The following key to Australian Pristomyrmex is based on Wang (2003).
- Masticatory margin of mandible with four teeth; the third tooth, counting from the apex, smallest, distinctly smaller than the basal one; diastema absent between the preapical and third tooth => Pristomyrmex minusculus
- Masticatory margin of mandible with three to five teeth; if four teeth present, then the third tooth, counting from the apex, similar in size to the basal one; diastema either present or indistinct between the preapical and third tooth => 2
- Dorsal surfaces of both mesosoma and head with foveolate-reticulate sculpture or rugoreticulum => 3
- Dorsal surfaces of both mesosoma and head between frontal carinae either smooth or with some scattered foveolate punctures but lacking foveolate-reticulate sculpture or rugoreticulum => 4
- Postpetiole in dorsal view much broader than long (postpetiole width/postpetiole length 1.33-1.50); antennal scapes shorter (scape length 0.70-0.82mm, scape length/head width 0.81-0.93) => Pristomyrmex foveolatus
- Postpetiole in dorsal view slightly broader than long (postpetiole width/postpetiole length 1.09-1.21); antennal scapes longer (scape length 0.86-0.98mm, scape length/head width 0.97-1.03) => Pristomyrmex thoracicus
- Upper surface of mesosoma unsculptured, lacking a transverse ridge at the approximate position of metanotal groove; anterior clypeal margin usually with five to seven small denticles => Pristomyrmex wilsoni
- Upper surface of mesosoma with a transverse ridge at the approximate position of metanotal groove; anterior clypeal margin with three strong teeth => 5
- First gastral tergite with numerous, evenly distributed, suberect hairs; upper surface of mesosoma with several short rugae present at the junction between the pronotum and mesonotum => Pristomyrmex erythropygus
- First gastral tergite lacking suberect hairs; upper surface of mesosoma without rugae at the junction between the pronotum and mesonotum => 6
- Propodeal spines longer, subequal to or longer than pronotal spines; ventral centre of clypeus with a weak and short ruga; head broader (head width 0.97-1.34mm, head width/head length 1.03-1.16) => Pristomyrmex wheeleri
- Propodeum with a pair of teeth or short spines which are much shorter than pronotal spines; ventral surface of clypeus with a long, well-developed transverse ridge; head narrower (head width 0.80-1.08mm, head width/head length 0.93-1.01) => Pristomyrmex quadridentatus
- ↑ Wang,M. (2003) A monographic revision of the ant genus Pristomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 157, 383–542.