Discothyrea kalypso

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Discothyrea kalypso
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Proceratiinae
Tribe: Proceratiini
Genus: Discothyrea
Species group: traegaordhi
Species: D. kalypso
Binomial name
Discothyrea kalypso
Hita-Garcia & Lieberman, 2019

D kalypso hal.jpg

D kalypso had.jpg

At present known only from the type locality, the Mlola Forest on Mafia Island, Tanzania. It was collected from leaf litter in a primary coastal forest habitat at an elevation of 20 m.


The following character combination distinguishes D. kalypso from the remainder of the complex:

  • eyes absent
  • frontal lamella disciform in profile, without conspicuous, round basal fenestra
  • mesosoma low, gracile (LMI 42; DMI2 81), not dorsally convex in profile
  • propodeum denticulate, denticles short and somewhat blunt
  • mesotibia without distinct ventral spur
  • abdominal sternite 3 rectangular in profile, ventral margin straight
  • erect pilosity absent from mesosoma and abdominal terga

Keys including this Species


Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: -7.89576° to -7.89576°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Afrotropical Region: United Republic of Tanzania.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb



Economo-header (arilab.unit.oist.jp).png  X-ray micro-CT scan 3D model of Discothyrea kalypso (worker) prepared by the Economo lab at OIST.

See on Sketchfab. See list of 3D images.


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • kalypso. Discothyrea kalypso Hita Garcia & Lieberman, in Hita Garcia, Lieberman, et al. 2019: 51, figs. 2B, 4K, 6K-12K, 14K, 39, 40 (w.) TANZANIA.
    • Type-material: holotype worker.
    • Type-locality: Tanzania: Pwani, Mafia, Mafia I., Mlola Forest, -7.89576, 39.82842, 20 m., 9-13.iii.2008, primary forest, leaf litter (P. Hawkes, Y. Mlacha, F. Ninga).
    • Type-depository: SAMC.
    • Distribution: Tanzania.


Head somewhat elongate (CI 78), posterior head margin straight to weakly concave; posterodorsal corners of head rounded; in frontal view, sides of head gently convex; anterolateral corners of gena relatively well-defined; eyes absent; frontal lamella low and disciform in profile, without distinct apex, with conspicuous, elliptical basal fenestra; medial clypeus very narrow, anteromedially projecting, slightly emarginate apically, lateral clypeus broadly curving between antennal sockets and anterolateral corners of head, bearing very short curved setae. Antenna with relatively shorter scape (SI 54), scape moderately incrassate, gently bent; pedicel campaniform, slightly longer than broad; true antennomere count nine; apparent antennomere count nine; flagellomeres basad apical club highly compressed, taken together only about as long as apical club. Ventral head with narrow, horizontal postoccipital ridge with very short, roughly triangular anteromedian prolongation; median region of hypostoma rounded, arms narrowed, somewhat spatulate apicolaterally; palpal formula not examined. Mandible edentate except for well-defined, triangular prebasal denticle; basal angle squared; ectal face of mandible with carina running from baswal angle to apex, confluent with margin distal to prebasal denticle.

Mesosoma gracile, sloping posteroventrally, pronotum slightly higher than propodeum; in dorsal view mesosoma conspicuously slender and elongate (DMI 54; DMI2 81), pronotum not significantly wider than propodeum; pronotal humeri slightly rounded; posterior propodeal margin concave; posterodorsal corners of propodeum denticulate, denticles distinct but very short, laterally flattened, slightly diverging posterolaterally; declivitous face of propodeum distinctly concave in profile and oblique posterior view; propodeal spiracle small and very inconspicuous, directed posterodorsally; propodeal lobes well-developed, lobate.

Legs short (HFI 53) and rather slender; mesotibia without distinct ventral spur.

Petiolar node strongly attenuated dorsally, about 3.0 times higher than long (LPeI 300); in profile anterior face of node sloping posterodorsally, apex peaked, posterior face sloping posteroventrally; in dorsal view, petiole rectangular, about 3.2 times wider than long (DPeI 320), sides slightly convex; in anterior view, petiolar outline pentagonal, edges well-defined, angles somewhat rounded; in oblique anterior view, anterior face flat; subpetiolar process broad, lobate, apex rounded.

Abdominal segment 3 with tergite elongate-campaniform, anteriorly prolonged slightly over petiole, widest posteriorly; sternite subquadrate, in profile anterior and ventral faces flat, posterior face sloping slightly posterodorsally; prora well-defined, laterally with two triangular projections, medially straight; AS3 with large median ridge extending anteriorly to prora; AT3 weakly longer than AT4 (ASI 86); AT4 slightly prolate hemidemispherical; AS4 with anterior overlapping about median one-third of AS3, anterior margin straight in ventral view; successive abdominal segments short, telescopic, often concealed.

Sculpture on head, mesosoma, and abdominal segment 3 foveolate-reticulate, foveolae becoming smaller on front of head and more dilute on lateral mesosoma; mandible with fine piligerous punctulae with fairly shiny interspaces; AT4 coriarious-punctulate, somewhat shinier than AT3.

Setation on head very dilute, short appressed pubescence, appearing glabrous at lower magnification; scape with velvety appressed pubescence; mesosoma and AT3 with short, dilute appressed pubescence almost entirely restricted to dorsal surfaces; AT4 with slightly longer but still inconspicuous appressed pubescence; successive abdominal segments with relatively short, mostly decumbent or subdecumbent setae, a few longer and more erect setae present on posterior segmental margins; legs with velvety appressed pubescence, similar to that on scape; ectal face of mandible with relatively long but fine appressed to decumbent setae; masticatory margin with row of straight, stout setae.

Color uniformly dull but clear yellowish.


References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Hita-Garcia F., Z. Lieberman, T. L. Audisio, C. Liu, and E. P. Economo. 2019. Revision of the highly specialized ant genus Discothyrea (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Afrotropics with X-ray microtomography and 3D cybertaxonomy. Insect Systematics and Diversity 3(6): 5:1-84.