Leptothorax

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Leptothorax
Leptothorax acervorum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Alliance: Formicoxenus genus group
Genus: Leptothorax
Mayr, 1855
Type species
Formica acervorum, now Leptothorax acervorum
Diversity
20 species
(Species Checklist, Species by Country)

Leptothorax acervorum casent0104845 profile 1.jpg

Leptothorax acervorum

Leptothorax acervorum casent0104845 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Synonyms

Identification

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Keys including this Genus

 

Keys to Species in this Genus

Distribution

Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps

Species by Region

Number of species within biogeographic regions, along with the total number of species for each region.

Afrotropical Region Australasian Region Indo-Australian Region Malagasy Region Nearctic Region Neotropical Region Oriental Region Palaearctic Region
Species 0 0 0 0 11 2 1 11
Total Species 2841 1736 3045 932 835 4379 1741 2862

Biology

Heinze and Gratiashvili (2015) - A phylogenetic analysis suggests that functional monogyny evolved convergently in several lineages of Leptothorax. Reproductive skew thus appears to be a labile trait. This is made particularly obvious by the existence of both functionally monogynous and polygynous populations of Leptothorax acervorum (Heinze et al. 1995; Gill et al. 2009).

Association with Other Organisms

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Species Uncertain

  • An unknown species is a host for the cestode Choanotaenia crateriformis (a parasitoid) (Quevillon, 2018) (encounter mode secondary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest).
  • An unknown species is a prey for the Microdon fly Microdon mutabilis (a predator) (Quevillon, 2018).

All Associate Records for Genus

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Taxon Relationship Associate Type Associate Taxon Associate Relationship Locality Source Notes
Leptothorax host cestode Choanotaenia crateriformis parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode secondary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest
Leptothorax prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon mutabilis predator Quevillon, 2018
Leptothorax acervorum host ant Harpagoxenus sublaevis slave maker Beibl et al., 2005; de la Mora et al., 2021 (and included references)
Leptothorax acervorum host ant Leptothorax goesswaldi workerless inquiline
Leptothorax acervorum host ant Leptothorax kutteri workerless inquiline
Leptothorax acervorum host ant Leptothorax pacis workerless inquiline
Leptothorax acervorum host cestode Choanotaenia unicoronata parasite South Tyrol, Italy; Bavaria, Germany Buschinger, 1973; Peru et al., 1990; Laciny, 2021
Leptothorax acervorum host gregarine Mattesia geminata parasite United States (Montana), Germany, Italy Kleespies et al., 1997; Buschinger & Kleespies, 1999
Leptothorax acervorum host nematode Mermithidae (unspecified "Mermix") parasite Germany Gosswald, 1930; Laciny, 2021
Leptothorax acervorum xenobiont ant Formica fusca xenobiont Finland Czechowski, 2004; Kanizsai et al., 2013 In different successional series of rocky habitats, in mound of ''Formica lugubris''
Leptothorax calderoni xenobiont ant Camponotus modoc xenobiont United States Kanizsai et al., 2013; Wheeler, 1917 Pine forest. In log/in stump.
Leptothorax canadensis host ant Harpagoxenus canadensis slave maker Beibl et al., 2005; de la Mora et al., 2021
Leptothorax faberi workerless inquiline ant Leptothorax host
Leptothorax goesswaldi workerless inquiline ant Leptothorax acervorum host
Leptothorax gredleri host ant Harpagoxenus sublaevis slave maker Foitzik et al., 2003; Guillem et al., 2014; de la Mora et al., 2021
Leptothorax kutteri host gregarine Mattesia geminata parasite Germany Buschinger & Kleespies, 1999
Leptothorax kutteri workerless inquiline ant Leptothorax acervorum host
Leptothorax muscorum host ant Harpagoxenus canadensis slave maker Québec, Canada Smith, 1939
Leptothorax muscorum host ant Harpagoxenus sublaevis slave maker Lenoir et al., 2001; Bauer et al., 2009; Brandt et al., 2007; Fischer-Blass et al., 2006; Foitzik et al., 2003; de la Mora et al., 2021
Leptothorax muscorum host gregarine Mattesia geminata parasite United States (Montana), Germany, Canada (Alberta), Europe Kleespies et al., 1997; Buschinger & Kleespies, 1999
Leptothorax muscorum host gregarine Neogregarinorida, Ophryocystidae (species unspecified) parasite United States (Montana) Buschinger et al., 1995 reported as ''Leptothorax muscorum'' complex, includes European species
Leptothorax muscorum mutualist aphid Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae trophobiont Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Leptothorax muscorum xenobiont ant Formica rufa xenobiont Sweden Kanizsai et al., 2013; Wheeler, 1901
Leptothorax muscorum xenobiont ant Myrmica rubra xenobiont Finland Czechowski, 2004; Kanizsai et al., 2013 Shore meadow. Under stone
Leptothorax pacis workerless inquiline ant Leptothorax acervorum host Buschinger et al., 1981
Leptothorax paraxenus workerless inquiline ant Leptothorax sp. B host Heinze & Alloway, 1992
Leptothorax wilsoni workerless inquiline ant Leptothorax host

Flight Period

All Flight Records for Genus

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Taxon Month Source Notes
Leptothorax acervorum Jun Jul Aug Sep antkeeping.info
Leptothorax gredleri Jul Aug antkeeping.info
Leptothorax kutteri Jul Aug antkeeping.info
Leptothorax muscorum Jun Jul Aug Sep antkeeping.info
Leptothorax pacis Jul antkeeping.info

Life History Traits

  • Mean colony size: 25-60 (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Compound colony type: inquilinism (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Nest site: hypogaeic (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Diet class: omnivore (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Foraging stratum: subterranean/leaf litter (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Foraging behaviour: cooperative (Greer et al., 2021)

Castes

Morphology

Worker Morphology

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• Antennal segment count: 11 • Antennal club: 3 • Palp formula: 5,3 • Total dental count: 5-6 (6 usual) • Spur formula: 0,0 • Eyes: 11->100 ommatidia • Pronotal Spines: absent • Mesonotal Spines: absent • Propodeal Spines: dentiform; present • Petiolar Spines: absent • Caste: none or weak • Sting: present • Metaplural Gland: present • Cocoon: absent

Male Morphology

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 • Antennal segment count 12 • Antennal club 0 • Palp formula 5,3 • Total dental count 0 • Spur formula 0, 0

Karyotype

Species Uncertain

  • Leptothorax sp.1: n = 15 (Canada) (Loiselle et al., 1990).
  • Leptothorax sp.1: n = 16 (Canada) (Loiselle et al., 1990).
  • Leptothorax sp.1: n = 17 (USA) (Fischer, 1987).
  • Leptothorax sp.2: n = 12 (Algeria) (Fischer, 1987).
  • Leptothorax sp.3: n = 12 (Italy) (Fischer, 1987).
  • Leptothorax sp.4: n = 13 (Croatia) (Fischer, 1987).
  • Leptothorax sp.5: n = 14 (Canada) (Fischer, 1987).
  • Leptothorax sp.6: n = 22 (France) (Fischer, 1987).
  • Leptothorax sp.A: n = 17 (USA) (Loiselle et al., 1990).
  • Leptothorax: n = 21 (France) (Fischer, 1987).
  • Leptothorax: n = 16 (Japan) (Imai, 1969).

All Karyotype Records for Genus

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Taxon Haploid Diploid Karyotype Locality Source Notes
Leptothorax 12 Algeria Fischer, 1987
Leptothorax 12 Italy Fischer, 1987
Leptothorax 13 Croatia Fischer, 1987
Leptothorax 14 Canada Fischer, 1987
Leptothorax 15 Canada Loiselle et al., 1990
Leptothorax 16 Canada Loiselle et al., 1990
Leptothorax 16 Japan Imai, 1969
Leptothorax 17 USA Fischer, 1987
Leptothorax 17 USA Loiselle et al., 1990
Leptothorax 21 France Fischer, 1987
Leptothorax 22 France Fischer, 1987
Leptothorax acervorum 13 26 Canada; France; Germany; Sweden; Switzerland Fischer, 1987; Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1983; Loiselle et al., 1990
Leptothorax canadensis 16 Canada; USA Loiselle et al., 1990
Leptothorax canadensis 17 34 Canada; Germany; USA Buschinger et al., 1980; Fischer, 1987; Loiselle et al., 1990 possible variation due B chromosomes
Leptothorax canadensis 18 36 Canada; Germany; USA Fischer, 1987; Loiselle et al., 1990 possible variation due B chromosomes
Leptothorax canadensis 22 44 Canada; Germany; USA Fischer, 1987 possible variation due B chromosomes
Leptothorax canadensis 23 Canada; USA Loiselle et al., 1990 possible variation due B chromosomes
Leptothorax crassipilis 17 USA Francoeur, 1986; Loiselle et al., 1990
Leptothorax crassipilis 18 USA Francoeur, 1986; Loiselle et al., 1990
Leptothorax faberi 15 Canada Buschinger, 1982
Leptothorax faberi 16 Canada Fischer, 1987
Leptothorax goesswaldi 28 France; Switzerland Fischer, 1987 as ''Doronomyrmex goesswaldi''
Leptothorax gredleri 11 Germany; Switzerland Buschinger et al., 1980; Fischer, 1987; Loiselle et al., 1990
Leptothorax kutteri 23 24 25 France; Germany; Italy; Sweden; Switzerland Buschinger & Fischer, 1991; Douwes & Buschinger, 1983; Fischer, 1987 as ''Doronomyrmex kutteri''
Leptothorax muscorum 17 34 Canada; Germany; USA Buschinger et al., 1980; Fischer, 1987; Loiselle et al., 1990 possible variation due B chromosomes
Leptothorax muscorum 18 36 Canada; Germany; USA Fischer, 1987; Loiselle et al., 1990 possible variation due B chromosomes
Leptothorax muscorum 22 44 Canada; Germany; USA Fischer, 1987 possible variation due B chromosomes
Leptothorax pacis 26 France; Switzerland Buschinger & Fischer, 1991; Fischer, 1987 as ''Doronomyrmex pacis''
Leptothorax pocahontas 18 Canada Fischer, 1987; Buschinger & Heinze, 1993 as ''Doronomyrmex pocahontas''
Leptothorax retractus 17 Canada Francoeur, 1986; Loiselle et al., 1990
Leptothorax retractus 18 Canada Francoeur, 1986; Loiselle et al., 1990
Leptothorax sphagnicola 13 Canada Francoeur, 1986; Fischer, 1987; Loiselle et al., 1990 as ''Leptothorax sphagnicolus''

Phylogeny

Myrmicinae
Myrmicini
Pogonomyrmecini
Stenammini
Solenopsidini
Attini

Ochetomyrmex  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Tranopelta  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Diaphoromyrma  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Lachnomyrmex  (16 species, 0 fossil species)

Blepharidatta  (4 species, 0 fossil species)

Allomerus  (8 species, 0 fossil species)

Wasmannia  (11 species, 0 fossil species)

Pheidole  (1,294 species, 7 fossil species)

Cephalotes  (123 species, 16 fossil species)

Procryptocerus  (44 species, 0 fossil species)

Strumigenys  (880 species, 4 fossil species)

Phalacromyrmex  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Pilotrochus  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Protalaridris  (7 species, 0 fossil species)

Rhopalothrix  (19 species, 0 fossil species)

Basiceros  (9 species, 0 fossil species)

Octostruma  (35 species, 0 fossil species)

Eurhopalothrix  (55 species, 0 fossil species)

Talaridris  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Acanthognathus  (7 species, 1 fossil species)

Daceton  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Lenomyrmex  (7 species, 0 fossil species)

Microdaceton  (4 species, 0 fossil species)

Orectognathus  (29 species, 0 fossil species)

Colobostruma  (16 species, 0 fossil species)

Epopostruma  (20 species, 0 fossil species)

Mesostruma  (9 species, 0 fossil species)

Paleoattina

Apterostigma  (44 species, 2 fossil species)

Mycocepurus  (6 species, 0 fossil species)

Myrmicocrypta  (31 species, 0 fossil species)

Neoattina

Cyatta  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Kalathomyrmex  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Mycetarotes  (4 species, 0 fossil species)

Mycetosoritis  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

some Cyphomyrmex  (23 species, 2 fossil species)

some Cyphomyrmex

Paramycetophylax  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Mycetophylax  (21 species, 0 fossil species)

Mycetagroicus  (4 species, 0 fossil species)

Mycetomoellerius  (31 species, 1 fossil species)

Sericomyrmex  (11 species, 0 fossil species)

Xerolitor  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Paratrachymyrmex  (9 species, 0 fossil species)

Trachymyrmex  (9 species, 0 fossil species)

Amoimyrmex  (3 species, 0 fossil species)

Atta  (20 species, 1 fossil species)

some Acromyrmex  (56 species, 0 fossil species)

some Acromyrmex

Pseudoatta  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Crematogastrini

Rostromyrmex  (1 species, 6 fossil species)

Cardiocondyla  (89 species, 0 fossil species)

Ocymyrmex  (34 species, 0 fossil species)

Nesomyrmex  (84 species, 2 fossil species)

Xenomyrmex  (5 species, 0 fossil species)

Terataner  (14 species, 0 fossil species)

Atopomyrmex  (3 species, 0 fossil species)

Cataulacus  (65 species, 3 fossil species)

Carebara  (249 species, 9 fossil species)

Diplomorium  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Melissotarsus  (4 species, 1 fossil species)

Rhopalomastix  (14 species, 0 fossil species)

Calyptomyrmex  (38 species, 0 fossil species)

Strongylognathus  (27 species, 0 fossil species), Tetramorium  (601 species, 2 fossil species)

Cyphoidris  (4 species, 0 fossil species)

Dicroaspis  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Aretidris  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Vollenhovia  (83 species, 3 fossil species)

Dacetinops  (7 species, 0 fossil species)

Indomyrma  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Crematogaster  (784 species, 3 fossil species)

Meranoplus  (91 species, 0 fossil species)

Lophomyrmex  (13 species, 0 fossil species)

Adlerzia  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Recurvidris  (12 species, 0 fossil species)

Stereomyrmex  (3 species, 0 fossil species)

Trichomyrmex  (29 species, 0 fossil species)

Eutetramorium  (3 species, 0 fossil species)

Royidris  (15 species, 0 fossil species)

Malagidris  (6 species, 0 fossil species)

Vitsika  (16 species, 0 fossil species)

Huberia  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Podomyrma  (62 species, 1 fossil species)

Liomyrmex  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Metapone  (31 species, 0 fossil species)

Kartidris  (6 species, 0 fossil species)

Mayriella  (9 species, 0 fossil species)

Tetheamyrma  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Dacatria  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Proatta  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Dilobocondyla  (22 species, 0 fossil species)

Secostruma  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Acanthomyrmex  (19 species, 0 fossil species)

Myrmecina  (106 species, 0 fossil species)

Perissomyrmex  (6 species, 0 fossil species)

Pristomyrmex  (61 species, 3 fossil species)

some Lordomyrma  (36 species, 0 fossil species)

Propodilobus  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Lasiomyrma  (4 species, 0 fossil species)

some Lordomyrma

Ancyridris  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

some Lordomyrma

Paratopula  (12 species, 0 fossil species)

Poecilomyrma  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Romblonella  (10 species, 0 fossil species)

Rotastruma  (3 species, 0 fossil species)

Gauromyrmex  (3 species, 0 fossil species)

Vombisidris  (19 species, 0 fossil species)

Temnothorax  (512 species, 7 fossil species)

Harpagoxenus  (4 species, 0 fossil species)

Formicoxenus  (8 species, 0 fossil species)

Leptothorax  (20 species, 0 fossil species)

See Phylogeny of Myrmicinae for details.

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • LEPTOTHORAX [Myrmicinae: Formicoxenini]
    • Leptothorax Mayr, 1855: 431. Type-species: Formica acervorum, by subsequent designation of Bingham, 1903: 214.
    • [Type-species not Myrmica clypeata, unjustified subsequent designation by Emery, 1912d: 271; repeated in Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 79 and Emery, 1924d: 248.]
    • Leptothorax senior synonym of Mychothorax: Smith, M.R. 1950: 29 [both have the same type-species, synonymy is therefore absolute].
    • Leptothorax senior synonym of Doronomyrmex: Heinze, 1998: 195.
  • DORONOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Leptothorax]
    • Doronomyrmex Kutter, 1945: 485. Type-species: Doronomyrmex pacis, by monotypy.
    • Doronomyrmex junior synonym of Leptothorax: Heinze, 1998: 195.
  • MYCHOTHORAX [junior synonym of Leptothorax]
    • Mychothorax Ruzsky, 1904a: 288. Type-species: Formica acervorum, by original designation.
    • Mychothorax subgenus of Leptothorax: Ruzsky, 1905b: 609; Emery, 1915g: 24.
    • Mychothorax junior synonym of Leptothorax: Smith, M.R. 1950: 29.
    • [Leptothorax and Mychothorax share the same type-species, synonymy is therefore absolute.]

References