Key to Prenolepis

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This worker key is based on: Williams, J.L., LaPolla, J.S. 2018. Two new Prenolepis species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Indomalaya and Australasia, with a redescription of P. dugasi from Vietnam. Zootaxa 4441:71-180 (DOI 10.11646/zootaxa.4441.1.10).

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1

Williams and LaPolla 2016. Figures 15-27
Williams and LaPolla 2016. Figures 28-37
Williams and LaPolla 2016. Figures 38-50
Williams and LaPolla 2016. Figures 51-56
  • In profile view, dorsal face of propodeum flattened and much longer than the rounded posterior face, giving propodeum an elongate appearance; scale of petiole flattened, forming a right angle at its anterodorsal point . . . . . Prenolepis lakekamu
  • In profile view, dorsal face of propodeum about as long as posterior face and propodeum does not appear elongate; scale of petiole either rounded or pointed and does not form a right angle at its anterodorsal point . . . . . 2

2

return to couplet #1

  • In profile view, petiole narrow and elongate with rounded dorsal apex of the scale . . . . . 3
  • In profile view, petiole short and broad and forward-inclined with sharply-angled dorsal apex of the scale . . . . . 8

3

return to couplet #2

  • Ocelli absent; compound eyes surpassing the lateral margins of head in full-face view; scapes with appressed setae . . . . . 4
  • Three small ocelli present; compound eyes not surpassing the lateral margins of head in full-face view; scapes with erect setae . . . . . 6

4

return to couplet #2

  • Small (TL < 2.70mm), robust with short legs, antennae, and mesosoma; body light to medium brown; in profile view, posterodorsal part of propodeum obtusely angled (Fig 20); petiolar scale low in profile with a weakly sinuate anteroventral outline (Fig 54) . . . . . Prenolepis jacobsoni
Prenolepis jacobsoni 84.jpg
Prenolepis jacobsoni 83.jpg
  • Medium to large (TL > 2.70mm), gracile with elongate legs, antennae, and mesosoma; body uniformly dark brown to black; posterodorsal part of propodeum in profile view roundly produced, much higher than pronotum (Figs 21, 27); petiolar scale high in profile with a roughly subtriangular anterodorsal outline and almost straight ventral outline (Figs 55, 56) . . . . . 5

5

return to couplet #4

  • Overall cuticle shiny and smooth to lightly reticulate; pubescence completely absent on the dorsal surface of pronotum, propodeum, or gaster . . . . . Prenolepis jerdoni
MCZ-ENT00532855 Prenolepis jerdoni head.jpg
MCZ-ENT00532855 Prenolepis jerdoni side.jpg
  • Overall cuticle dull and finely reticulate; thick patches of pubescence present on the dorsal surface of pronotum, propodeum, and gaster . . . . . Prenolepis subopaca
MCZ-ENT00532862 Prenolepis subopaca head.jpg
MCZ-ENT00532862 Prenolepis subopaca side.jpg

6

return to couplet #3

  • Body uniformly dark brown to black; head roughly subtriangular in shape; cuticle of head lightly reticulate; ectal surface of mandibles with light longitudinal striations; in profile view, the ventral surface of petiole almost straight (Fig 55) . . . . . Prenolepis fisheri
Prenolepis fisheri antweb1008045 h 1 high.jpg
Prenolepis fisheri antweb1008045 p 1 high.jpg
  • Head and mesosoma light brown in overall color; ectal surface of mandibles smooth and shiny; in profile view, the ventral surface of petiole is curved upward toward the anterior articulation with the metanotum (Figs 51, 52) . . . . . 7

7

return to couplet #6

  • Body light brown with little to no difference in color among head, mesosoma, and gaster; head roughly square in full-face view; cuticle of head lightly reticulate; in profile view, dorsal outline of petiolar scale roughly subtriangular in shape (Fig 51) . . . . . Prenolepis darlena
MCZ-ENT00532839 Prenolepis darlena head.jpg
MCZ-ENT00532839 Prenolepis darlena side.jpg
  • Head and mesosoma light brown and gaster distinctly dark brown to black; head roughly subtriangular in full-face view; cuticle of head finely rugoreticulate giving dull appearance; in profile view, petiole club-shaped with dorsal outline of petiolar scale rounded (Fig 52) . . . . . Prenolepis fustinoda
Prenolepis fustinoda 70.jpg
Prenolepis fustinoda 69.jpg

8

return to couplet #2

  • In full-face view, compound eyes strongly convex, surpassing the lateral margins of head . . . . . Prenolepis naoroji
Prenolepis naoroji antweb1008047 h 1 high.jpg
Prenolepis naoroji antweb1008047 p 1 high.jpg
  • In full-face view, compound eyes weakly convex and not surpassing lateral margins of head; (Figs 38, 42, 45, 46, 48, 49) . . . . . 9

9

return to couplet #8

  • Body medium to dark brown with dark brown to black gaster; cuticle of propodeum finely rugoreticulate . . . . . 10
  • Color variable; cuticle of propodeum smooth and shiny . . . . . 11

10

return to couplet #9

  • Cuticle of head finely rugoreticulate, giving dull appearance . . . . . Prenolepis striata

11

return to couplet #9

  • Three small ocelli present; head subtriangular in shape with straight posterior margin . . . . . 12
  • Ocelli absent; head shape and posterior margin variable, but not subtriangular . . . . . 13

12

return to couplet #11

  • Body light to medium brown; torulae do not overlap with posterior border of clypeus; clypeal tooth with single seta extending from its point found medially on anterior border of clypeus; erect macrosetae on dorsum of head; abundant suberect setae on scapes and legs; no appressed pubescence on scapes and legs; in profile view, mesonotum is continuous with pronotum . . . . . Prenolepis dugasi
  • Body medium to dark brown; torulae overlap with posterior border of clypeus; no medial clypeal tooth on anterior border of clypeus; no erect macrosetae on dorsum of head, scapes, and legs; scapes and legs are covered in appressed pubescence; in profile view, mesonotum humped anteriorly and discontinuous with pronotum . . . . . Prenolepis nepalensis

13

return to couplet #11

  • Large (TL > 4.25mm); in profile view, propodeum with a rounded dorsal face (Fig 23); head and mesosoma yellow-brown, and gaster dark brown to black . . . . . Prenolepis melanogaster
Prenolepis melanogaster 99.jpg
Prenolepis melanogaster 98.jpg
  • Small to medium (TL < 4.25mm); in profile view, propodeum with flat to softly rounded dorsal face, posterodorsally obtusely angled (Figs 15, 19, 22, 25, 26) . . . . . 14

14

return to couplet #13

Prenolepis angularis 61.jpg
Prenolepis angularis 60.jpg
  • Body light to dark brown, without faint blue cuticular iridescence . . . . . 15

15

return to couplet #14

  • Compound eyes round in shape, medium-sized (distinctly smaller than those of other Prenolepis species); interocular distance relatively long . . . . . Prenolepis mediops
Prenolepis mediops 96.jpg
Prenolepis mediops 95.jpg
  • Compound eyes oval in shape, relatively large; interocular distance relatively short) . . . . . 16

16

return to couplet #15

  • Ectal surface of mandibles smooth and shiny, without longitudinal striations; in profile view, mesonotum humped anteriorly and discontinious with pronotum (Fig 26) . . . . . Prenolepis shanialena
MCZ-ENT00532863 Prenolepis shanialena head.jpg
MCZ-ENT00532863 Prenolepis shanialena side.jpg
  • Ectal surface of mandibles with deep longitudinal striations; in profile view, mesonotum continuous with pronotum . . . . . 17

17

return to couplet #16

  • Ectal surface of mandibles with shallow longitudinal striations; mandibles with 5 teeth on masticatory margin; distributed in China (Hunan) . . . . . Prenolepis quinquedenta
  • Ectal surface of mandibles with deep longitudinal striations; mandibles with 5-7 teeth on masticatory margin; distributed in Europe or North America . . . . . 18

18

return to couplet #11

  • In profile view, mesosoma more robust at the mesonotal constriction (Fig 25); distributed across southeastern Europe, the Balkan Peninsula, Turkey, and east to Georgia . . . . . Prenolepis nitens
Prenolepis nitens casent0179603 h 1 high.jpg
Prenolepis nitens casent0179603 p 1 high.jpg
  • In profile view, mesosoma slender at the mesonotal constriction (Fig 19); distributed across North America, from southern Canada to Mexico . . . . . Prenolepis imparis
Prenolepis imparis casent0005429 head 1.jpg
Prenolepis imparis casent0005429 profile 1.jpg