Discothyrea

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Discothyrea
Temporal range: 20.43–0 Ma Early Miocene – Recent
Discothyrea testacea
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Proceratiinae
Tribe: Proceratiini
Genus: Discothyrea
Roger, 1863
Type species
Discothyrea testacea
Diversity
49 species
2 fossil species
(Species Checklist, Species by Country)

Discothyrea testacea casent0103847 profile 1.jpg

Discothyrea testacea

Discothyrea testacea casent0103847 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Synonyms

Discothyrea are all small, relatively cryptic ants with small colonies (10-20 workers) which are generally found in rotten wood, leaf litter, or under stones (Brown, 1958a; Bolton, 1973a). Brown (1958a) first mentioned the possibility that they could be specialised predators of arthropod eggs since the closely related genus Proceratium shows such a trophic specialisation, and was able to find evidence for his theory on the basis of observations of an Australian Discothyrea species (Brown, 1958b). Most studied species prefer spider eggs, although one species was found in the nests of other ants (Brown, 1980). Queens of one African species found their nests within spider egg sacs, which provide both food and lodging for the first generation of workers (Dejean and Dejean 1998).

At a Glance • Ergatoid queen  

 

Photo Gallery

  • Single worker of Discothyrea sauteri collected from Yeosu, Korea. Photo by Minsoo Dong.
  • A Discothyrea queen from Ecuador. Photo by Phil Hoenle.

Identification

Bharti et al. (2015) - This distinctive genus can be easily recognized with large terminal antennal segment, reduced frontal lobes, short antennal scapes, and strongly arched 2nd gastral segment. However, the genus may be confused with the closely related Proceratium from which it is differentiated by the single tooth at the tip of the mandibles, the overhanging anterior margin of the clypeus, and the configuration of the antennae [Sarnat, Economo, 2012].

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Keys including this Genus

 

Keys to Species in this Genus

Distribution

Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps

Fossils

Fossils are known from: Dominican amber, Dominican Republic (Burdigalian, Early Miocene), Mexican amber, Chiapas, Mexico (Middle Miocene).

Biology

Life History Traits

  • Mean colony size: 73 (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Compound colony type: not parasitic (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Nest site: hypogaeic (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Diet class: predator (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Foraging stratum: subterranean/leaf litter (Greer et al., 2021)

Castes

Brown (1958: p.251) described ergatoid queens in some species.

Morphology

Worker Morphology

 • Eyes: 11-100 ommatidia • Pronotal Spines: absent • Mesonotal Spines: absent • Propodeal Spines: absent • Petiolar Spines: absent • Caste: none or weak • Sting: present • Metaplural Gland: present • Cocoon: present

Karyotype

Species Uncertain

  • n = 15, 2n = 30 (Indonesia) (Imai et al., 1985; Mariano et al., 2015) (near D. bryanti).

All Karyotype Records for Genus

Explore Data: All, Drilldown
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Taxon Haploid Diploid Karyotype Locality Source Notes
Discothyrea 15 30 Indonesia Imai et al., 1985; Mariano et al., 2015 near ''D. bryanti''

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • DISCOTHYREA [Proceratiinae: Proceratiini]
    • Discothyrea Roger, 1863a: 176. Type-species: Discothyrea testacea, by monotypy.
    • Discothyrea senior synonym of Prodiscothyrea, Pseudosysphincta: Brown, 1958g: 248.
  • PRODISCOTHYREA [junior synonym of Discothyrea]
    • Prodiscothyrea Wheeler, W.M. 1916i: 33. Type-species: Prodiscothyrea velutina, by monotypy.
    • Prodiscothyrea junior synonym of Discothyrea: Brown, 1958g: 248.
  • PSEUDOSYSPHINCTA [junior synonym of Discothyrea]
    • Pseudosysphincta Arnold, 1916: 161. Type-species: Pseudosysphincta poweri, by original designation.
    • Pseudosysphincta junior synonym of Discothyrea: Brown, 1958g: 248.
  • [Pseudosphincta Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 645, incorrect subsequent spelling.]

References