Key to Bothroponera pumicosa species complex

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This key is based on Joma & MacKay (2015)[1]

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  • Hairs on entire mesosoma and gaster long (up to 0.55 mm) curly, anterior medial raised area of clypeus “u” shaped without carina .....Bothroponera pumicosa
Pachycondyla pumicosa sam-hym-c000154a profile 1.jpg
  • Hairs on entire surface relatively short (0.10 – 0.25 mm) erect moderately long, straight (not curly); anterior medial raised area of clypeus “u” or “v” shaped with or without carina .....2


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  • Anterior border of clypeus “u” shaped, broadly rounded .....3
  • Anterior border of clypeus “v” shaped with sharp anterior medial point .....6


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  • Anterior medial area of clypeus raised from surface (best seen in side view) to form sharp carina, which extends from between frontal lobes to anterior border of clypeus .....4
  • Anterior medial area raised but does not form sharp carina, if carina partially present, not complete as described above or not sharp .....5


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  • Posterior border of petiolar node (seen from above) with deep medial depression; mandibles with several deep coarse grooves .....Bothroponera cariosa
  • Posterior border of petiolar node with little evidence of impression; with smooth shiny mandibles .....Bothroponera strigulosa
Pachycondyla strigulosa sam-hym-c011316a profile 1.jpg


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Pachycondyla laevissima sam-hym-c008789a p 1 high.jpg
Bothroponera berthoudi hal.jpg


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  • Anterior medial area raised but does not form carina.....7


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Bothroponera umgodikulula antweb1008601 p 1 high.jpg
  • Propodeal spiracle nearly vertical, usually nearly parallel with posteropropodeum; fourth abdominal segment smooth to slightly rough or sculptured .....8


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Bothroponera aspera had.jpg
  • Head and mesosoma sculptured with dense foveolae.....9


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  • Scapes longer, extending slightly past posterior lateral corner of head (SI 78), short (0.10 up to 0.20 mm) erect golden hairs cover entire surface .....Bothroponera cavernosa
Bothroponera cavernosa hal.jpg
  • Scapes barely reaching posterior lateral corner of head (SI 79.59 – 81.25), short (0.10 – 0.15 mm) erect silver hairs cover entire surface .....Bothroponera montivaga
Bothroponera cavernosa montivaga hal.jpg