Dolichoderus bidens

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Dolichoderus bidens
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Dolichoderinae
Tribe: Dolichoderini
Genus: Dolichoderus
Species: D. bidens
Binomial name
Dolichoderus bidens
(Linnaeus, 1758)

Dolichoderus bidens casent0217392 p 1 high.jpg

Dolichoderus bidens casent0217392 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Synonyms

A arboreal ant that dominates the ant community in trees where it is present.


Photo Gallery

  • Foraging Dolichoderus bidens worker. Photo by Taku Shimada.
  • Dolichoderus bidens workers and brood at their leaf nest (with the covering removed). Photo by Taku Shimada.
  • Dolichoderus bidens attacks an injured and weakened Eciton hamatum worker. Photo by Taku Shimada.
  • Dolichoderus bidens leaf nest on Parinari leontopitheci, Bahia, Brazil. Photo by Alex Popovkin.
  • Dolichoderus bidens leaf nest on Parinari leontopitheci, Bahia, Brazil. Photo by Alex Popovkin.

Identification

Distribution

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Neotropical Region: Brazil, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago.


Distribution based on AntMaps

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Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Corbora et al. (2018; see the original paper for noted citations) - The arboreal ant D. bidens is abundant in pioneer formations, secondary forests and plantations [20]. The colonies, of up to a few thousand workers, are polydomous (i.e. multiple nests) with each carton nest built under a host tree leaf. The external part of the nests cover part or all of the adaxial surface of a single leaf or envelop two to a few contiguous leaves [11]. This is an aggressive, territorially dominant arboreal species active 24/7 that hunts insect prey in tree crowns [21]; consequently workers defend the access to their host tree by leaf-cutter ants and army ants at its base (AD, pers. obs.; see [13,14] for Az. chartifex).

In French Guiana, the arboreal nests of the swarm-founding social wasp Protopolybia emortualis (Polistinae) are generally found near those of the arboreal dolichoderine ant Dolichoderus bidens. These wasp nests are typically protected by an envelope, which in turn is covered by an additional carton ‘shelter’ with structure resembling the D. bidens nests. A few wasps constantly guard their nest to keep D. bidens workers from approaching. When alarmed by a strong disturbance, the ants invade the host tree foliage whereas the wasps retreat into their nest. Notably, there is no chemical convergence in the cuticular profiles of the wasps and ants sharing a tree. The aggressiveness of D. bidens likely protects the wasps from army ant raids, but the ants do not benefit from the presence of the wasps; therefore, this relationship corresponds to a kind of commensalism.

Association with Other Organisms

  • This species is a host for the phorid fly Rhyncophoromyia sp (a parasite) (Brown et al., 2015) (injured).

Castes

Worker

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • bidens. Formica bidens Linnaeus, 1758: 581 (w.) "America meridionali". Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1951: 173 (l.); Mackay, 1993b: 40 (q.m.). Combination in Hypoclinea: Mayr, 1862: 707; Kempf, 1972a: 119; in Dolichoderus (Hypoclinea): Emery, 1894c: 228; in Dolichoderus: Dalla Torre, 1893: 157; Shattuck, 1992c: 77. Senior synonym of perditor: Roger, 1862b: 285; of auromaculatus: Emery, 1894c: 234; of attenuatus, bahiana: Mackay, 1993b: 40.
  • perditor. Formica perditor Fabricius, 1804: 402 (w.) SOUTH AMERICA. Junior synonym of bidens: Roger, 1862c: 285.
  • auromaculatus. Dolichoderus auromaculatus Forel, 1885a: 350 (q.) BRAZIL. Junior synonym of bidens: Emery, 1894c: 234.
  • attenuatus. Dolichoderus bidens r. attenuatus Forel, 1903c: 258 (w.q.) BRAZIL. Combination in Hypoclinea: Kempf, 1972a: 119; in Dolichoderus: Shattuck, 1992c: 77. Junior synonym of bidens: Mackay, 1993b: 40.
  • bahiana. Dolichoderus (Hypoclinea) bidens var. bahiana Santschi, 1921g: 101 (w.) BRAZIL. Combination in Hypoclinea: Kempf, 1972a: 119; in Dolichoderus: Shattuck, 1992c: 77. Junior synonym of bidens: Mackay, 1993b: 40.

Description

Karyotype

  • 2n = 18, karyotype = 6M+12SM (Brazil) (Santos et al., 2016).

References

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Davidson, D.W. 2005. Ecological stoichiometry of ants in a New World rain forest. Oecologia 142:221-231
  • Dejean A., A. Compin, J. H. C. Delabie, F. Azemar, B. Corbara, and M. Leponce. 2019. Biotic and abiotic determinants of the formation of ant mosaics in primary Neotropical rainforests. Ecological Entomology https://doi-org.eproxy.lib.hku.hk/10.1111/een.12735
  • Dejean A., B. Corbara, J. Orivel, R. R. Snelling, J. H. C. Delabie, and M. Belin-Depoux. 2000. The importance of ant gardens in the pioneer vegetal formations of French Guiana (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 35(3): 425-439.
  • Emery C. 1894. Studi sulle formiche della fauna neotropica. VI-XVI. Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 26: 137-241.
  • Escalante Gutiérrez J. A. 1993. Especies de hormigas conocidas del Perú (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Revista Peruana de Entomología 34:1-13.
  • Fernandes I., and J. de Souza. 2018. Dataset of long-term monitoring of ground-dwelling ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the influence areas of a hydroelectric power plant on the Madeira River in the Amazon Basin. Biodiversity Data Journal 6: e24375.
  • Fernández F., E. E. Palacio, W. P. Mackay, and E. S. MacKay. 1996. Introducción al estudio de las hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de Colombia. Pp. 349-412 in: Andrade M. G., G. Amat García, and F. Fernández. (eds.) 1996. Insectos de Colombia. Estudios escogidos. Bogotá: Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, 541 pp
  • Fernández, F. and S. Sendoya. 2004. Lista de las hormigas neotropicales. Biota Colombiana Volume 5, Number 1.
  • Field Museum Collection, Chicago, Illinois (C. Moreau)
  • Forel A. 1912. Formicides néotropiques. Part V. 4me sous-famille Dolichoderinae Forel. Mémoires de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 20: 33-58.
  • Franco W., N. Ladino, J. H. C. Delabie, A. Dejean, J. Orivel, M. Fichaux, S. Groc, M. Leponce, and R. M. Feitosa. 2019. First checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of French Guiana. Zootaxa 4674(5): 509-543.
  • Groc S., J. H. C. Delabie, F. Fernandez, F. Petitclerc, B. Corbara, M. Leponce, R. Cereghino, and A. Dejean. 2017. Litter-dwelling ants as bioindicators to gauge the sustainability of small arboreal monocultures embedded in the Amazonian rainforest. Ecological Indicators 82: 43-49.
  • Groc S., J. H. C. Delabie, F. Fernandez, M. Leponce, J. Orivel, R. Silvestre, Heraldo L. Vasconcelos, and A. Dejean. 2013. Leaf-litter ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a pristine Guianese rainforest: stable functional structure versus high species turnover. Myrmecological News 19: 43-51.
  • Jaffe, K., et al. 2007. Comparing the ant fauna in a tropical and a temperat forest canopy. Ecotropicos 20(2):74-81
  • Kempf W. W. 1961. A survey of the ants of the soil fauna in Surinam (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Studia Entomologica 4: 481-524.
  • Kempf, W.W. 1972. Catalago abreviado das formigas da regiao Neotropical (Hym. Formicidae) Studia Entomologica 15(1-4).
  • Mackay, W.P. 1993. A review of the New World ants of the genus Dolichoderus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 22(1):1-148
  • Menozzi C. 1935. Spedizione del Prof. Nello Beccari nella Guiana Britannica. Hymenoptera-Formicidae. Redia. 21: 189-203.
  • Ortiz C. M., and F. Fernandez. 2011. Hormigas del genero Dolichoderus Lund (Formicidae: Dolichoderinae) en Colombia. Bogota: Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Facultad de Ciencias. Instituto de Ciencias Naturalies, 118 pages.
  • Pires de Prado L., R. M. Feitosa, S. Pinzon Triana, J. A. Munoz Gutierrez, G. X. Rousseau, R. Alves Silva, G. M. Siqueira, C. L. Caldas dos Santos, F. Veras Silva, T. Sanches Ranzani da Silva, A. Casadei-Ferreira, R. Rosa da Silva, and J. Andrade-Silva. 2019. An overview of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the state of Maranhao, Brazil. Pap. Avulsos Zool. 59: e20195938.
  • Radoszkowsky O. 1884. Fourmis de Cayenne Française. Trudy Russkago Entomologicheskago Obshchestva 18: 30-39.
  • Shattuck S. O. 1994. Taxonomic catalog of the ant subfamilies Aneuretinae and Dolichoderinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). University of California Publications in Entomology 112: i-xix, 1-241.
  • Vasconcelos, H.L., J.M.S. Vilhena, W.E. Magnusson and A.L.K.M. Albernaz. 2006. Long-term effects of forest fragmentation on Amazonian ant communities. Journal of Biogeography 33:1348-1356
  • Wheeler W. M. 1905. The ants of the Bahamas, with a list of the known West Indian species. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 21: 79-135.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1916. Ants collected in British Guiana by the expedition of the American Museum of Natural History during 1911. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 35: 1-14.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1922. The ants of Trinidad. American Museum Novitates 45: 1-16.
  • Wheeler, William Morton. 1916. Ants Collected in Trinidad by Professor Roland Thaxter, Mr. F. W. Urich, and Others. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparitive Zoology at Harvard University. 40(8):322-330
  • Wilson, E.O. 1987. The Arboreal Ant Fauna of Peruvian Amazon Forests: A First Assessment. Biotropica 19(3):245-251.
  • da Silva de Oliveira A. B., and F. A. Schmidt. 2019. Ant assemblages of Brazil nut trees Bertholletia excelsa in forest and pasture habitats in the Southwestern Brazilian Amazon. Biodiversity and Conservation 28(2): 329-344.
  • do Nascimento, I.C. 2006. Fenologia dos Voos de Acasalamento em Formigas Tropicais