This key to the Camponotus aureopilis species-group is based on Shattuck (2005) and Shattuck and Janda (2009).
- Dorsum of mesosoma with fewer than 6 scattered hairs and both mesosoma and gaster lacking patches of enlarged hairs; anterolateral pronotum projecting as a narrow ridge => Camponotus cyrtomyrmodes
- Dorsum of mesosoma and/or gaster with at least a small patch of enlarged hairs; anterolateral pronotum generally rounded, sometimes weakly angular but not ridged => 2
- Metapleural gland present above the hind leg; enlarged hairs on dorsum of mesosoma bright yellow (Australia) => Camponotus thadeus
- Metapleural gland absent; enlarged hairs on dorsum of mesosoma white or pale yellow-white (Papua New Guinea) => 3
- Enlarged hairs absent from pronotum (but thin erect hairs present) => 4
- Enlarged hairs present on pronotum => 6
- Enlarged hairs on gaster limited to a small central cluster => Camponotus aureopilus
- Enlarged hairs on gaster covering entire dorsal surface (or nearly so) => 5
- Erect hairs on dorsum of mesosoma abundant; dorsal surface of head reticulo-punctate and with a matte appearance; enlarged hairs on gaster more extensive => Camponotus posteropilus
- Erect hairs on dorsum of mesosoma fewer; dorsal surface of head with very fine leather-like sculpturing and relatively shiny; enlarged hairs on gaster less numerous => Camponotus xanthopilus
- Larger erect hairs on dorsum of head between eyes and frontal carinae black => Camponotus royi
- Larger erect hairs on dorsum of head between eyes and frontal carinae (when present) white or pale yellow => 7
- Enlarged hairs on pronotum covering entire dorsal surface => 8
- Enlarged hairs on pronotum limited to a band along the central third of its width => 9
- Enlarged pronotal hairs white; pubescence on dorsum of head abundant and closely spaced => Camponotus mussolinii
- Enlarged pronotal hairs pale (but distinctly) yellow; pubescence on dorsum of head thin and widely spaced => Camponotus densopilus
- Dorsal surface of head with abundant, closely spaced pubescence; mesonotum strongly arched and dorsum of mesosoma forming a strong arch with the propodeum relatively low; dorsum of gaster golden yellow, lighter in color than mesosoma => Camponotus flavocrines
- Dorsal surface of head with scattered, widely spaced pubescence; mesonotum weakly arched and dorsum of mesosoma forming a shallow arch with the propodeum relatively high; dorsum of gaster having same color as mesosoma => Camponotus subpilus
- Shattuck, S.O. 2005. Review of the Camponotus aureopilus species-group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), including a second Camponotus with a metapleural gland. Zootaxa 903: 1-20.
- Shattuck, S.O. & Janda, M. 2009. A new species of the Camponotus aureopilus Viehmeyer, 1914 species group from Papua New Guinea. Myrmecological News 12: 251-253.