Ectomomyrmex javanus

Every Ant Tells a Story - And Scientists Explain Their Stories Here
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Ectomomyrmex javanus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Ponerinae
Tribe: Ponerini
Genus: Ectomomyrmex
Species: E. javanus
Binomial name
Ectomomyrmex javanus
Mayr, 1867

Pachycondyla javana casent0217561 p 1 high.jpg

Pachycondyla javana casent0217561 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Synonyms

Identification

Distribution

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Indo-Australian Region: Indonesia (type locality), Philippines.
Oriental Region: Cambodia, India, Taiwan, Vietnam (type locality).
Palaearctic Region: China, Japan, Republic of Korea.

Japan (Kyushu (southern part), Tsushima I., Nansei Is).


Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

This species nests under stones at forest margins. Workers may be found foraging individually on the ground; they do not form trails, and are able to sting painfully.

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • javana. Ectomomyrmex javanus Mayr, 1867a: 84, pl. 2, fig. 9 (w.q.) INDONESIA (Java). Ogata, 1987: 113 (m.). Combination in Pachycondyla (Ectomomyrmex): Emery, 1900d: 667; in Ectomomyrmex: Bingham, 1903: 86; Wheeler, W.M. 1921c: 530; in Pachycondyla: Brown, in Bolton, 1995b: 306; in Ectomomyrmex: Schmidt & Shattuck, 2014: 193. Senior synonym of cambodjana, denticeps, horni, japonica, maternus, sundaicus, tonkina: Yasumatsu, 1962: 94. See also: Bingham, 1903: 87.
  • sundaicus. Ectomomyrmex sundaicus Mayr, 1867a: 85 (q.) INDONESIA (Java). Junior synonym of astuta: Bingham, 1903: 86; of javana: Yasumatsu, 1962: 94.
  • maternus. Ectomomyrmex javanus r. maternus Forel, 1900d: 321 (diagnosis in key) (w.) INDIA. Forel, 1922: 90 (q.). Combination in Pachycondyla (Ectomomyrmex): Emery, 1901a: 46. Raised to species: Bingham, 1903: 87. Subspecies of javana: Emery, 1911d: 79; Wheeler, W.M. 1913e: 233; Forel, 1922: 90. Junior synonym of javana: Yasumatsu, 1962: 94.
  • japonica. Pachycondyla (Ectomomyrmex) japonica Emery, 1902c: 31 (w.) JAPAN. Teranishi, 1940: 6 (m.). Combination in Ectomomyrmex: Santschi, 1925f: 82. Junior synonym of javana: Yasumatsu, 1962: 94.
  • cambodjana. Pachycondyla (Ectomomyrmex) astuta subsp. cambodjana Forel, 1911e: 253 (w.) CAMBODIA. Junior synonym of javana: Yasumatsu, 1962: 94.
  • denticeps. Ectomomyrmex denticeps Wheeler, W.M. 1929g: 32, fig. 2 (w.) TAIWAN. Junior synonym of javana: Yasumatsu, 1962: 94.
  • tonkina. Pachycondyla (Ectomomyrmex) tonkina Santschi, 1920h: 159 (w.) VIETNAM.
    • [Also described as new by Santschi, 1924c: 96.]
    • Combination in Ectomomyrmex: Wheeler, W.M. 1927d: 1.
    • Combination in Pachycondyla: Brown, in Bolton, 1995b: 310.
    • Combination in Ectomomyrmex: Schmidt, C.A. & Shattuck, 2014: 194.
    • Status as species: Santschi, 1924c: 96; Wheeler, W.M. 1927d: 1; Wheeler, W.M. 1929f: 1; Wheeler, W.M. 1930h: 59; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 63; Bolton, 1995b: 310 (error) ; Zhou & Ran, 2010: 109 (error); Guénard & Dunn, 2012: 61 (error).
    • Junior synonym of javanus: Yasumatsu, 1962: 94; Bolton, 1995b: 306.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

Wheeler (1929) for Ectomomyrmex denticeps - Length nearly 8 mm.

Head as broad as long, subrectangular, slightly narrower in front than behind, with somewhat convex sides, feebly excised posterior border and concave, truncated occipital surface, flattened towards the lateral borders which are distinctly though not sharply ridged. Each of the postero-inferior angle is produced as a distinct but rather blunt tooth. Eyes well-developed, nearly as long as their distance from the clypeus, with about 15 facets in their greatest diameter and situated at the anterior fourth of the head. Mandibles rather long and narrow, with distinctly concave external borders, the apical borders broad, with seven subequal basal and three larger apical teeth. Clypeus short but not carinate in the middle behind, somewhat depressed laterally, its anterior border sinuately emarginate in the middle. Antennal scapes curved, reaching to the posterior corners of the head; funiculus distinctly thickened apically, all its joints longer than broad, the three basal subequal, nearly 1 1/2 times as long as broad, the penultimate joints shorter. Pronotum rather convex, neither flattened nor marginate on the sides, slightly broader than long, its inferior corners rectangular but not dentate; promesonotal suture very distinct, strongly impressed; mesoepinotal suture indistinct dorsally; mesonotum and base of epinotum in profile straight and horizontal above, their sides scarcely compressed, the epinotal declivity sloping and somewhat longer than the base, crenulately marginate on the sides, the median surface distinctly concave. Petiole twice as high as long, the scale seen from behind narrowed below, broadly rounded above and with the middle of the superior border feebly angulate in the middle; the anterior surface flattened but convex in profile, with rather sharp lateral borders. Postpetiole broader than long, its anterior portion perpendicularly truncated and clearly marginate above. First gastric segment scarcely broader than the postpetiole, 1 1/2 times as broad as the petiole. Legs rather slender.

Subopaque; postpetiole and gaster more shining. Mandibles finely and regularly longitudinally striate. Clypeus obscurely punctate-rugulose. Upper surface and sides of head longitudinally rugulose, the rugules on the front regularly diverging to the posterior ends of the lateral keels. Truncated occiptal surface shining, with diverging and laterally descending rugae. Thorax longitudinally rugulose, except the upper surface of the pronotum which is transversely and arcuately rugulose. The rugules are fine on the mesonotum, coarser and sinuate on the sides of the epinotum; declivous surface of latter with sharp, regular and transversely arcuate rugre, which are concave dorsally. Anterior and posterior surfaces of petiolar scale transversely rugulose, the latter more finely than the former, with the rugules arcuate and curved upward rather strongly on the sides. Petiole and gaster very finely and superficially punctulate. Antennal scapes and legs, including the coxae, coarsely and densely reticulate-punctate, the scapes more scabrous and more opaque.

Hairs yellow, short, erect and rather coarse, very uneven, longest on the mandibles, gula and tip of abdomen, very short on the head, more numerous and conspicuous on the thoracic dorsum and petiolar border; scattered on the legs. Pubescence long, and subappressed but not very dense, finer on the appendages, poorly developed on the thorax.

Black; mandibles, borders of frontal carinae, antennae, legs and posterior borders of postpetiolar and gastric segments, dark red; median portions of scapes and femora and bases of coxae black.

References

  • Bingham, C. T. 1903. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera, Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-wasps. London: Taylor and Francis, 506 pp. (page 86, Combination in Ectomomyrmex; page 87, see also)
  • Brown, W. L., Jr. 1995a. [Untitled. Taxonomic changes in Pachycondyla attributed to Brown.] Pp. 302-311 in: Bolton, B. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. (page 306, Combination in Pachycondyla)
  • Emery, C. 1900c. Formiche raccolte da Elio Modigliani in Sumatra, Engano e Mentawei. [part]. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 40[=(2(20): 661-688 (page 667, Combination in Pachycondyla (Ectomomyrmex))
  • Mayr, G. 1867a. Adnotationes in monographiam formicidarum Indo-Neerlandicarum. Tijdschr. Entomol. 10: 33-117 (page 84, pl.2, fig. 9 worker, queen)
  • Ogata, K. 1987a. A generic synopsis of the poneroid complex of the family Formicidae in Japan (Hymenoptera). Part 1. Subfamilies Ponerinae and Cerapachyinae. Esakia 25: 97-132 (page 113, male described)
  • Schmidt, C.A. & Shattuck, S.O. 2014. The higher classification of the ant subfamily Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a review of ponerine ecology and behavior. Zootaxa 3817, 1–242 (doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3817.1.1).
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1921c. Chinese ants. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 64: 529-547 (page 530, Combination in Ectomomyrmex)
  • Yasumatsu, K. 1962. Notes on synonymies of five ants widely spread in the Orient (Hym.: Formicidae). Mushi 36: 93-97 (page 94, Senior synonym of cambodjana, denticeps, horni, japonica, maternus, sundaicus and tonkina)

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Abe T. 1977. A preliminary study on the ant fauna of the Tokara Islands and Amami-Oshima. Ecol. Stud. Nat. Cons. Ryukyu Isl. 3: 93-102.
  • Azuma, S. and M. Kinjo. 1987. Family Formicidae, In Checklist of the insects of Okinawa. The Biological Society of Okinawa, Nishihara. Pages 310-312.
  • Chapman, J. W., and Capco, S. R. 1951. Check list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Asia. Monogr. Inst. Sci. Technol. Manila 1: 1-327
  • Chen P., Y. Su, S. S. Rao, Y. F. Long, and C. H. Du. 2012. Study on the ant diversity in different Illicium verum stands. Journal of West China Forestry Science 41(1): 60-68.
  • Chen Y. Q., Q. Li, Y. L. Chen, Z. X. Lu, X. Y. Zhou. 2011. Ant diversity and bio-indicators in land management of lac insect agroecosystem in Southwestern China. Biodivers. Conserv. 20: 3017-3038.
  • Chen Y., C. W. Luo, H. W. Li, Y. J. Liu, H. F. Zheng, and F. C. Yang. 2013. Investigation of ant species and distribution on Wuliang Mountain. Journal of Henan Agricultural Sciences 42(5): 118-122.
  • Chen Y., C.-W. Luo, H. W Li, Z. H. Xu, Y. J. Liu, and S. J. Zhao. 2011. The investigation of soil ant resources on the West slope of Mt Ailao. Hubei Agricultural Sciences 50(7): 1356-1359.
  • Choi B.M. 1996. Distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (16) - Ant fauna from Chollabukdo. Korean J. Soil. Zoology 1(1): 5-23.
  • Choi B.M. 1996. Distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (16): Ant fauna from Chollabukdo. Korean Journal of Soil Zoology 1(1): 5-23.
  • Choi B.M. 1997. Distribution of Ants (Formicidae) in Korea (18). Ants Fauna in island Paekryongdo and Taechongdo. Journal of Chongju National University of Education 34: 119-138.
  • Choi B.M., I. H. Lee. 1995. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (14). Ant fauna in island Sohuksando. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 34(3): 191-197.
  • Choi B.M., K. Ogata, and M. Terayama. 1993. Comparative studies of ant faunas of Korea and Japan. 1. Faunal comparison among islands of Southern Korean and northern Kyushu, Japan. Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan 48(1): 37-49.
  • Choi B.M., Kim, C.H., Bang, J.R. 1993. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (13). A checklist of ants from each province (Do), with taxonomic notes. Cheongju Sabom Taehakkyo Nonmunjip (Journal of Cheongju National University of Education) 30: 331-380.
  • Choi B.M., and H.S. Lee. 1999. Studies on the distribution ants in Korea (21) - Ant fauna in Kwanaksan. Korean J. Soil Zoology 4(1): 1-4.
  • Choi B.M., and J. R. Bang. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (12): the analysis of ant communities in 23 islands. Journal of Cheongju National University of Education 30:317-330.
  • Emery C. 1887. Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte terza. Formiche della regione Indo-Malese e dell'Australia (continuazione e fine). [concl.]. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 25(5): 427-473.
  • Emery C. 1902. Note mirmecologiche. Rendiconti delle Sessioni della Reale Accademia delle Scienze dell'Istituto di Bologna (n.s.)6: 22-34.
  • Emery C. 1911. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118: 1-125.
  • Emery C. Formiche raccolte da Elio Modigliani in Sumatra, Engano e Mentawei. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale 40: 661-722.
  • Emery, C.. "Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte terza. Formiche della regione Indo-Malese e dell'Australia (continuazione e fine)." Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria (Genova) (2) 5, no. 25 (1887): 427-473.
  • Emery, C.. "Formiche raccolte da Elio Modigliani in Sumatra, Engano e Mentawei." Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria (Genova) (2) 20, no. 40 (1900): 661-722.
  • Fontanilla A. M., A. Nakamura, Z. Xu, M. Cao, R. L. Kitching, Y. Tang, and C. J. Burwell. 2019. Taxonomic and functional ant diversity along tropical, subtropical, and subalpine elevational transects in southwest China. Insects 10, 128; doi:10.3390/insects10050128
  • Forel A. 1905. Ameisen aus Java. Gesammelt von Prof. Karl Kraepelin 1904. Mitt. Naturhist. Mus. Hambg. 22: 1-26.
  • Forel A. 1911. Ameisen aus Java beobachtet und gesammelt von Herrn Edward Jacobson. II. Theil. Notes Leyden Mus. 33: 193-218.
  • Forel A. 1913. H. Sauter's Formosa-Ausbeute: Formicidae II. Arch. Naturgesch. (A)79(6): 183-202
  • Forel A. 1913. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse einer Forschungsreise nach Ostindien ausgeführt im Auftrage der Kgl. Preuss. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin von H. v. Buttel-Reepen. II. Ameisen aus Sumatra, Java, Malacca und Ceylon. Gesammelt von Herrn Prof. Dr. v. Buttel-Reepen in den Jahren 1911-1912. Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere 36:1-148.
  • Forel A. 1922. Glanures myrmécologiques en 1922. Revue Suisse de Zoologie. 30: 87-102.
  • Fukumoto S. 2009. Ants at the Korimoto Campus of Kagoshima University. Nature of Kagoshima 35: 67. (+Personal communication 19 May 20014)
  • Ghosh S. N., S. Sheela, B. G. Kundu, S. Roychowdhury, and R. N. Tiwari. 2006. Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Pp. 369-398 in: Alfred, J. R. B. (ed.) 2006. Fauna of Arunachal Pradesh. (Part -2). [State Fauna Series 13.]. New Delhi: Zoological Survey of India, iv + 518 pp.
  • Guo X., Q. Lin, J. Cui, D. Gao, S. Xu, and Z. Sheng. 2014. Biodiversity and spatial distribution patterns of ant species in tea gardens of Chongqing. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1011.2014.31052
  • Guénard B., and R. R. Dunn. 2012. A checklist of the ants of China. Zootaxa 3558: 1-77.
  • Ha S.J, S.J. Park, and B.J. Kim. 2002. Comparative ant faunas between Seonyudo and seven other islands of West Sea in Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology 32(2): 75-79.
  • Harada Y., K. Tashiro, K. Ebihara, H. Yadori, M. Yoneda, R. Takinami, K. Nagahama, and K. Hayashi. 2008. Ant fauna of the lavas of Sakurajima Volcano, Southern Japan. Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan 63: 205-215.
  • Harada Y., S. Haruguchi, T. Iwasaki, K. Onishi, Y. Tashiro, and Sk Yamane. 2010. Ants from Japanese cherry trees, Prunus x yedoensis, in public parks in Kagoshima, southwestern Japan. Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan 65: 169-179.
  • Hu C.-H. 2006. Indigenized conservation and biodiversity maintenance on Orchid Island. PhD Thesis, graduate school of the University of Minnesota. 150 pages.
  • Hua Li-zhong. 2006. List of Chinese insects Vol. IV. Pages 262-273. Sun Yat-sen university Press, Guangzhou. 539 pages.
  • Kim B., Ryu D., Park S., and J. Kim. 1994. Systematic study on ants from coasts of Korean Peninsula (Hym: Formicidae). Korean journal of entomology 24: 293-309.
  • Kim B.J. 1996. Synonymic list and distribution of Formicidae (Hymenoptera) in Korea. Entomological Research Bulletin Supplement 169-196.
  • Kim B.J., K.G. Kim, D.P. Ryu, J.H. Kim. 1995. Ants of Chindo island in Korea (Hymenoptera; Formicidae). The Korean Journal of Systematic Zoology 11(1): 101-113.
  • Kim B.J., K.G. Kim, J.H. Kim, S.J. Park. Ants from Mt. Mirok. Korean J. Soil Zoology 2(2): 115-128.
  • Kim B.J., S.J. Park, and J.H. Kim. 1996. Ants from Naejangsan national park (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Korean J. Soil. Zoology &(2): 120-133.
  • Kim B.J.; Kim, J.H.; Kim K 1998. Systematic study of Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology 28:145-154.
  • Kim B.J.; Kim, K.G.; Lim, K.H. 1993. Systematic study of ants from Chejudo province. Korean Journal of Entomology 23: 117-15
  • Kim B.J.; Kim, K.G.; Lim, K.H. 1993. Systematic study of ants from Chejudo province. Korean Journal of Entomology 23: 117-17
  • Kim C.H., B.M. Choi, and J.R. Bang. 1992. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (8)-Ant fauna in 10 islands, Chollanam-do. Korean J. Appl. Entomol. 31(4): 345-359.
  • Kim et al. 1993. Systematic study of ants from Chejudo Province. Koran Journal of Entomology 23(3): 117-141.
  • Kim, Byung-Jin, Ky-Gyong Kim, Dong-Pyo Ryu and Joong-Hyon Kim. 1995. The Korean Journal of Systematic Zoology. 11(1):101-113.
  • Kwon T. S. 2012. Korean ant atlas. Korea Forest Research Institute 162 pages.
  • Kwon T. S. 2015. Ant assemblages along the Baekdudaegan Mountain Range in South Korea: Human roads and temperature niche. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity 8: 152-157.
  • Kwon T. S. 2018. High competition between ant species at intermediate temperatures. Journal of Thermal Biology 72: 59-66.
  • Kwon T. S., C. M. Lee, and J. H. Sung. 2014. Diversity decrease of ant (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) after a forest disturbance: different responses among functional guilds. Zoological Studies 53: 37.
  • Kwon T.-S., M.-Y. Song, S.-C. Shin, and Y.-S. Park. 2005. Effects of aerial insecticide sprays on ant communities to control pine wilt disease in Korean pine forests. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 40(4): 563–574.
  • Kwon T.S., C. M. Lee, J. H. Chun, J. H. Sung, and S. K. Kim. 2011. Ants in Hongneung forest. Korea Forest Research Institute, 92 pages.
  • Lee T. L., and Y. S. Wei. 2005.. Study for the temporal and spatial variation of the ant assemblages as the biological indicator in national parks. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 4(4): 491-496.
  • Leeanne E. Alonso, Liu Shaoying, Shen Xiaoli, and Jennifer McCullough (Editors). 2009. A Rapid Biological Assessment of three sites in the Mountains of Southwest China Hotspot, Ganzi Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 52. Conservation International, Arlington, VA, USA.
  • Li Q., Y. Chen, S. Wang, Y. Zheng, Y. Zhu, and S. Wang. 2009. Diversity of ants in subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest in Pu'er City, Yunnan. Biodiversity Science 17(3): 233-239.
  • Li Z.h. 2006. List of Chinese Insects. Volume 4. Sun Yat-sen University Press
  • Liu X. 2012. Taxonomy, diversity and spatial distribution characters of the ant family Formicidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) in southeastern Tibet. PhD Thesis 139 pages
  • Liu X., Z. Xu, N. Yu, and C. Zhang. 2016. Distribution patterns of ant species ( Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Galongla Mountains and Medog Valley of Southeastern Tibet. Scientia Silvae Sinicae 52(11): 88-95.
  • Lu Z., B. D. Hoffmann, and Y. Chen. 2016. Can reforested and plantation habitats effectively conserve SW China’s ant biodiversity? Biodivers. Conserv. DOI 10.1007/s10531-016-1090-1
  • Lu Z., K. Li, N. Zhang, and Y. Chen. 2017. Diversity and indicator species of leaf-litter ants in Eucalyptus grandis plantations and secondary natural forests. Forest Research 29(4): 576-580
  • Lu Z., and Y. Chen. 2016. Effects of habitat on ant functional groups: a case study of Luchun County, Yunnan Province, China. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture 24(5): 801-810.
  • Lyu D. 2008. Taxonomic study on the Poneromorph subfamilies group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Korea. Korean J. Appl. Entomol. 47(4): 315-331.
  • Mathew R., and R. N. Tiwari. 2000. Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Pp. 251-409 in: Director; Zoological Survey of India (ed.) 2000. Fauna of of Meghalaya. Part 7. [State Fauna Series 4.] Insecta 2000. Calcutta: Zoological Survey of India, 621 pp.
  • Matsumura S. and Yamane Sk. 2012. Species composition and dominant species of ants in Jigenji Park, Kagoshima City, Japan. Nature of Kagoshima 38: 99–107
  • Matsumura S., and S. Yamane. 2012. Species composition and dominant species of ants in Jigenji Park, Kagoshima City, Japan. Nature of Kagoshima 38: 99-107.
  • Ogata K. 2005. Asian ant inventory and international networks. Report on Insect inventory Project in Tropic Asia TAIIV: 145-170.
  • Onoyama K. 1976. A premilinary study on the ant fauna of Okinawa-ken, with taxonomic notes (Japan; Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Ecol. Stud. Nat. Cons. Ryukyu Isl. II: 121-141.
  • Park S.J., and B.J. Kim. 2002. Faunal comparison of ants among Cheongsando and other islands of South Sea in Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology 32(1): 7-12.
  • Park, Seong, Joon and Byung, and Kim, Jin. 2002. Faunal Comparison of Ants among Cheongsando and Other Islands of South Sea in Korea. Korean Jornal of Entomology. 32(1):7-12.
  • Santschi F. 1920. Fourmis d'Indo-Chine. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 60: 158-176.
  • Santschi F. 1924. Fourmis d'Indochine. Opuscules de l'Institut Scientifique de l'Indochine 3: 95-117
  • Santschi F. 1925. Contribution à la faune myrmécologique de la Chine. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 56: 81-96.
  • Skarbek C. J., M. Noack, H. Bruelheide, W. Hardtle, G. von Oheimb, T. Scholten, S. Seitz, M. Staab. 2019. A tale of scale: plot but not neighbourhood tree diversity increases leaf litter ant diversity. Journal of Animal Ecology DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.13115
  • So, Ha, Seong, Jin, Park, Joon and Byung, and Kim, Jin. 2002. Comparitive Ant Faunas between Seonyudo and Seven other Islands of West Sea in Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology. 32:75-79.
  • Song Y., Z. Xu, C. Li, N. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Jiang, and F. Mo. 2013. An Analysis on the Ant Fauna of the Nangun river Nature Reserve in Yunnan, China. Forest Research 26(6): 773-780.
  • Staab M., A. Schuldt, T. Assmann, H. Bruelheide, and A.M. Klein. 2014. Ant community structure during forest succession in a subtropical forest in South-East China. Acta Oecologia 61: 32-40.
  • Tang J., Li S., Huang E., Zhang B. and Chen Y.. 1995. Hymenoptera: Formicidae (1). Economic Insect Fauna of China 47: 1-133.
  • Tang Jue, Li Shen, Huang Enyou, Zhang Benyue. 1985. Notes on ants from Zhoushan islands , Zhejiang (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Chekianensis 11(3): 307-318.
  • Tang Jue, Li Shen, Huang Enyou, Zhang Benyue. 1985. Notes on ants from Zhoushan Islands Zhejiang (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).  Journal of Zhejiang University (Agric.& Life Sci.) 3.
  • Terayama M. 1983. Kagoshima-ken-hondo no ari. Kanagawa-chucho (Journal of the Kanagawa Entomologists Association): 13-24.
  • Terayama M. 1992. Structure of ant communities in East Asia. A. Regional differences and species richness. Bulletin of the Bio-geographical Society of Japan 47: 1-31.
  • Terayama M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University. Liberal Arts 17:81-266.
  • Terayama M. and E. Hasegawa. 1991. Ant fauna of the Ogasawara islands. Ogasawara–Kenkyu–Nenpo 15: 40–51.
  • Terayama M., K. Ogata, and B.M. Choi. 1994. Distribution records of ants in 47 prefectures of Japan. Ari (report of the Myrmecologists Society of Japan) 18: 5-17.
  • Terayama, M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta; Hymenoptera). The Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University 17: 81-266.
  • Terayama. M. and Inoue. N. 1988. Ants collected by the members of the Soil Zoological Expedition to Taiwan. ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 18: 25-28
  • Tiwari R. N., B. G. Kundu, S. Roy Chowdhury, and S. N. Ghosh. 2003. Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Fauna of Sikkim. Part 4. State Fauna Series. 9.Zool.Surv.India. i-iii, 1-512. Chapter pagination: 467-506.
  • Tiwari R.N., B.G. Kundu, S. Roychowdhury, S.N. Ghosh. 1999. Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Pp. 211-294 in: Director; Zoological Survey of India (ed.) 1999. Fauna of West Bengal. Part 8. Insecta (Trichoptera, Thysanoptera, Neuroptera, Hymenoptera and Anoplura). Calcutta: Zoological Survey of India, iv + 442 pp.
  • Tiwary R. N., D. K. Guha, and P. K. Maiti. 1977. New records of Ponerine ants from Arunachal Pradesh (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Newsl Zool Surv India 3(3): 49-50
  • Wang W. R., S. Q. Zhang, and Z. H. Xu. 2012. A faunistic and taxonomic study of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Shenzhen Municipality. Journal of Southwest Forestry University 32(1): 64-73.
  • Wang W., S. Zhang, and Z Xu. 2012. Distribution patters of ant species in Shenzhen City. Journal of Southwest Forestry University 32(3): 70-74.
  • Wang W., S. Zhang, and Z. Xu. 2012. Distribution Patterns of Ant Species in Shenzhen City. Journal of Southwest Forestry University 32(3): 69-74.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1906. The ants of Japan. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 22: 301-328.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1921. Chinese ants. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 64: 529-547.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1928. Ants collected by Professor F. Silvestri in China. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria della Reale Scuola Superiore d'Agricoltura. Portici 22: 3-38.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1929. Ants collected by Professor F. Silvestri in Formosa, the Malay Peninsula and the Philippines. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria della Reale Scuola Superiore d'Agricoltura. Portici 24: 27-64.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1929. Some ants from China and Manchuria. American Museum Novitates 361: 1-11.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1930. A list of the known Chinese ants. Peking Natural History Bulletin 5: 53-81.
  • Xu Z. H., B. L. Yang, and G. Hu. 1999. Formicidae ant communities in fragments of montane rain forest in Xishuangbanna, China. Zoological Research 20(4): 288-293.
  • Xu Z. 1999. [An analysis on the ant fauna of the tropical rain forest in Xishuangbanna of China.] Zoological Research 20: 379-384.
  • Yamane S., Y. Harada, and K. Eguchi. 2013. Classification and ecology of ants. Natural history of ants in Southern Kyushu. 200 pages
  • Zhang R., X. Zhou, Q. Tang, and S. Zhou. 2016. Morphometrics of thirteen species of the genus Pachycondyla (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in China. Chinese Journal of Applied Entomology 53(5): 1130-1137.
  • Zhang Z., M. Cao, X. Yang, X. Deng, and Y. She. 2000. A study on species diversity of ant in fragments of seasonal rain forest of Xishuangbanna, China. Zoological Research 21(1): 70-75.