Key to Cataglyphis species of Asia

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This key to Cataglyphis species is based on Radchenko (1998) (couplets 1-33) with additions by Khalili-Moghadam et al. (2021) (couplets 33-42).

1

  • 3rd maxillary palpomere flattened, with very long, more than 2 times as long as maximum palpomere width, erect hairs (Fig. 1a). => 2

Radchenko, A.G. 1998. A key to the ants of the genus Cataglyphis of Asia, Fig. 1.jpg

  • 3rd maxillary palpomere not flattened, with shorter erect hairs more than 1.5 times as long as maximum palpomere width (Fig. 3g, 3i). => 3

Radchenko, A.G. 1998. A key to the ants of the genus Cataglyphis of Asia, Fig. 3.jpg

2

  • Soldier caste present; in soldiers, mandibles long, saber-shaped, with inner margin bearing no dentides (Fig. 1b). Entire body with very dense, long, silky, appressed pubescence. Head and thorax in workers ochre-colored, in soldiers orangered; abdomen in soldiers brown.—N Africa, Israel => Cataglyphis bombycina

Radchenko, A.G. 1998. A key to the ants of the genus Cataglyphis of Asia, Fig. 1.jpg

  • Soldier caste absent. Appressed pubescence considerably sparser and shorter. Body uniformly yellow or orange-yellow, abdomen in large workers sometimes pale brown.—lsrael, Sinai, and Arabia => Cataglyphis sabulosa

3

  • Petiole with squamula (Fig. 1d, 1f lg); abdomen shining, with smooth or finely sculptured surface. => 4

Radchenko, A.G. 1998. A key to the ants of the genus Cataglyphis of Asia, Fig. 1.jpg

  • Petiole cuneiform, conical, or node-shaped (Figs. 1n; 2a, 2b, 2d, 2h, 2i; 3a, 3c, 3e, 3f, 3k, 31). If petiole with more or less distinct thick squamula, then abdomen dull, densely sculptured. => 9
Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Radchenko, A.G. 1998. A key to the ants of the genus Cataglyphis of Asia, Fig. 2.jpg Radchenko, A.G. 1998. A key to the ants of the genus Cataglyphis of Asia, Fig. 3.jpg

4

  • Body uniformly pale yellow.—Deserts of Dagestan, N Caspian Area, Kazakhstan, Middle Asia, and Afghanistan => Cataglyphis pallida
  • Head and thorax black to red-brown; abdomen dark brown to black. => 5

5

  • Clypeal setae longer than clypeus, attached at some distance from its anterior margin (Fig. 1c). Squamula of petiole thin in lateral view (Fig. 1d). Workers small (3.5-5 mm), with weak polymorphism.—Deserts of Middle Asia, Kazakhstan, and Iran => Cataglyphis emeryi
  • Clypeal setae shorter than clypeus, attached at its anterior margin (Fig. 1e). Squamula of petiole thicker (Figs. 1f, lg). Workers larger (3.5-8 mm), polymorphic. => 6

Radchenko, A.G. 1998. A key to the ants of the genus Cataglyphis of Asia, Fig. 1.jpg

6

  • Head distinctly shagreened, dull (at least in larger workers). => 7
  • Head (at least in posterior half) smooth, shining. => 8

7

  • Squamula of petiole thick and low (Fig. 1g). Abdominal tergites with very sparse appressed pubescence, distance between hairs clearly exceeding their length.—Karakorum => Cataglyphis cugiai
  • Squamula of petiole thinner and higher (Fig. 1j). Abdominal tergites with denser appressed pubescence: distance between hairs 0.7-1 times length of hairs.—Westwards as far as Italy; eastwards as far as Tuva, Mongolia, and N China; and northwards as far as Czechia, Kiev, Kursk, Samara; also in Turkey, Caucasus, Middle and Central Asia => Cataglyphis aenescens

Radchenko, A.G. 1998. A key to the ants of the genus Cataglyphis of Asia, Fig. 1.jpg

8

  • 3rd maxillary palpomere rather short, 0.7 times as long as maximum eye diameter. Squamula of petiole comparatively thin.—Deserts of Middle Asia => Cataglyphis takyrica
  • 3rd maxillary palpomere as long as, or longer than maximum eye diameter. Squamula of petiole comparatively thick.—Syria => Cataglyphis frigida

9

  • Abdomen dull, densely sculptured. Large: 5-13 mm. => 10
  • Surface of abdomen smooth or very finely sculptured, shining. Smaller: 3.5-8 mm. => 26

10

  • Petiole node-shaped, more or less rounded in dorsal view (Figs. 1a, 2a, 2b, 2d). => 11
Fig. 1 Fig. 2
Radchenko, A.G. 1998. A key to the ants of the genus Cataglyphis of Asia, Fig. 1.jpg Radchenko, A.G. 1998. A key to the ants of the genus Cataglyphis of Asia, Fig. 2.jpg
  • Petiole wide-cuneiform or conical (Figs. 2h, 2i; 3a); if petiole slightly node-shaped (Fig. 3c), then eyes large, as long as, or 0.8-1 times as long as genae, and body uniformly black or blackbrown. => 33
Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Radchenko, A.G. 1998. A key to the ants of the genus Cataglyphis of Asia, Fig. 2.jpg Radchenko, A.G. 1998. A key to the ants of the genus Cataglyphis of Asia, Fig. 3.jpg

11

12

  • Outer surface of tibiae bears coarse, black or dark brown, semi-erect setae (Fig. 1h). => 13
  • Outer surface of tibiae without setae, with or without fine whitish erect hairs (Fig. 1i) => 16

Radchenko, A.G. 1998. A key to the ants of the genus Cataglyphis of Asia, Fig. 1.jpg

13

  • Body uniformly dark brown to black, only head sometimes with slight red tint.—lran => Cataglyphis bellicosa
  • Head and thorax of different tints of red; abdomen black-brown to black. => 14

14

  • Body with rather fine, whitish, erect hairs.—Dagestan, Kazakhstan, Middle Asia, E Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India => Cataglyphis setipes
  • Erect hairs on body coarse, thick, black or brown. => 15

15

  • Males: subgenital plate with medial incision and short lateral processes (Fig. 1j).—w Iran => Cataglyphis nigripes
  • Males: subgenital plate without medial incision, with long lateral and median processes (Fig. 1k).—Middle Asia, S Kazakhstan, and Afghanistan => Cataglyphis bergiana

Radchenko, A.G. 1998. A key to the ants of the genus Cataglyphis of Asia, Fig. 1.jpg

16

  • lst flagellomere short; as long as, or only slightly longer than 2nd (Fig. 1l). Body uniformly black.—Egypt, Middle East, and Arabia => Cataglyphis isis
  • 1st flagellomere long, distinctly longer than 2nd (Fig. 1m). => 17

Radchenko, A.G. 1998. A key to the ants of the genus Cataglyphis of Asia, Fig. 1.jpg

17

  • Body uniformly black-brown to black.—Middie East, Arabia, and Iran => Cataglyphis nigra
  • Head and thorax of different tints of red; abdomen black-brown or black. => 18

18

  • Entire body (including tibiae and scapus) with numerous fine erect hairs (Fig. 1n).—Armenia => Cataglyphis machmal

Radchenko, A.G. 1998. A key to the ants of the genus Cataglyphis of Asia, Fig. 1.jpg

  • Body with scarce erect hairs; tibiae and scapus without such hairs (Fig. 2a, 2b). => 19

Radchenko, A.G. 1998. A key to the ants of the genus Cataglyphis of Asia, Fig. 2.jpg

19

  • Mesonotum not raised above pronotum; propodeum broadly rounded (Fig. 2a).—Hungary, Rumania, Balkan Peninsula, Turkey, Transcaucasia, Dagestan, Iran, Iraq, and Kopet Dagh => Cataglyphis nodus
  • Mesonotum distinctly raised above pronotum; propodeurn narrowly rounded, more or less angular (Fig. 2b). => 20

Radchenko, A.G. 1998. A key to the ants of the genus Cataglyphis of Asia, Fig. 2.jpg

20

  • Node of petiole rather short; higher than long in lateral view, rounded in dorsal view (Fig. 2b, 2c).—India => Cataglyphis indica
  • Node of petiole rather long; about as high as long in lateral view, oval in dorsal view (Fig. 2b, 2c).—N Africa, Middle East => Cataglyphis oasium

Radchenko, A.G. 1998. A key to the ants of the genus Cataglyphis of Asia, Fig. 2.jpg

26

  • Body uniformly yellow or orange-yellow; abdomen sometimes partly brownish.
  • Body of different coloration. => 27

27

  • Thorax and head orange-red; abdomen black. => 28
  • Body uniformly brown to black. => 29

28

  • Petiole low; in lateral view node longer than high (Fig. 3e). Occipital margin of head bears 6-10 straight, erect hairs.—N Africa, Middle East, Asia Minor, Arabia, S Transcaucasia, and Iran => Cataglyphis rubra
  • Petiole rather high, cuneiform; in lateral view, node higher than long (Fig. 3f). Occipital margin of head without erect hairs.—S Transcaucasia, Iran => Cataglyphis cuneinodis

Radchenko, A.G. 1998. A key to the ants of the genus Cataglyphis of Asia, Fig. 3.jpg

29

  • Maxillary palps short; 6th palpomere nearly as long as 5th (Fig. 3g). 2nd flagellomere distinctly shorter than 3rd and 2-2.3 times as long as wide (Fig. 3h). => 30
  • Maxillary palps long; 6th palpomere 0.6-0.7 times as long as 5th (Fig. 3i). 2nd flagellomere as long as 3rd and 3 times as long as wide (Fig. 3j). => 31

Radchenko, A.G. 1998. A key to the ants of the genus Cataglyphis of Asia, Fig. 3.jpg

30

  • Head and large part of thorax completely smooth, strongly shining. Node of petiole longer than high (in lateral view).—Kopet Dagh => Cataglyphis elegantissima
  • Body with fine but distinct superficial sculpture, weakly shining. Node of petiole as high as, or higher than long (in lateral view).—Middle Asia, S Kazakhstan, Afghanistan => Cataglyphis cinnamomea

31

  • Head and thorax more coarsely sculptured, semi-dull.—N Africa, Lebanon, Arabia => Cataglyphis semitonsa
  • Head and thorax with smoothed sculpture; integument at least weakly shining. => 32

32

  • Petiole low, broadly rounded or slightly flattened at apex (Fig. 3k).—Spain, N Africa, Sudan, Ethiopia, Middle East, Arabia, Transcaucasia, Afghanistan => Cataglyphis albicans
  • Petiole high, narrowly rounded at apex (Fig. 3l).—Iraq => Cataglyphis alibabae

Radchenko, A.G. 1998. A key to the ants of the genus Cataglyphis of Asia, Fig. 3.jpg

33

  • Petiole wide-cuneiform or conical; if petiole slightly node-shaped, then eyes large, as long as, or 0.8× as long as genae, and body uniformly black or black-brown => 34
  • Petiole node-shaped, eyes small less than 0.8× as long as genae, and body never uniformly black to black-brown => 10

34

  • Surface of femora and tibiae covered with black, thick, and decumbent setae => 35
  • Surface of femora and tibiae not covered with a black, thick, and decumbent setae => 39

35

  • Soldier caste present, soldiers have saber-shaped mandibles with blunt denticles along their inner margin. Head and mesosoma yellowish red, gaster red-brown to dark brown, posterior margin of head with black, erect setae (Figs 33, 34). Turkey, Iraq => Cataglyphis kurdistanica

Khalili-Moghadam, A., Salata, S. et al. 2021. Three new species of Cataglyphis from Iran (10.3897@zookeys.1009.59205), Figs 27-34.jpg

  • Soldier caste absent. Head, mesosoma and gaster brown to black, if red- brown then posterior margin of head without black, erect setae (Figs 1, 2, 9, 10, 15–18, 22, 24) => 36

Khalili-Moghadam, A., Salata, S. et al. 2021. Three new species of Cataglyphis from Iran (10.3897@zookeys.1009.59205), Figs 1, 2.jpg Khalili-Moghadam, A., Salata, S. et al. 2021. Three new species of Cataglyphis from Iran (10.3897@zookeys.1009.59205), Fig. 9, 10.jpg Khalili-Moghadam, A., Salata, S. et al. 2021. Three new species of Cataglyphis from Iran (10.3897@zookeys.1009.59205), Figs 15, 16.jpg Khalili-Moghadam, A., Salata, S. et al. 2021. Three new species of Cataglyphis from Iran (10.3897@zookeys.1009.59205), Figs 17, 18.jpg Khalili-Moghadam, A., Salata, S. et al. 2021. Three new species of Cataglyphis from Iran (10.3897@zookeys.1009.59205), Figs 20-22.jpg Khalili-Moghadam, A., Salata, S. et al. 2021. Three new species of Cataglyphis from Iran (10.3897@zookeys.1009.59205), Figs 23, 24.jpg

36

  • Mesonotum in major workers distinctly bicolored, head, mesosoma and petiole reddish (Figs 1, 2), petiole in both, major and minor workers conical (Figs 4, 5). Iran => Cataglyphis bazoftensis

Khalili-Moghadam, A., Salata, S. et al. 2021. Three new species of Cataglyphis from Iran (10.3897@zookeys.1009.59205), Figs 1, 2.jpg Khalili-Moghadam, A., Salata, S. et al. 2021. Three new species of Cataglyphis from Iran (10.3897@zookeys.1009.59205), Figs 4-6.jpg

  • Mesonotum in both major and minor workers uniformly brown to black (Figs 9, 10, 15–18, 22, 24), petiole in major workers trapezoidal or knob-shaped, in minor workers in form of a thick squama (Figs 12, 13, 20, 21) => 37

Khalili-Moghadam, A., Salata, S. et al. 2021. Three new species of Cataglyphis from Iran (10.3897@zookeys.1009.59205), Fig. 9, 10.jpg Khalili-Moghadam, A., Salata, S. et al. 2021. Three new species of Cataglyphis from Iran (10.3897@zookeys.1009.59205), Figs 15, 16.jpg Khalili-Moghadam, A., Salata, S. et al. 2021. Three new species of Cataglyphis from Iran (10.3897@zookeys.1009.59205), Figs 17, 18.jpg Khalili-Moghadam, A., Salata, S. et al. 2021. Three new species of Cataglyphis from Iran (10.3897@zookeys.1009.59205), Figs 20-22.jpg Khalili-Moghadam, A., Salata, S. et al. 2021. Three new species of Cataglyphis from Iran (10.3897@zookeys.1009.59205), Figs 23, 24.jpg

37

  • Both dorsal and ventral surfaces of femora and tibiae with a row of long, black, and spiniform setae, mesosoma with thick and black setae (Figs 27, 28) Saudi Arabia => Cataglyphis asiriensis

Khalili-Moghadam, A., Salata, S. et al. 2021. Three new species of Cataglyphis from Iran (10.3897@zookeys.1009.59205), Figs 27-34.jpg

  • Only ventral surfaces of femora and tibiae with row of long, black, and spiniform setae, mesosoma with fewer and thinner setae (Figs 9, 15, 17, 24) => 38

Khalili-Moghadam, A., Salata, S. et al. 2021. Three new species of Cataglyphis from Iran (10.3897@zookeys.1009.59205), Fig. 9, 10.jpg Khalili-Moghadam, A., Salata, S. et al. 2021. Three new species of Cataglyphis from Iran (10.3897@zookeys.1009.59205), Figs 15, 16.jpg Khalili-Moghadam, A., Salata, S. et al. 2021. Three new species of Cataglyphis from Iran (10.3897@zookeys.1009.59205), Figs 17, 18.jpg Khalili-Moghadam, A., Salata, S. et al. 2021. Three new species of Cataglyphis from Iran (10.3897@zookeys.1009.59205), Figs 23, 24.jpg

38

Khalili-Moghadam, A., Salata, S. et al. 2021. Three new species of Cataglyphis from Iran (10.3897@zookeys.1009.59205), Fig. 9, 10.jpg Khalili-Moghadam, A., Salata, S. et al. 2021. Three new species of Cataglyphis from Iran (10.3897@zookeys.1009.59205), Figs 15, 16.jpg Khalili-Moghadam, A., Salata, S. et al. 2021. Three new species of Cataglyphis from Iran (10.3897@zookeys.1009.59205), Figs 12-14.jpg

  • At least sides of gastral tergite I with relatively shiny area (Figs 17, 24). Petiole in major worker knob-shaped in profile (Fig. 20). Iran => Cataglyphis dejdaranensis

Khalili-Moghadam, A., Salata, S. et al. 2021. Three new species of Cataglyphis from Iran (10.3897@zookeys.1009.59205), Figs 17, 18.jpg Khalili-Moghadam, A., Salata, S. et al. 2021. Three new species of Cataglyphis from Iran (10.3897@zookeys.1009.59205), Figs 23, 24.jpg Khalili-Moghadam, A., Salata, S. et al. 2021. Three new species of Cataglyphis from Iran (10.3897@zookeys.1009.59205), Figs 20-22.jpg

39

  • Mesosoma and posterior margin of head with numerous erect setae (Figs 29, 30) => 40
  • Mesosoma and posterior margin of head without or with sparse erect hairs (Figs 31, 32). Body black or black-brown => 41

Khalili-Moghadam, A., Salata, S. et al. 2021. Three new species of Cataglyphis from Iran (10.3897@zookeys.1009.59205), Figs 27-34.jpg

40

  • Propodeal dorsum distinctly longer than its declivity in profile. Petiole high, narrow-cuneiform, with weakly convex anterior surface, about as high as propodeum. Head and mesosoma red to red-brown (posterior half of thorax sometimes dark brown); gaster dark brown to black. Mountains of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan; Afghanistan and N Iran => Cataglyphis bucharica
  • Propodeal dorsum as long as its declivity in profile. Petiole cuneiform, with strongly convex anterior surface, clearly lower than propodeum. Body uniformly dark brown to black. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan => Cataglyphis piligera

41

42

  • Petiole low, nearly node-shaped, posterior margin of head strongly convex, rounded. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan => Cataglyphis oxiana
  • Petiole comparatively higher, broad- cuneiform. In large workers, posterior margin of head straight or slightly concave. Turkmenistan, Iran => Cataglyphis foreli

References