Diacamma vagans

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Diacamma vagans
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Ponerinae
Tribe: Ponerini
Genus: Diacamma
Species: D. vagans
Binomial name
Diacamma vagans
Smith, F., 1860

Diacamma vagans casent0179003 profile 1.jpg

Diacamma vagans casent0179003 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

Nothing is known about the biology of Diacamma vagans.

Identification

Laciny et al. (2015) - Relatively small species (TL ca. 10 mm). Trunk black, without metallic shimmer. Anterior part of head, larger part of gaster, mandibles, antennae, and legs pale to dark brown. Standing setae of moderate number and short; short pilosity dense, on dorsum partly obscuring surface sculpture. Striation relatively fine on dorsum of head and gaster tergite 1, coarse on head below eye, pronotum, propodeum, and petiole. Posterior of head longitudinally striate until narrow hind margin. Eyes large, protruding. Clypeus densely punctured, apex obtuse. Mandible with some large punctures, and obliterate striation. Pronotum transversely-elliptically striate. Propodeal striae almost horizontal, with fine ridges separating posterior from lateral faces. Petiole stout, node anteriorly rounded, its teeth short; subpetiolar process concave, anterior and posterior corner acute.

Diacamma vagans is a species with relatively delicate rugosity on the dorsum of the head, whereas the head of D. rugosum bears coarse rugae.

Distribution

Moluccas: Bacan Island. Other records from the literature probably refer to different species.

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Indo-Australian Region: Indonesia (type locality).


Distribution based on AntMaps

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Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • vagans. Ponera vagans Smith, F. 1860b: 103 (w.) INDONESIA (Batjan I.). Bingham, 1903: 81 (m.); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1952c: 611 (l.); Imai, et al. 1984: 5 (k.). Combination in Diacamma: Mayr, 1862: 718. Subspecies of rugosum: Forel, 1908a: 1; Forel, 1912a: 49; Emery, 1911d: 67; Viehmeyer, 1916a: 113; Wheeler, W.M. 1919e: 54; Santschi, 1920g: 179; Forel, 1922: 90; Wheeler, W.M. 1927b: 42. Junior synonym of rugosum: Wilson, 1958d: 368. Status as species: Roger, 1860: 304; Mayr, 1862: 718; Mayr, 1863: 407; Roger, 1863b: 16; Mayr, 1867a: 87 (redescription); Mayr, 1886c: 361; Emery, 1887b: 440; Emery, 1889b: 497; Emery, 1893e: 190; Dalla Torre, 1893: 29; Emery, 1895k: 458; Bingham, 1903: 81; Mukerjee, 1934: 3; Laciny, Pal & Zettel, 2015: 106 (redescription).

Type Material

Laciny et al. (2015) - 1 worker (syntype, Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna, CASENT0915957), “Ponera vagans Sm Batchian”, “Collect. G. Mayr”, “vagans det. G. Mayr”.

Smith (1860) described Ponera vagans from Bachian (Bacan Island, Moluccas, Indonesia). Two years later Mayr (1862) based the description of the genus Diacamma – among others – on the examined specimen and noted that he had received a specimen from F. Smith. We therefore consider this specimen in Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna as a syntype of D. vagans. Antweb (2015) illustrates the “holotype” of D. vagans (specimen number CASENT0901344) which is deposited in the Museum Oxford. The two specimens show great similarity regarding their morphological characters. Morphometric analysis of the syntype and comparison with the illustrations provided by Antweb (2015) revealed that both specimens are of similar size (ca. 10 mm) and possess the same characteristic large eyes (EI > 30) and short petiolar spines (SpLI ca. 25).

The following notes on F. Smith type specimens have been provided by Barry Bolton (details):

Ponera vagans

Holotype worker in Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Labelled “Bac” (= Batjan I.) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Taxonomic Notes

Laciny et al. (2015) - The name vagans has a long history as synonym or infraspecific taxon of Diacamma rugosum, or as a valid species (see Bolton 1995). It is not our aim at this time to fully clarify all synonymies of D. rugosum and D. vagans, but we can resolve the Moluccan D. vagans from synonymy with the Sunda-Land species D. rugosum. Diacamma vagans is a species with relatively delicate rugosity on the dorsum of the head, whereas the head of D. rugosum bears coarse rugae. There is also a big difference in eye size (EI ca. 27 in syntype specimen of D. rugosum, CASENT0913723, collected on Borneo deposited in MNHN Paris, illustrated by Antweb 2015). We have studied specimens from Borneo that are similar to the type, but slightly differ in sculpture. Therefore we presently do not give a morphological interpretation of D. rugosum s.str.

Description

Worker

Laciny et al. (2015) - syntype (n = 1): TL 10.11; HW 1.78; HL 2.28; EL 0.58; SL 2.48; PH 1.38; PL 0.87; PW 0.93; SpD 0.44; SpL 0.23; WL 3.39; MTL 1.96. Indices: CI 78; SI 139; PI 63; SpDI 47; SpLI 25; EI 32.

Structures: Head elongate; sides strongly convex behind moderately large eyes. Rugae present from genae to gaster tergite 1, but very differently developed. Striation on head relatively fine, posterior of eyes longitudinal, reaching narrow occipital margin, on genae weakly developed, strongest below eyes. On ventral side of head occipital margin ending in a small rectangular tooth. Clypeus entirely punctured; apex of anterior margin narrowly rounded. Mandibles striate. Rugae on pronotum transverse-elliptical and with coarse, but less obvious because of narrow striation and dense pilosity. Rugae on mesosoma sides coarse, on pleural parts shallow and obscured by dense pilosity, dorsally on propodeum only slightly oblique. Carinae separating posterior face of propodeum from sides only ventrally weakly developed. Petiole stout, with coarse striae and rather short spines; subpetiolar process strongly concave and with dense, oblique, rather long pilosity in lateral aspect; both anterior and posterior tooth strongly developed and acute. Striation on gaster tergite 1 concentric, semi-circular, much finer than on mesosoma; a broad stripe along posterior margin of tergite 1 and the following tergites finely, but densely punctured, matt.

Pilosity: Standing setae on entire body including scape and legs short, except for a few long setae on clypeus and venter of head; those on petiole and gaster slightly longer than those on mesosoma. Short appressed pilosity dense, scarcer on sides of pronotum and weakly developed on sides of propodeum.

Colour: Trunk black, without metallic shimmer. Anterior part of head, venter and apex of gaster, posterior margins of gaster tergites 2–4, mandibles, antennae, and legs pale to dark brown.

Karyotype

  • n = 7, 2n = 14, karyotype = 14M (India) (Imai et al., 1984).

References

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Basu P. 1994. Ecology of ground foraging ants in a tropical evergreen forest in Western Ghats, India. PhD Thesis, School of ecology and environmental sciences, Pondichery University, India. 155 pages.
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  • Chhotani O. B., and P. K. Maiti. 1977. Contribution to the knowledge of Formicidae of the Andaman Islands. Zoological Survey of India 3(1): 17-20.
  • Emery C. 1887. Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte terza. Formiche della regione Indo-Malese e dell'Australia (continuazione e fine). [concl.]. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 25(5): 427-473.
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  • Emery C. 1911. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118: 1-125.
  • Emery, C.. "Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte terza. Formiche della regione Indo-Malese e dell'Australia (continuazione e fine)." Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria (Genova) (2) 5, no. 25 (1887): 427-473.
  • Emery, C.. "Voyage de MM. Bedot et Pictet dans l'Archipel Malais. Formicides de l'Archipel Malais." Revue Suisse de Zoologie 1 (1893): 187-229.
  • Forel A. 1885. Indian ants of the Indian Museum, Calcutta. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal Part II Nat. Sci. 54: 176-182.
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  • Laciny A., A. Pal, and H. Zettel. 2015. Taxonomic notes on the ant genus Diacamma Mayr, 1862 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), part 1. Zeitschrift der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Österreichischer Entomologen 67: 83-136.
  • Mukherji D., and S. Ribeiro. 1925. On a collection of ants (Formicidae) from the Andaman Islands. Records of the Indian Museum 27: 205-209.
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  • Tiwari, R.N. 1999. Taxonomic studies on ants of southern India (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 18(4):1-96
  • Viehmeyer H. 1912. Ameisen aus Deutsch Neuguinea gesammelt von Dr. O. Schlaginhaufen. Nebst einem Verzeichnisse der papuanischen Arten. Abhandlungen und Berichte des Königlichen Zoologischen und Anthropologische-Ethnographischen Museums zu Dresden 14: 1-26.