Diacamma generali

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Diacamma generali
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Ponerinae
Tribe: Ponerini
Genus: Diacamma
Species: D. generali
Binomial name
Diacamma generali
Laciny, Pal & Zettel, 2015

Laciny 2015-44 hal.jpg

Laciny 2015-44 had.jpg

Diacamma generali is a relatively common species in central Luzon and was frequently sampled by various collectors on Mount Makiling near the campus of the University of the Philippines, Los Baños, Laguna. (Laciny et al. 2015)

At a Glance • Gamergate  



Laciny et al. (2015) - Large species (TL 12.7–15.7 mm). Trunk with moderate or weak, greenish or bluish-green metallic shimmer. Mandibles brown, antennae and legs blackish. Erect setae abundant; fine pilosity well developed. Trunk strongly striate from genae to gaster tergite 1. Head moderately long, sides posteriorly of eye strongly convex. Posterior of head longitudinally striate until narrowly truncated hind margin; occipital margin ventrally terminating in very short, blunt teeth. Eyes rather small. Clypeus entirely and usually very densely punctured, in some specimens with longitudinal rugae; apex forming a distinct, obtuse angle. Mandible with fine striation. Pronotum with transverse-elliptical rugae. Striation on propodeum horizontal. Petiole very stout, its teeth relatively short and distant; subpetiolar process moderately concave between acute anterior and posterior corners, with oblique pilosity. Gaster tergite 1 with coarse semi-circular striation.

Specimens usually have a greenish metallic shimmer that is reduced by a dense, short pilosity, but some specimens – chiefly from the more northern populations – tend to be almost black. A distinct blue or purple shimmer as in Diacamma viridipurpureum was never observed. Diacamma generali can be most easily distingushed from D. viridipurpureum and Diacamma caeruleum by the entirely punctured clypeus that forms an obtuse but distinct anterior angle. An additional character to distinguish it from D. viridipurpureum is its smaller eye size (EI 23–25 vs. 25–28. Diacamma baguiense differs from D. generali by a finer striation of gaster tergite 1; it is smaller (TL 9.8–11.6 mm vs. 12.7–15.7 mm) and never greenish.


Philippines: northern and central Luzon, with records from the following provinces: Abra, Benguet, Zambales, Manila, Cavite, Batangas, Laguna.

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Indo-Australian Region: Philippines (type locality).

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.


Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.





The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • generali. Diacamma generali Laciny, Pal & Zettel, 2015: 125, figs. 52-57 (w.) PHILIPPINES (Luzon I.).
    • Status as species: Zettel, et al. 2016: 166.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



Holotype: TL 14.67; HW 2.41; HL 3.07; EL 0.56; SL 3.36; PH 1.91; PL 1.30; PW 1.39; SpD 0.68; SpL 0.32; WL 4.50; MTL 2.66. Indices: CI 79; SI 139; PI 68; SpDI 50; SpLI 23; EI 23. Paratypes (n = 21): TL 12.72–15.65; HW 2.22–2.45; HL 2.84–3.10; EL 0.54–0.61; SL 3.23–3.52; PH 1.70–1.96; PL 1.13–1.30; PW 1.26–1.43; SpD 0.51–0.68; SpL 0.19–0.36; WL 4.17–4.66; MTL 2.46–2.74. Indices: CI 77–81; SI 139–149; PI 62–71; SpDI 40–52; SpLI 15–27; EI 23–25.

Structures: Head moderately elongate; sides strongly convex behind small eyes. Very coarse rugae present from genae to gaster tergite 1. Posterior of eyes, longitudinal rugae reaching narrow occipital margin. On ventral side of head occipital margin ending in a small, blunt tooth. Clypeus densely punctured, almost matt except on apex; anterior margin medially forming a distinct obtuse angle. Mandibles usually with well-developed fine striation. Pronotum centrally with transverse rugae that are surrounded by slightly transverse-elliptical rugae. Rugae on mesopleura and propodeum sides almost horizontal. Posterior face of propodeum separated from sides by distinct carinae. Petiole stout, with rather short and distant spines; subpetiolar process moderately concave, both teeth acute, not strongly protruding; in lateral view, outline with rather short oblique pilosity; in ventral view narrow, carinae not very distinct. Gaster tergite 1 with thick, concentric, semi-circular or semi-elliptical rugae; along posterior margin finely punctured. Gaster tergite 2 with fine, dense puncturation, weakly shiny.

Pilosity: Standing setae on trunk long and numerous, on mesosoma slightly shorter than on head and gaster. Short appressed pilosity abundant, but reduced on head posteriorly, pronotal disc, and sides of propodeum, densest on hind margin of pronotum, mesonotum, dorsal face of propodeum, and petiole. Standing setae on legs about as long as those on mesosoma, setae on scape distinctly shorter.

Colour: Trunk with moderate or weak, greenish or bluish-green shimmer; gaster at apex and posterior margins of tergites pale brownish. Mandibles medium to dark brown, antennae and legs blackish, without metallic shimmer; tarsi dark brown.

Type Material

Holotype (worker, National Museum of the Philippines, CASENT0915964), Philippines, Luzon, Laguna Prov., Los Baños, Mount Makiling, Mud Springs, ca. 650 m a.s.l., 13.II.1999, leg. S. Schödl (#2). Paratypes (all from Philippines, Luzon Island): 4 workers (Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna, 2 workers in ethanol), same collecting data; 6 workers (Herbert and S.V. Zettel), same locality, 23–24.1.1999, leg. H. Zettel (#167); 3 workers (CZW), same, locality, 1.XII.2000, leg. H. Zettel (#259); 1 worker (NHMW), same area, Mount Makiling, 13.XI.1992, leg. H. Schillhammer (#2); 12 workers (CZW, University of the Philippines Los Baños), same area, Mt. Makling, 13–18.XI.1992, leg. H. Zettel (#1); 2 workers (NHMW), same area, UPLB university campus, 12–14.II.1999, leg. S. Schödl (#1); 7 workers (NHMW, 2 workers in ethanol), same area, Mt. Makiling, F lat Rocks, 14.II.1999, leg. S. Schödl (#4); 1 worker ( NHMW), s ame locality, 10.II.1998, leg. H. Zettel (#132); 2 workers (NHMW), same area, Mt. Makiling Rain Forest Park, 14.II.1999, leg. S. Schödl (#5); 4 workers (CZW, NHMW), same area, Mt. Makiling, 150–500 m a.s.l., 13–14.XI.1993, leg. H. Zettel (#21); 2 workers (CZW, NHMW), same area, Mt. Makiling, 500–1140 m a.s.l., 14.XI.1993, leg. H. Zettel (#21a); 9 workers (CZW, UPLB, NHMW), same area, Mt. Makiling, between UPLB and Mud Springs, 18.XI.1999, leg. H. Zettel (#207); 1 worker (CZW), same area, Mt. Makiling, 400–800 m a.s.l., 27.XI.1999, leg. H. Zettel (#211); 13 workers (CZW, UPLB, NHMW), same area, Mt. Makiling, 300–500 m a.s.l., 8–9.II.1996, leg. H. Zettel (#74); 4 workers (CZW, UPLB, NHMW), same area, Mt. Makiling, 300–600 m a.s.l., 10.II.1996, leg. H. Zettel (#76); 1 worker, same area, Los Baños, leg. Baker (MCSN); 1 worker (NHMW), Laguna Prov., Mt. Banahaw, above Kinabuhayan, 600–700 m a.s.l., trail to Crystallino, 24.XI.1995, leg. J. Kodada & B. Rigová; 8 workers (NHMW), Benguet Prov., S of Baguio, Kennon Road-km 31, Bridal Falls, 16.II.1999, leg. S. Schödl (#8, 9); 1 worker (NHMW), Benguet Prov., W of Baguio, Asin Hot Springs, 17.II.1999, leg. S. Schödl (#12); 3 workers (CZW), Zambales Prov. [erroneously labelled Bataan Prov.], Olongapo City, Subic Bay, near Riding Stable, 2.XII.1993, leg. H. Zettel (#37e); 2 workers (CZW), same area, Subic Botanical Garden, 8.IX.2012, leg. C.V. Pangantihon (#P442), 1 worker (CZW), same area, 1–2.III.2015, leg. C.V. Pangantihon; 1 worker (NHMW), Manila, leg. Sichel, coll. G. Mayr; 1 worker (NHMW), Manila, coll. G. Mayr; 3 workers (CZW), Cavite Prov., Alfonso, Pajo, 7.II.2010, leg. C. V. Pangantihon (#P345); 4 workers (CZW, NHMW), Batangas Prov., Cuenca, Mt. Maculot, 24–25.XI.2012, leg. C. V. Pangantihon (#P461); 1 worker (FMNH), Abra Province, Licuan-Baay, sitio Masissiat, ca. 1070 m a.s.l. [3500 ft], V.1946, leg. M. Celestino, CHNM Philippine Zoological Expedition 1946–1947.

One of the D. generali paratypes in NHMW was used by Mayr (1862) for the description of the genus Diacamma, under the name Diacamma rugosum.