection by Ants in a Flooded Mexican Mangrove, with Special Reference to the Epiphytic Orchid Myrmecophila christinae. Journal of Tropical Ecology 19(3):325-331
  • Del Toro, I., M. Vazquez, W. Mackay, P. Rojas, and R. Zapata-Mata. "Hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de Tabasco: explorando la diversidad de la mirmecofauna en las selvas tropicales de baja altitud." Dugesiana 16, no. 1 (2009): 1-14.
  • Del Toro, I., M. Vázquez, W.P. Mackay, P. Rojas and R. Zapata-Mata. Hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de Tabasco: explorando la diversidad de la mirmecofauna en las selvas tropicales de baja altitud. Dugesiana 16(1):1-14.
  • Drose W., L. R. Podgaiski, C. Fagundes Dias, M. de Souza Mendonca. 2019. Local and regional drivers of ant communities in forest-grassland ecotones in South Brazil: A taxonomic and phylogenetic approach. Plos ONE 14(4): e0215310.
  • Favretto M. A., E. Bortolon dos Santos, and C. J. Geuster. 2013. Entomofauna from West of Santa Catarina State, South of Brazil. EntomoBrasilis 6 (1): 42-63.
  • Fernandes I., and J. de Souza. 2018. Dataset of long-term monitoring of ground-dwelling ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the influence areas of a hydroelectric power plant on the Madeira River in the Amazon Basin. Biodiversity Data Journal 6: e24375.
  • Fernandes T. T., R. R. Silva, D. Rodrigues de Souza-Campana, O. Guilherme Morais da Silva, and M. Santina de Castro Morini. 2019. Winged ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) presence in twigs on the leaf litter of Atlantic Forest. Biota Neotropica 19(3):
  • Fernández, F. and S. Sendoya. 2004. Lista de las hormigas neotropicales. Biota Colombiana Volume 5, Number 1.
  • Forel A. 1907. Formiciden aus dem Naturhistorischen Museum in Hamburg. II. Teil. Neueingänge seit 1900. Mitt. Naturhist. Mus. Hambg. 24: 1-20.
  • Forel A. 1907. Formicides du Musée National Hongrois. Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 5: 1-42.
  • Forel A. 1908. Ameisen aus Sao Paulo (Brasilien), Paraguay etc. gesammelt von Prof. Herm. v. Ihering, Dr. Lutz, Dr. Fiebrig, etc. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 58: 340-418.
  • Forel A. 1909. Ameisen aus Guatemala usw., Paraguay und Argentinien (Hym.). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1909: 239-269.
  • Forel A. 1911. Ameisen des Herrn Prof. v. Ihering aus Brasilien (Sao Paulo usw.) nebst einigen anderen aus Südamerika und Afrika (Hym.). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1911: 285-312.
  • Forel A. 1912. Formicides néotropiques. Part III. 3me sous-famille Myrmicinae (suite). Genres Cremastogaster et Pheidole. Mémoires de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 19: 211-237.
  • Franco W., N. Ladino, J. H. C. Delabie, A. Dejean, J. Orivel, M. Fichaux, S. Groc, M. Leponce, and R. M. Feitosa. 2019. First checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of French Guiana. Zootaxa 4674(5): 509-543.
  • Galkowski C. 2016. New data on the ants from the Guadeloupe (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Bull. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 151, 44(1): 25-36.
  • Gallardo A. 1934. Las hormigas de la República Argentina. Subfamilia Mirmicinas, segunda sección Eumyrmicinae, tribu Crematogastrini (Forel), género Crematogaster Lund. Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 38: 1-84.
  • Gomez V. E. S., and G. Z. González. 2007. Catalogo de Las Hormigas Presentes en El Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad del Cauca. Popayán : 1-58.
  • Herrera H. W. 2013. CDF Checklist of Galapagos Ants - FCD Lista de especies de Hormigas Galápagos. In: Bungartz, F., Herrera, H., Jaramillo, P., Tirado, N., Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G., Ruiz, D., Guézou, A. & Ziemmeck, F. (eds.). Charles Darwin Foundation Galapagos Species Checklist - Lista de Especies de Galápagos de la Fundación Charles Darwin. Charles Darwin Foundation / Fundación Charles Darwin, Puerto Ayora, Galapagos: Last updated: 01 Mar 2013
  • INBio Collection (via Gbif)
  • Kempf W. W. 1970. Levantamento das formigas da mata amazônica, nos arredores de Belém do Pará, Brasil. Studia Entomologica 13: 321-344.
  • Kempf, W.W. 1972. Catalago abreviado das formigas da regiao Neotropical (Hym. Formicidae) Studia Entomologica 15(1-4).
  • Kusnezov N. 1978. Hormigas argentinas: clave para su identificación. Miscelánea. Instituto Miguel Lillo 61:1-147 + 28 pl.
  • Leponce M., J. H. C. Delabie, J. Orivel, J. Jacquemin, M. Calvo Martin, and A. Dejean. 2019. Tree-dwelling ant survey (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in Mitaraka, French Guiana, in Touroult J. (ed.), “Our Planet Reviewed” 2015 large-scale biotic survey in Mitaraka, French Guiana. Zoosystema 41 (10): 163-179.
  • Longino J. T. 2013. Ants of Nicargua. Consulted on 18 Jan 2013.
  • Longino J. T. L., and M. G. Branstetter. 2018. The truncated bell: an enigmatic but pervasive elevational diversity pattern in Middle American ants. Ecography 41: 1-12.
  • Longino J. et al. ADMAC project. Accessed on March 24th 2017 at
  • Longino, J.T. 2003. The Crematogaster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) of Costa Rica. Zootaxa 151:1-150
  • Longino, J.T. 2010. Personal Communication. Longino Collection Database
  • Luederwaldt H. 1918. Notas myrmecologicas. Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 29-64.
  • Lutinski J. A., B. C. Lopes, and A. B. Morais. 2013. Diversidade de formigas urbanas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de dez cidades do sul do Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 13(3): 332-342.
  • Maes, J.-M. and W.P. MacKay. 1993. Catalogo de las hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de Nicaragua. Revista Nicaraguense de Entomologia 23.
  • Menozzi C. 1927. Formiche raccolte dal Sig. H. Schmidt nei dintorni di San José di Costa Rica. Entomologische Mitteilungen. Berlin-Dahlem. 16: 266-277.
  • Morgan, C.E. 2009. Revision of the ant genus Crematogaster (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in North America. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at El Paso, 268 pp.
  • Nascimento Santos M., J. H. C. Delabie, and J. M. Queiroz. 2019. Biodiversity conservation in urban parks: a study of ground-dwelling ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Rio de Janeiro City. Urban Ecosystems
  • Novais, S. M., W. D. DaRocha, N. Calderon-Cortes, and M. Quesada. 2017. Wood-boring beetles promote ant nest cavities: extended effects of a twig-girdler ecosystem engineer. Basic and Applied Ecology 24: 53-59.
  • Pergande, T. 1895. Mexican Formicidae. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences Ser. 2 :850-896
  • Philpott, S.M., P. Bichier, R. Rice, and R. Greenberg. 2007. Field testing ecological and economic benefits of coffee certification programs. Conservation Biology 21: 975-985.
  • Pires de Prado L., R. M. Feitosa, S. Pinzon Triana, J. A. Munoz Gutierrez, G. X. Rousseau, R. Alves Silva, G. M. Siqueira, C. L. Caldas dos Santos, F. Veras Silva, T. Sanches Ranzani da Silva, A. Casadei-Ferreira, R. Rosa da Silva, and J. Andrade-Silva. 2019. An overview of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the state of Maranhao, Brazil. Pap. Avulsos Zool. 59: e20195938.
  • Reis P. C. J., W. D. Darocha, L. Falcao, T. J. Guerra, and F. S. Neves. 2013. Ant Fauna on Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Urticaceae) Trees in an Atlantic Forest Area, Southeastern Brazil. Sociobiology 60(3): 222-228.
  • Ribas C. R., R. R. C. Solar, R. B. F. Campos, F. A. Schmidt, C. L. Valentim, and J. H. Schoereder. 2012. Can ants be used as indicators of environmental impacts caused by arsenic? Insect Conserv 16: 413–421.
  • Rojas Fernandez P. 2010. Capítulo 24. Hormigas (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae). In: Diversidad Biológica de Veracruz. Volumen Invertebrados. CONABIO-Gobierno del Estado de Veracruz.
  • Rosa da Silva R. 1999. Formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) do oeste de Santa Catarina: historico das coletas e lista atualizada das especies do Estado de Santa Catarina. Biotemas 12(2): 75-100.
  • Ryder Wilkie K.T., A. L. Mertl, and J. F. A. Traniello. 2010. Species Diversity and Distribution Patterns of the Ants of Amazonian Ecuador. PLoS ONE 5(10): e13146.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013146
  • Santschi F. 1912. Quelques fourmis de l'Amérique australe. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 20: 519-534.
  • Santschi F. 1923. Solenopsis et autres fourmis néotropicales. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 30: 245-273.
  • Santschi F. 1925. Nouveaux Formicides brésiliens et autres. Bulletin et Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 65: 221-247.
  • Schmid V. S., S. Langner, J. Steiner, and A. Zillikens. 2014. Inflorescences of the Bromeliad Vriesea friburgensis as Nest Sites and Food Resources for Ants and Other Arthropods in Brazil. Psyche
  • Schütte M. S., J. M. Queiroz, A. J. Mayhé-Nunes, M. P. dos S. Pereira. 2007. Structured inventory of ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in atlantic slope rain-forest of Marambaia Island, RJ. Iheringia, Sér. Zool., Porto Alegre 97(1): 103-110.
  • Silvestre R., M. F. Demetrio, and J. H. C. Delabie. 2012. Community Structure of Leaf-Litter Ants in a Neotropical Dry Forest: A Biogeographic Approach to Explain Betadiversity. Psyche doi:10.1155/2012/306925
  • Siqueira de Castro F., A. B. Gontijo, P. de Tarso Amorim Castro, and S. Pontes Ribeiro. 2012. Annual and Seasonal Changes in the Structure of Litter-Dwelling Ant Assemblages (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Atlantic Semideciduous Forests. Psyche doi:10.1155/2012/959715
  • Vasquez-Bolanos M. 2011. Checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Mexico. Dugesiana 18(1): 95-133.
  • Vásquez-Bolaños M. 2011. Lista de especies de hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) para México. Dugesiana 18: 95-133
  • Wheeler W. M. 1905. The ants of the Bahamas, with a list of the known West Indian species. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 21: 79-135.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1942. Studies of Neotropical ant-plants and their ants. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 90: 1-262.
  • Wheeler W.M. 1935. Check list of the ants of Oceania. Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum 11(11):1-56.
  • Wheeler, William Morton. 1934. Ants From The Islands Off The West Coast Of Lower California and Mexico. The Pan-Pacific Entomologist. 10(3):131-144.
  • Wild, A. L.. "A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Zootaxa 1622 (2007): 1-55.
  • Wilson, E.O. 1987. The Arboreal Ant Fauna of Peruvian Amazon Forests: A First Assessment. Biotropica 19(3):245-251.
  • da Silva de Oliveira A. B., and F. A. Schmidt. 2019. Ant assemblages of Brazil nut trees Bertholletia excelsa in forest and pasture habitats in the Southwestern Brazilian Amazon. Biodiversity and Conservation 28(2): 329-344.
  • de Almeida Soares S., Y. R. Suarez, W. D. Fernandes, P. M. Soares Tenorio, J. H. C. Delabie, and W. F. Antonialli-Junior. 2013. Temporal variation in the composition of ant assemblages (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) on trees in the Pantanal floodplain, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Rev. Bras. entomol. 57: 84-90