Crematogaster torosa

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Crematogaster torosa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Crematogaster
Species: C. torosa
Binomial name
Crematogaster torosa
Mayr, 1870

Crematogaster torosa casent0102828 profile 1.jpg

Crematogaster torosa casent0102828 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

Synonyms

An arboreal species that can form large polydomous colonies.

Identification

Longino (2003) - This is a member of the Crematogaster crinosa-complex and may not always be distinguishable from crinosa and Crematogaster rochai. See under crinosa for further discussion.

Specimens of torosa from the northern end of the range, in southeast Texas and in Arizona, are somewhat smaller and less polymorphic than Costa Rican material, but this seems to gradually change as one moves northward in Mexico. Specimens from Baja California are bicolored, with reddish head and mesosoma, and black gaster. However, the abundant material from Arizona and Costa Rica shows continuous variation in the degree of infuscation of the head and mesosoma, and some material may be clearly bicolored like the Baja material. Specimens from Baja nearly always have a long, acute anteroventral petiolar tooth. Specimens from the state of Arizona in the USA and Sonora and Sinaloa states in Mexico (former Crematogaster arizonensis) usually have a short but sharply acute tooth as an average condition, but the tooth form varies from long and spine-like to short and right angled. Specimens from southeastern Texas and Costa Rica show a great deal of variability, but usually have a right-angle tooth and less often a short, sharply acute tooth. They never have a long spine-like tooth. For the time being I interpret all this material as torosa, differing from crinosa and rochai by the somewhat flatter promesonotum and the usually shorter petiolar tooth, and with a gastral setal pattern intermediate between crinosa, which has a uniform covering of flattened setae, and rochai, which has no erect setae.

Keys including this Species

Distribution

USA at least to Colombia, southern limit of species range not defined.

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Nearctic Region: United States.
Neotropical Region: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia (type locality), Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay.


Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Longino (2003) - Crematogaster torosa has a biology very similar to Crematogaster crinosa and Crematogaster rochai. It occurs primarily in open, seasonally dry areas, highly disturbed areas, and pasture edges, although it can also be found in the canopy of mature wet forest. In Costa Rica it is a common species in urban areas such as the various city parks in the capital, San José.

Nests are large, polydomous, distributed in a wide variety of plant cavities. Dead branches and knots in living trees are most often used. In Guanacaste Province in Costa Rica they often occupy ant acacias, and may invade acacias already occupied by Pseudomyrmex. They often construct small carton baffles that restrict nest entrances and small carton pavilions that shelter Homoptera on surrounding vegetation. In some instances they may inhabit cavities in live stems. I found a large nest in the live stems of a Protium branch (Burseraceae) in Corcovado National Park, and I have found nests in live stems of myrmecophytic Acacia and Triplaris. Nest chambers are sometimes filled with alate queens and males. Based on a sample size of two, colony founding is monogynous. In one case I dissected a small colony in south Texas and found a single physogastric queen in the center. In another case I found a lone foundress queen in a dead branch of a Triplaris tree in Costa Rica.

Foraging is primarily diurnal but occasional nocturnal foragers are seen. Workers are generalized scavengers and they frequently visit extrafloral nectaries. Often columns of workers move between nests.

Regional Notes

New Mexico

Mackay and Mackay (2002) - This species nests in the soil, in mistletoe and branches of oak trees, mesquite trees or palo verde trees, or under roots of cottonwood trees. Some of the workers are larger and specialized for producing unfertilized eggs, which are fed to the queen or brood, or develop into males. The specimens from New Mexico were collected under oaks along a trail.

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • torosa. Crematogaster torosa Mayr, 1870a: 404 (w.) COLOMBIA. Combination in C. (Orthocrema): Emery, 1922e: 136; Santschi, 1925d: 229. Senior synonym of arizonensis, tumulifera: Longino, 2003a: 120.
  • tumulifera. Crematogaster brevispinosa var. tumulifera Forel, 1899c: 84 (w.) NICARAGUA. Forel, 1908b: 47 (q.m.); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1952b: 260 (l.). Combination in C. (Orthocrema): Emery, 1922e: 134. Subspecies of brevispinosa: Forel, 1907a: 25; Forel, 1908c: 369; Forel, 1909a: 258; Forel, 1912f: 215. Junior synonym of torosa: Longino, 2003a: 120.
  • arizonensis. Crematogaster arizonensis Wheeler, W.M. 1908e: 482, pl. 27, fig. 40 (w.) U.S.A. Wheeler, W.M. 1912b: 132 (q.m.). Combination in C. (Orthocrema): Emery, 1922e: 134. Junior synonym of torosa: Longino, 2003a: 121.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

Longino (2003) - (Costa Rica) HL 0.682, 0.578, 1.045; HW 0.763, 0.629, 1.179; HC 0.760, 0.598, 1.123; SL 0.488, 0.443, 0.706; EL 0.170, 0.130, 0.259; A11L 0.241; A11W 0.140; A10L 0.118; A10W 0.118; A09L 0.060; A09W 0.085; A08L 0.041; A08W 0.071; WL 0.789, 0.664, 1.269; SPL 0.080, 0.057, 0.142; PTH 0.165, 0.129, 0.280; PTL 0.232, 0.175, 0.380; PTW 0.246, 0.180, 0.373; PPL 0.171, 0.150, 0.265; PPW 0.224, 0.189, 0.371; CI 112, 109, 113; OI 25, 22, 25; SI 72, 77, 68; PTHI 71, 74, 74; PTWI 106, 103, 98; PPI 131, 126, 140; SPI 10, 9, 11; ACI 0.98.

Differing from Crematogaster crinosa in the following respects: mesonotum shorter, promesonotal suture more often impressed, making promesonotal profile flatter; anteroventral petiolar tooth shorter, more often forming nearly right angle rather than long acute tooth; setae on fourth abdominal tergite less abundant, especially medially, such that erect setae more dense anterolaterally.

Queen

Longino (2003) - A normal queen (dorsal face of propodeum drops steeply from postscutellum and much of propodeum appears ventral to scutellum and postscutellum) with general shape, sculpture, and pilosity characters of the worker; size characters as in Figures.

Type Material

Longino (2003) - Syntype workers: Colombia, Santa Fe de Bogotá (Lindig) Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna (examined).

References

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Bernstein R. A. 1980. Morphological Variability of Ants On and Around Devils' Tower. American Midland Naturalist 104(1): 185-188.
  • Blaimer B. B. 2012. Acrobat ants go global – Origin, evolution and systematics of the genus Crematogaster (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65: 421-436.
  • Costa-Milanez C. B., F. F. Ribeiro, P. T. A. Castro, J. D. Majer, S. P. Ribeiro. 2015. Effct of fire on ant assemblages in Brazilian Cerrado in areas containing Vereda wetlands. Sociobiology 62(4): 494-505.
  • Costa-Milanez C. B., G. Lourenco-Silva, P. T. A. Castro, J. D. Majer, and S. P. Ribeiro. 2014. Are ant assemblages of Brazilian veredas characterised by location or habitat type? Braz. J. Biol. 74(1): 89-99.
  • Cover S. P., and R. A. Johnson. 20011. Checklist of Arizona Ants. Downloaded on January 7th at http://www.asu.edu/clas/sirgtools/AZants-2011%20updatev2.pdf
  • Cuezzo, F. 1998. Formicidae. Chapter 42 in Morrone J.J., and S. Coscaron (dirs) Biodiversidad de artropodos argentinos: una perspectiva biotaxonomica Ediciones Sur, La Plata. Pages 452-462.
  • Dattilo W. et al. 2019. MEXICO ANTS: incidence and abundance along the Nearctic-Neotropical interface. Ecology https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2944
  • Del Toro, I., M. Vázquez, W.P. Mackay, P. Rojas and R. Zapata-Mata. Hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de Tabasco: explorando la diversidad de la mirmecofauna en las selvas tropicales de baja altitud. Dugesiana 16(1):1-14.
  • Dominguez D. F., M. Bustamante, R. Albuja, A. Castro, J. E. Lattke, and D. A. Donoso. 2016. Codigos de barras (COI barcodes) para hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de los bosques secos del sur del Ecuador. Ecosistemas 25(2): 76-78.
  • Fernández F., E. E. Palacio, W. P. Mackay, and E. S. MacKay. 1996. Introducción al estudio de las hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de Colombia. Pp. 349-412 in: Andrade M. G., G. Amat García, and F. Fernández. (eds.) 1996. Insectos de Colombia. Estudios escogidos. Bogotá: Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, 541 pp
  • Fernández, F. and S. Sendoya. 2004. Lista de las hormigas neotropicales. Biota Colombiana Volume 5, Number 1.
  • Forel A. 1908. Ameisen aus Sao Paulo (Brasilien), Paraguay etc. gesammelt von Prof. Herm. v. Ihering, Dr. Lutz, Dr. Fiebrig, etc. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 58: 340-418.
  • Forel A. 1912. Formicides néotropiques. Part III. 3me sous-famille Myrmicinae (suite). Genres Cremastogaster et Pheidole. Mémoires de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 19: 211-237.
  • Gallardo A. 1934. Las hormigas de la República Argentina. Subfamilia Mirmicinas, segunda sección Eumyrmicinae, tribu Crematogastrini (Forel), género Crematogaster Lund. Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 38: 1-84.
  • Gove A. D., and J. D. Majer. 2006. Do isolated trees encourage arboreal ant foraging at ground-level? Quantification of ant activity and the influence of season, in Veracruz, Mexico. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 113: 272-276.
  • Gove, A. D., J. D. Majer, and V. Rico-Gray. 2009. Ant assemblages in isolated trees are more sensitive to species loss and replacement than their woodland counterparts. Basic and Applied Ecology 10: 187-195.
  • INBio Collection (via Gbif)
  • Johnson R. Personnal Database. Accessed on February 5th 2014 at http://www.asu.edu/clas/sirgtools/resources.htm
  • Johnson, R.A. and P.S. Ward. 2002. Biogeography and endemism of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Baja California, Mexico: a first overview. Journal of Biogeography 29:1009–1026/
  • Kempf, W.W. 1972. Catalago abreviado das formigas da regiao Neotropical (Hym. Formicidae) Studia Entomologica 15(1-4).
  • Kusnezov N. 1978. Hormigas argentinas: clave para su identificación. Miscelánea. Instituto Miguel Lillo 61:1-147 + 28 pl.
  • Longino J. T. 2013. Ants of Nicargua. Consulted on 18 Jan 2013. https://sites.google.com/site/longinollama/reports/ants-of-nicaragua
  • Longino J. et al. ADMAC project. Accessed on March 24th 2017 at https://sites.google.com/site/admacsite/
  • Longino, J.T. 2003. The Crematogaster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) of Costa Rica. Zootaxa 151:1-150
  • Longino, J.T. 2010. Personal Communication. Longino Collection Database
  • Luederwaldt H. 1918. Notas myrmecologicas. Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 29-64.
  • Mackay W. P., and E. E. Mackay. 2002. The ants of New Mexico (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 400 pp.
  • Maes, J.-M. and W.P. MacKay. 1993. Catalogo de las hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de Nicaragua. Revista Nicaraguense de Entomologia 23.
  • Morgan C., and W. P. Mackay. 2017. The North America acrobat ants of the hyperdiverse genus Crematogaster. Mauritius: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, 540 pp.
  • Morgan, C.E. 2009. Revision of the ant genus Crematogaster (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in North America. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at El Paso, 268 pp.
  • O'Keefe S. T., J. L. Cook, T. Dudek, D. F. Wunneburger, M. D. Guzman, R. N. Coulson, and S. B. Vinson. 2000. The Distribution of Texas Ants. The Southwestern Entomologist 22: 1-92.
  • Oliveira-Santos L. G. R., R. D. Loyola, A. B. Vargas. 2009. Canopy Traps: a Technique for Sampling Arboreal Ants in Forest Vertical Strata. Neotropical Entomology 38(5):691-694.
  • Ottonetti L., L. Tucci, F. Frizzi, G. Chelazzi, and G. Santini. 2010. Changes in ground-foraging ant assemblages along a disturbance gradient in a tropical agricultural landscape. Ethology Ecology & Evolution 22: 73–86.
  • Ribas C. R., R. R. C. Solar, R. B. F. Campos, F. A. Schmidt, C. L. Valentim, and J. H. Schoereder. 2012. Can ants be used as indicators of environmental impacts caused by arsenic? Insect Conserv 16: 413–421.
  • Rivas-Arancibia, S. P., H. Carrillo-Ruiz, A. Bonilla-Arce, D. M. Figueroa-Castro, and A. R. Andres-Hernandez. 2014. Effect of disturbance on the ant community in a semiarid region of central Mexico. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 12: 703-716.
  • Tillberg, C.V. 2004. Cordia gerascanthus (Boraginaceae) Produces Stem Domatia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 20(3):355-357
  • Ulyssea M. A., and C. R. F. Brandao. 2013. Ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from the seasonally dry tropical forest of northeastern Brazil: a compilation from field surveys in Bahia and literature records. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 57(2): 217–224.
  • Ulysséa M. A., C. R. F. Brandão. 2013. Ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from the seasonally dry tropical forest of northeastern Brazil: a compilation from field surveys in Bahia and literature records. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 57(2): 217-224.
  • Vásquez-Bolaños M. 2011. Lista de especies de hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) para México. Dugesiana 18: 95-133
  • Wheeler W. M. 1916. Ants collected in British Guiana by the expedition of the American Museum of Natural History during 1911. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 35: 1-14.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1942. Studies of Neotropical ant-plants and their ants. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 90: 1-262.
  • Wheeler, G.C. and J. Wheeler. 1985. A checklist of Texas ants. Prairie Naturalist 17:49-64.
  • da Silva de Oliveira A. B., and F. A. Schmidt. 2019. Ant assemblages of Brazil nut trees Bertholletia excelsa in forest and pasture habitats in the Southwestern Brazilian Amazon. Biodiversity and Conservation 28(2): 329-344.