Leptomyrmex pallens

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Leptomyrmex pallens
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Dolichoderinae
Tribe: Leptomyrmecini
Genus: Leptomyrmex
Species: L. pallens
Binomial name
Leptomyrmex pallens
Emery, 1883

Leptomyrmex pallens casent0127342 profile 1.jpg

Leptomyrmex pallens casent0127342 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Evolutionary Relationships
Leptomyrmex
Neotropical

Leptomyrmex neotropicus (fossil only)



Leptomyrmex relictus



Australasian
Micro-Leptomyrmex

Leptomyrmex burwelli



Leptomyrmex dolichoscapus



Macro-Leptomyrmex


Leptomyrmex mjobergi




Leptomyrmex varians




Leptomyrmex unicolor





Leptomyrmex flavitarsus



Leptomyrmex puberulus





Leptomyrmex darlingtoni




Leptomyrmex fragilis



Leptomyrmex niger











Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus




Leptomyrmex wiburdi




Leptomyrmex cnemidatus




Leptomyrmex nigriventris



Leptomyrmex tibialis









Leptomyrmex geniculatus




Leptomyrmex nigriceps



Leptomyrmex pallens






Leptomyrmex rufithorax




Leptomyrmex rufipes




Leptomyrmex rothneyi



Leptomyrmex ruficeps










Based on Barden et al., 2017. Note only selected Leptomyrmex species are included.

L. pallens has been recorded from rainforest. Nests occur in soil, under tree roots and under rocks.

At a Glance • Replete Workers  

 

Identification

L. pallens can be distinguished from the other two New Caledonian Leptomyrmex (Leptomyrmex nigriceps and Leptomyrmex geniculatus) by its coloration. The black gaster contrasts with an otherwise unicolored orange body. This species occurs throughout the main island and on Ile des Pins, and is the most commonly encountered of the three species that occur on New Caledonia. (Lucky and Ward 2010)

Key to New Caledonian Leptomyrmex Species

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: -20.35000038° to -22.64999962°.

 
North
Temperate
North
Subtropical
Tropical South
Subtropical
South
Temperate

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Australasian Region: New Caledonia (type locality).

Distribution based on AntMaps

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Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

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Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.

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Biology

These conspicuous ants are most often encountered individually or as small groups of 2 or 3 foragers on the surface of the ground any time of the day or night. Because of their long legs and thin bodies, they superficially resemble spiders. This is especially true when they are disturbed, as they extend their legs, raise their gasters, and run quickly to escape danger. This has led to their being given the common name "spider ants."

Nests are found in soil or in dead wood, either standing or on the ground, and are often at the base of trees. Colony sizes average a few hundred workers and a single queen. In all but a handful of species, the queen is wingless and worker-like, differing from workers only in being slightly larger and with an enlarged mesosoma. In a few species the queens are fully winged, as they are in most other ants.

When a large source of food is found, workers of Leptomyrmex will return to their nest and recruit additional workers to help utilise the newly found resource. They also use workers as "living storage vessels". These special workers, called repletes, accept liquids from returning foragers who transfer their liquid foods to these selected workers. These special workers continue to accept liquids until their gasters become greatly enlarged and extended. When enlarged, repletes cannot escape the nest and remain inside suspended from the ceiling. They can retain these fluids for extended periods and dispense it on demand when food is in short supply.

Castes

Queens have yet to be collected.

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • pallens. Leptomyrmex pallens Emery, 1883: 147, fig. (w.) NEW CALEDONIA. André, 1887: 290 (m.). See also: Wheeler, W.M. 1915d: 276; Wheeler, W.M. 1934c: 108; Lucky & Ward, 2010: 44.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

Lucky and Ward (2010) – measurements (n = 10) HL 1.64–1.92, HW 0.92–1.11, MFC 0.19–0.25, IOD 0.54–0.63, SL 3.09–3.61, EL 0.30–0.38, WL 2.94–3.58, PW 0.73–0.93, DPW 0.27–0.39, HTL 3.60–4.09, HTWmin 0.11–0.13, HTWmax 0.14–0.18, CI 0.43–0.46, SI 3.11–3.51, OI 0.10–0.14, HTC 0.66–0.83.

As in Leptomyrmex geniculatus, but femora unicolorous. Entire body rufotestaceous, with black gaster. Head and sometimes pronotum slightly darker yellow than body, terminal abdominal segment pale, contrasting with black gaster.

Male

Lucky and Ward (2010) – HL 1.35, HW 1.00–1.03, SL 0.36–0.37, EL 0.54–0.56, HTL 3.89–4.04, CI 0.74–0.76, SI 0.35–0.37, SI2 0.71–0.76.

Type Material

Lucky and Ward (2010) - Type material examined: Syntypes, 2 workers, New Caledonia: “N. Caléd.” (Gambey) Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genoa

References

77: 69-118 (page 108, see also)

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • André E. 1887. Description de quelques fourmis nouvelles ou imparfaitement connues. Rev. Entomol. (Caen) 6: 280-298.
  • Berman M., A. N. Andersen, C. Hé ly, and C. Gaucherel. 2013. Overview of the distribution, habitat association and impact of exotic ants on native ant communities in New Caledonia. PLoS ONE 8(6): e67245. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067245
  • CSIRO Collection
  • Chapman, J. W., and Capco, S. R. 1951. Check list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Asia. Monogr. Inst. Sci. Technol. Manila 1: 1-327
  • Chazeau J., H. Jourdan, L. Bonnet de Larbogne, J. Konghouleux, and T. Potiaroa. 2003. Etude floristique et faunistique de la foret seche de Nekoro, 2 eme partie: evaluation de l'integrite de la faune par l'etude de la myrmecofaune. Lettre de Commande Programme Forêt Sèche /lRD N°l 54/2002/CP
  • Emery C. 1883. Alcune formiche della Nuova Caledonia. Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 15: 145-151.
  • Emery C. 1895. Descriptions de quelques fourmis nouvelles d'Australie. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 39:345-358.
  • Emery C. 1913. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Dolichoderinae. Genera Insectorum 137: 1-50.
  • Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et des îles Loyalty. Nova Caledonia. A. Zoologie 1:393-437.
  • Forel A. 1902. Fourmis nouvelles d'Australie. Rev. Suisse Zool. 10: 405-548.
  • Jennings J. T., L. Krogmann, and C. Burwell. 2013. Review of the hymenopteran fauna of New Caledonia with a checklist of species. Zootaxa 3736(1): 1-53.
  • Jourdan H. 1997. Are serpentine biota free from biological invasions? An example of an ant community from southern New Caledonia. Documents scientifiques et techniques 3: 107–108. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2008.00204.x.
  • Jourdan H., J. Konghouleux. 2005. Bilan entomologique des noyaux forestiers dits, S2 à S5, à Prony, définies par Goro Nickel SA. Rapport d'Expertise IRD / Goro Nickel SA, 15 pages.
  • Le Breton, J., H. Jourdan, J. Chazeau, J. Orivel and A. Dejean. 2005. Niche Opportunity and Ant Invasion: The Case of Wasmannia auropunctata in a New Caledonian Rain Forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology 21(1):93-98
  • Lucky A., and P. S. Ward. 2010. Taxonomic revision of the ant genus Leptomyrmex Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 2688: 1-67.
  • Shattuck S. O. 1994. Taxonomic catalog of the ant subfamilies Aneuretinae and Dolichoderinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). University of California Publications in Entomology 112: i-xix, 1-241.
  • Stitz H. 1911. Australische Ameisen. (Neu-Guinea und Salomons-Inseln, Festland, Neu-Seeland). Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1911: 351-381.
  • Stitz H. 1912. Ameisen aus Ceram und Neu-Guinea. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1912: 498-514.
  • Taylor R. W. 1987. A checklist of the ants of Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) Division of Entomology Report 41: 1-92.
  • Viehmeyer H. 1912. Ameisen aus Deutsch Neuguinea gesammelt von Dr. O. Schlaginhaufen. Nebst einem Verzeichnisse der papuanischen Arten. Abhandlungen und Berichte des Königlichen Zoologischen und Anthropologische-Ethnographischen Museums zu Dresden 14: 1-26.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1915. The Australian honey-ants of the genus Leptomyrmex Mayr. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 51: 255-286.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1934. A second revision of the ants of the genus Leptomyrmex Mayr. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 77: 69-118.
  • Wheeler W.M. 1935. Check list of the ants of Oceania. Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum 11(11):1-56.
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1927. The ants of Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci. 62: 121-153
  • Wheeler, William Morton. 1927. The Ants of Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 62(4): 121-153
  • Wheeler, William Morton.1935.Checklist of the Ants of Oceania.Occasional Papers 11(11): 3-56
  • Wilson E. O. 1958. Observations on the behavior of the cerapachyine ants. Insectes Sociaux 5: 129-140.