|Formica rubida, now Manica rubida|
1 fossil species
(Species Checklist, Species by Country)
|Based on Ward et al., 2014|
Four of the six species in this genus are found in western North America. One species is endemic to Japan and the other is Palearctic. Colonies are small and nests are usually found in openings in coniferous forests, commonly under stones or with open craters.
Nearly monomorphic ants; total length of workers around 5 - 8 mm. Similar to Myrmica, but differing as follows: Antennal funiculus with a 5-segmented club; propodeum without spines, armed instead with blunt tubercles. Promesonotal suture weak but distinct dorsally. Metanotal groove strongly impressed. Masticatory margins of mandibles each with two large teeth and 12 - 14 following denticles. Palpal formula 6:4. Body wholly yellowish brown, reddish brown, black, or with the head and gaster black and the mesosoma brown. Larvae without anchor-tipped hairs. Pupae are yellow.
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Keys including this Genus
Keys to Species in this Genus
Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps
Number of species within biogeographic regions, along with the total number of species for each region.
|Afrotropical Region||Australasian Region||Indo-Australian Region||Malagasy Region||Nearctic Region||Neotropical Region||Oriental Region||Palaearctic Region|
Fossils are known from Baltic amber (Bartonian, Middle to Late Eocene).
Little has been published on the biology of species within this genus. Food habits, foraging ecology and other aspects of their ecology are poorly known. Probably a generalized scavenger and predator.
Wheeler and Wheeler (1986) report the following about the free living western North American Manica species (Manica invidia, Manica hunteri and Manica bradleyi: The basic nest structure is probably the same for all three species: a reticulum of chambers and galleries connected with chambers under stones and opening to the surface by holes in the bottom of one or more small craters constructed of excavated soil; but great plasticity is manifest in the variations on the basic plan. The nests are usually polycalic and their limits almost impossible to determine. The nature of their food is an unsolved mystery. Workers take insects into the nest; but, in M. bradleyi and hunter only a few workers are out at anyone time, for only a few hours during the day and rarely at night; surely they cannot support a flourishing colony.
Our latest hypothesis is that Manica feeds on ants of other genera. Our tenuous evidence consists of three bits: (1) In Montana we found a Formica fusca mound which contained in one half Formica and in the other half Manica hunteri. (2) In Wyoming we found a F. fusca mound which was occupied only by M. hunteri. (3) Their intrageneric tolerance contrasted with their hostility toward other genera. If this hypothesis is correct, raiding must be an underground affair, for we have never witnessed any raids on the surface.
The ants of this genus are not aggressive, but when their nest is disturbed the workers sting promptly and effectively. The effect of the sting has been reported to be very painful, but we have found it only moderately so. The genus is unusual in that workers show no hostility to workers of another colony of the same species or even of a different species of the same genus; but they are murderously hostile toward workers of other genera.
The gait of the workers is characteristic: steady, deliberate and unhurried but never sluggish.
Association with Other Organisms
All Associate Records for Genus
|Taxon||Relationship||Associate Type||Associate Taxon||Associate Relationship||Locality||Source||Notes|
|Manica bradleyi||host||ant||Manica parasitica||inquiline|
|Manica invidia||xenobiont||ant||Formicoxenus chamberlini||xenobiont||Wheeler (1904)|
|Manica parasitica||inquiline||ant||Manica bradleyi||host|
|Manica yessensis||host||ant||Myrmica luteola||temporary parasite||Japan||de la Mora et al., 2021; Jansen et al., 2010; Masuko & Terayama, 2002|
All Flight Records for Genus
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Life History Traits
- Mean colony size: Up to 400 (Greer et al., 2021)
- Compound colony type: inquilinism (Greer et al., 2021)
- Nest site: hypogaeic (Greer et al., 2021)
- Diet class: predator (Greer et al., 2021)
- Foraging stratum: subterranean/leaf litter (Greer et al., 2021)
Workers, queens and males are present for all species. Microgyne queens are known for M. rubida.
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• Antennal segment count: 12 • Antennal club: 4-5 • Palp formula: 6,4 • Total dental count: 10-16 • Spur formula: 1 simple-pectinate, 1 simple-pectinate • Eyes: >100 ommatidia • Pronotal Spines: absent • Mesonotal Spines: absent • Propodeal Spines: absent • Petiolar Spines: absent • Caste: none or weak • Sting: present • Metaplural Gland: present • Cocoon: absent
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• Antennal segment count 13 • Antennal club 0 • Palp formula 6,4 • Total dental count 11-13 • Spur formula 1 pectinate, 1 pectinate
All Karyotype Records for Genus
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|Manica rubida||44||Switzerland||Hauschteck, 1965; Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1983||as ''Myrmica rubida''|
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.
- MANICA [Myrmicinae: Myrmicini]
- Manica Jurine, 1807: 276. Type-species: Formica rubida, by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 166.
- Manica junior synonym of Myrmica: Roger, 1863b: 28; Mayr, 1863: 431; Forel, 1915d: 9.
- Manica revived from synonymy as subgenus of Myrmica: Emery, 1921f: 42; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 660.
- Manica revived status as genus: Weber, 1947: 440.
- Manica senior synonym of Neomyrma (and its junior synonym Oreomyrma): Emery, 1921f: 42; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 660.
- NEOMYRMA [junior synonym of Manica]
- Neomyrma Forel, 1914a: 275 [as subgenus of Aphaenogaster]. Type-species: Aphaenogaster (Neomyrma) calderoni (junior synonym of Myrmica bradleyi), by monotypy.
- Neomyrma subgenus of Myrmica: Emery, 1915d: 69; Emery, 1916b: 120.
- Neomyrma senior synonym of Oreomyrma: Wheeler, W.M. 1915a: 50; Forel, 1915c: 364; Forel, 1915d: 9; Donisthorpe, 1916b: 242.
- Neomyrma junior synonym of Myrmica: Donisthorpe, 1916b: 242.
- Neomyrma raised to genus: Bondroit, 1918: 97.
- Neomyrma junior synonym of Manica: Emery, 1921f: 42.
- OREOMYRMA [junior synonym of Manica]
- Oreomyrma Wheeler, W.M. 1914d: 118 [as subgenus of Myrmica]. Type-species: Formica rubida, by original designation.
- Oreomyrma junior synonym of Neomyrma: Wheeler, W.M. 1915a: 50; Donisthorpe, 1916b: 242.
- Oreomyrma junior synonym of Manica: Emery, 1921f: 42.
- Creighton, W. S. 1950a. The ants of North America. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 104: 1-585. (page 105, Manica revived status as genus)
- Mayr, G. 1863. Formicidarum index synonymicus. Verhandlungen der k.k. Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 13: 385-460. [(31.xii).1863.] (page 431, Manica as junior synonym of Myrmica)
- Roger, J. 1863b. Verzeichniss der Formiciden-Gattungen und Arten. Berl. Entomol. Z. 7(B Beilage: 1-65. (page 28, Manica as junior synonym of Myrmica)
- Blaimer, B.B., Ward, P.S., Schultz, T.R., Fisher, B.L., Brady, S.G. 2018. Paleotropical diversification dominates the evolution of the hyperdiverse ant tribe Crematogastrini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Insect Systematics and Diversity 2(5): 3; 1-14 (doi:10.1093/isd/ixy013).
- Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 221, Manica in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
- Branstetter, M.G., Longino, J.T., Reyes- López, J.L., Brady, S.G., Schultz, T.R. 2022. Out of the temperate zone: A phylogenomic test of the biogeographical conservatism hypothesis in a contrarian clade of ants. Journal of Biogeography 00, 1-14 (doi:10.1111/jbi.14462).
- Burchill, A.T., Moreau, C.S. 2016. Colony size evolution in ants: macroevolutionary trends. Insectes Sociaux 63, 291–298 (doi:10.1007/s00040-016-0465-3).
- Cantone S. 2018. Winged Ants, The queen. Dichotomous key to genera of winged female ants in the World. The Wings of Ants: morphological and systematic relationships (self-published).
- Cole, A. C., Jr. 1956h. New synonymy in the genus Manica Jurine (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Tenn. Acad. Sci. 31: 260-262.
- Dalla Torre, K. W. von. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. (page 108, Manica as junior synonym of Myrmica)
- Emery, C. 1921c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174A:1-94 94: 1-94 + 7. (page 42, Manica revived from synonym as subgenus of Myrmica, and senior synonym of Neomyrma (and its junior synonym Oreomyrma))
- Emery, C.; Forel, A. 1879. Catalogue des Formicides d'Europe. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 5: 441-481. (page 460, Manica as junior synonym of Myrmica)
- Fisher, B. L.; Cover, S. P. 2007. Ants of North America. A guide to genera. Berkeley: University of California Press, xiv + 194 pp.
- Forel, A. 1915d. Fauna insectorum helvetiae. Hymenoptera. Formicidae. Die Ameisen der Schweiz. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 12(B Beilage: 1-77. (page 9, Manica junior synonym of Myrmica)
- Hanisch, P.E., Sosa-Calvo, J., Schultz, T.R. 2022. The last piece of the puzzle? Phylogenetic position and natural history of the monotypic fungus-farming ant genus Paramycetophylax (Formicidae: Attini). Insect Systematics and Diversity 6 (1): 11:1-17 (doi:10.1093/isd/ixab029).
- Jansen, G. & R. Savolainen. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the ant tribe Myrmicini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 160:482-495.
- Jansen, G., Savolainen, R. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the ant tribe Myrmicini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 160(3), 482–495 (doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00604.x).
- Jurine, L. 1807. Nouvelle méthode de classer les Hyménoptères et les Diptères. Hyménoptères. Vol. 1. Genève: Paschoud, 319 pp. (page 276, Manica as genus)
- McCluskey, E.S. 1974. Generic diversity in phase of rhythm in myrmicine ants. Journal of the New York Entomological Society. 82:93-102.
- Rabeling, C. 2020. Social Parasitism. In: Starr, C. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Social Insects. Springer, Cham. (doi:10.1007/978-3-319-90306-4_175-1).
- Smith, M. R. 1947f. A generic and subgeneric synopsis of the United States ants, based on the workers. Am. Midl. Nat. 37: 521-647.
- Smith, M. R. 1951c. Family Formicidae. Pp. 778-875 in: Muesebeck, C. F., Krombein, K. V., Townes, H. K. (eds.) Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico. Synoptic catalogue. U. S. Dep. Agric. Agric. Monogr. 2:1-1420. (page 791, Manica as subgenus of Myrmica)
- Smith, M. R. 1958a . New synonymy of a North American ant, Aphaenogaster macrospina M. R. Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 52: 113. (page 113, Manica as genus)
- Tartally, A., Somogyi, A.Á., Révész, T., Nash, D.R. 2020. Host ant change of a socially parasitic butterfly (Phengaris alcon) through host nest take-over. Insects 11, 556 (doi:10.3390/INSECTS11090556).
- Weber, N. A. 1947b. A revision of the North American ants of the genus Myrmica Latreille with a synopsis of the Palearctic species. I. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 40: 437-474. (page 440, Manica revived status as genus)
- Went, F.W., Wheeler, J. and Wheeler, G.C. 1972. Feeding and digestion in some ants (Veromessor and Manica). BioScience 22:82-88.
- Wheeler, G. C. and J. Wheeler. 1986. The ants of Nevada. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los*Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1970a. The natural history of Manica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 43:129-162.
- Wheeler, G.C. & J. Wheeler, 1970b. Additions to the natural history of Manica. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 43:363.
- Wheeler, G.C. & J. Wheeler, 1977. Supplementary studies on ant larvae: Myrmicinae. Trans. Amer. Entomol. Society (Philadelphia). 103:581-602.
- Wheeler, W. M. 1911g. A list of the type species of the genera and subgenera of Formicidae. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 21: 157-175. (page 166, Type-species: Formica rubida, by subsequent designation)
- Wheeler, W. M. 1914e. The American species of Myrmica allied to M. rubida Latreille. Psyche (Camb.) 21: 118-122.
- Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710. (page 660, Manica in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini; Manica revived from synonym as subgenus of Myrmica, and senior synonym of Neomyrma (and its junior synonym Oreomyrma))