Eurhopalothrix

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Eurhopalothrix
Eurhopalothrix bolaui
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Attini
Genus: Eurhopalothrix
Brown & Kempf, 1961
Type species
Rhopalothrix bolaui, now Eurhopalothrix bolaui
Diversity
53 species
(Species Checklist, Species by Country)

Eurhopalothrix bolaui casent0107554 profile 1.jpg

Eurhopalothrix bolaui

Eurhopalothrix bolaui casent0107554 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Evolutionary Relationships
Attini

Ochetomyrmex (2 species), Tranopelta (2 species)




Allomerus (8 species), Blepharidatta (4 species), Diaphoromyrma (1 species), Lachnomyrmex (16 species), Wasmannia (11 species)






Acanthognathus (7 species), Colobostruma (16 species), Daceton (2 species), Epopostruma (20 species), Lenomyrmex (7 species), Mesostruma (9 species), Microdaceton (4 species), Orectognathus (29 species),




Acromyrmex (55 species), Apterostigma (44 species), Atta (20 species), Cyatta (1 species), Cyphomyrmex (23 species), Kalathomyrmex (1 species), Mycetophylax (21 species), Mycetagroicus (4 species), Mycetarotes (4 species), Mycetosoritis (2 species), Mycocepurus (6 species), Myrmicocrypta (31 species), Sericomyrmex (11 species), Trachymyrmex (9 species), Xerolitor (1 species)





Pheidole
  (1,295 species)




Cephalotes
  (123 species)



Procryptocerus
  (44 species)







Strumigenys
  (859 species)




Phalacromyrmex
  (1 species)



Pilotrochus
  (1 species)







Protalaridris
  (7 species)



Rhopalothrix
  (16 species)





Basiceros
  (8 species)




Octostruma
  (34 species)




Eurhopalothrix
  (53 species)



Talaridris
  (1 species)














Based on Ward et al. (2014), Blaimer et al. (2018) and Li et al. (2018).

The genus Eurhopalothrix occurs throughout the Neotropics and Indo-Australian tropics, where it is an inhabitant of forest leaf litter and soil.

Identification

Eurhopalothrix are characterized as basicerotines with 7-segmented antennae and triangular mandibles (Brown and Kempf, 1960; Bolton, 2003). The tribe basicerotini is taxonomically problematic as there is no single accepted classification of its species into genera. Baroni Urbani and de Andrade (2007) synonymized the tribe Basicerotini with the Dacetini and proposed that all basicerotine genera be placed in the genus Basiceros. Longino (2013) revised the New World basicerotine species with 7-segmented antennae and triangular mandibles, as Eurhopalothrix, and recognized 28 species. Other Eurhopalothrix species are found in Australia and southeast Asia.

AntWeb icon 02.png See images of species within this genus

Keys including this Genus

 

Keys to Species in this Genus

Distribution

Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps

Biology

Little is known about the biology of most species in this genus. Nests are rarely found, and queens and males have not been collected for many species. Longino (2013) summarized their biology "Eurhopalothrix specimens are encountered almost exclusively in samples from mass extraction techniques that recover small arthropods in sifted litter, rotten wood, and soil. Densities, at least in the northern Neotropics, are usually low, with workers occurring in < 10% of quantitative samples of 1 m2 litter plots, but occasionally may reach densities as high as 40% of samples. Live colonies of Old World Eurhopalothrix were observed by Wilson (1956) and Wilson and Brown (1984), and a Costa Rican colony of Basiceros manni was observed by Wilson and Hölldobler (1986). All basicerotines, including Eurhopalothrix, are thought to be predators in tropical leaf litter, relying on stealth or sit-and-wait techniques. Sampled specimens are often coated with a thin layer of clay, especially on the face, which is thought to function as camouflage, enhancing crypsis (Hölldobler & Wilson, 1986). Highly specialized spatulate setae may be instrumental in acquisition and adherence of the clay layer (Hölldobler & Wilson, 1986)."

Life History Traits

  • Mean colony size: 50 (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Compound colony type: not parasitic (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Nest site: hypogaeic (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Diet class: predator (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Foraging stratum: subterranean/leaf litter (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Foraging behaviour: cooperative (Greer et al., 2021)

Castes

Morphology

Worker Morphology

 • Eyes: 11-100 ommatidia • Pronotal Spines: absent • Mesonotal Spines: absent • Propodeal Spines: dentiform; present • Petiolar Spines: absent • Caste: none or weak • Sting: present • Metaplural Gland: present • Cocoon: absent

Karyotype

Species Uncertain

  • 2n = 18 (Malaysia) (Imai et al., 1983) ('E. procera group).

All Karyotype Records for Genus

Explore Data: All, Drilldown
Click here to show/hide karyotype data.
Taxon Haploid Diploid Karyotype Locality Source Notes
Eurhopalothrix 18 Malaysia Imai et al., 1983 'E. procera'' group

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • EURHOPALOTHRIX [Myrmicinae: Basicerotini]
    • Eurhopalothrix Brown & Kempf, 1961: 44. Type-species: Rhopalothrix bolaui, by original designation.
    • [Eurhopalothrix Brown & Kempf, 1960: 202; unavailable name, proposed without designation of type-species.]
    • Eurhopalothrix junior synonym of Basiceros: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 88.

Taxonomic Notes

All taxa of genera Eurhopalothrix, Octostruma, Protalaridris, Rhopalothrix and Talaridris were combined in Basiceros, sensu Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 90-93. Synonymy of all basicerotine genera under Basiceros, by Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 88, is incorrect procedure as Rhopalothrix has priority. Basicerotine genus-rank taxonomy documented in Bolton, 2003: 183-185, is retained.

References