Messor structor

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Messor structor
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Stenammini
Genus: Messor
Species group: structor
Species: M. structor
Binomial name
Messor structor
(Latreille, 1798)

Messor structor antweb1008070 p 1 high.jpg

Messor structor antweb1008070 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Subspecies
Synonyms

Unicoloniality and lack of swarming flights reported from Retz, Austria (Schlick-Steiner et al., 2005). In Greece, Messor structor appears to be mountain species, it was collected in mountain habitats between 535 and 1340 m a.s.l., mostly pastures, often close to coniferous forests, only one locality was in shadow mountain valley, on roadsides close to deciduous forest (Salata & Borowiec, 2019).

Photo Gallery

  • Messor structor queen. Photo by Michal Kukla.

Identification

Steiner et al. (2018) - Worker and queen. Mostly lighter than Messor ponticus and Messor muticus. Discrimination from Messor ibericus, M. ponticus, and Messor mcarthuri by long 1st funicular segment, by base of scape with rounded lobe, and by coarser sculpture of mesopleuron, from M. ponticus by abundant standing setae on side of head. Head more irregularly costate than in M. mcarthuri. Surface of 1st gastral tergite less imbricate than in M. ibericus and M. mcarthuri, similarly to M. ponticus and M. muticus.

Worker. Similarly sized as M. ibericus and M. muticus, smaller than M. ponticus and M. mcarthuri. For individuals difficult to discriminate from M. ibericus, M. ponticus, or M. muticus using qualitative morphology, linear discriminant functions based on morphometrics is available.

Queen. Larger than M. ibericus, similarly sized as the other three species. Discrimination from M. ibericus by reduced reticulation and rugosity of anepisternum and katepisternum.

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (type locality), Hungary, Romania, Slovenia.


Distribution based on AntMaps

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Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Habitat

A range of xeric habitats and, in some areas, open well drained anthropogenic habitats (lawns, abandoned fields, etc.).

Biology

Stoyanov et al. (2015) - Messor structor are harvester ants storing seeds in underground granaries. Being major seed consumers in xeric habitats they influence the vegetation by depleting and dispersing seeds (Azcarate, Peco 2003, MacMahon et al. 2000, Schlick-Steiner et al. 2005). According to Seifert (1996), Central European populations of the harvester ant genus Messor are currently considered to constitute a single species Messor structor. It has been reported that M. structor ants live mainly in polygynous colonies and could be members of unicolonial populations (Schlick-Steiner et al. 2005). Messor structor is one of the most widespread steppe species. It is well adapted to different conditions and occurs in all of Europe. In Bulgaria this ant is found all over the country in medium-sized populations and occur in plain desolate terrains, mountainous slopes, outskirts of mixed woodland zones and in open well-drained areas such as abandoned fields, pastures, and overgrown lawns.

This study examined genetic variability among populations of Messor structor from various localities (n=36 nests) in from Southern Bulgaria using isoenzymic analysis. Three of the four enzyme loci used were found to be polymorphic. Observed and expected heterozygosities (Ho and He) ranged from 0.0 to 0.111 and from 0.168 to 0.372, respectively. Nei’s (1972) genetic distance was found to range from 0.001 (between Boliarino and Lubenova mahala) to 0.462 (between Chirpan and Merichleri). The estimated mean F-IS and F-ST values from isozyme data were 0.8738 and 0.1432, respectively. Two of the studied populations were grouped separately in dendrograms as compared to all other populations which formed a large cluster consisting of three sub-clusters.

mtDNA. Thirty-one haplotypes of COI (1375 bp) known; (GenBank).

Association with Other Organisms

Castes

Worker

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • structor. Formica structor Latreille, 1798: 46 (w.m.) FRANCE.
    • Latreille, 1802c: 237 (q.).
    • Combination in Manica: Jurine, 1807: 279;
    • combination in Atta: Latreille, 1809: 130; Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835: 174; Mayr, 1855: 464; Smith, F. 1858b: 162;
    • combination in Myrmica: Nylander, 1856b: 85;
    • combination in Aphaenogaster: Roger, 1863b: 29;
    • combination in A. (Messor): Forel, 1892i: 316;
    • combination in Stenamma (Messor): Emery, 1898c: 126;
    • combination in Messor: Emery, 1897f: 238; Ruzsky, 1903b: 315; Emery, 1908e: 455.
    • Subspecies of barbarus: Emery, 1908e: 455; Forel, 1910a: 9; Karavaiev, 1910b: 67; Forel, 1911d: 346; Emery, 1912f: 96; Karavaiev, 1912a: 10; Stitz, 1914: 69; Emery, 1914d: 156; Emery, 1915h: 1; Wheeler, W.M. & Mann, 1916: 170; Emery, 1916b: 143; Santschi, 1917e: 91; Escherich, 1917: 327; Menozzi, 1918: 83; Santschi, 1921a: 110; Menozzi, 1921: 26; Emery, 1921b: 210; Emery, 1921f: 73; Soudek, 1922: 34; Finzi, 1923: 3; Emery, 1924b: 12; Ceballos, 1956: 301.
    • Status as species: Latreille, 1802c: 236; Jurine, 1807: 279; Latreille, 1809: 130; Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835: 174; Schilling, 1839: 56; Brullé, 1840: 84; Schenck, 1852: 113; Mayr, 1855: 464 (redescription); Nylander, 1856b: 85; Gredler, 1858: 30; Smith, F. 1858b: 162; Roger, 1859: 253; Mayr, 1861: 66 (in key); Smith, F. 1861a: 35; Roger, 1863b: 29; Mayr, 1863: 397; Mayr, 1867a: 93 (redescription); Emery, 1869b: 17; Walker, 1871: 10; Dours, 1873: 167; Forel, 1874: 74 (in key); André, 1874: 195 (in key); Mayr, 1877: 14; Emery, 1878b: 58; Emery & Forel, 1879: 461; Mayr, 1880: 33; Emery, 1881b: 534; André, 1883b: 353 (in key); Forel, 1886e: clxviii; Forel, 1889: 257; Nasonov, 1889: 37; Saunders, E. 1890: 204; Forel, 1892i: 316; Dalla Torre, 1893: 105; Forel, 1895d: 227; Ruzsky, 1896: 74; Emery, 1898c: 140; Ruzsky, 1902a: 235; Ruzsky, 1902d: 27; Ruzsky, 1903b: 315; Forel, 1904b: 373; Ruzsky, 1905b: 728; Forel, 1906c: 190; Forel, 1907e: 15; Forel, 1909c: 104; Forel, 1915d: 35 (in key); Bondroit, 1918: 150; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1923: 256; Müller, 1923b: 60; Finzi, 1924a: 13; Lomnicki, 1925b: 2; Wheeler, W.M. 1926: 2; Donisthorpe, 1926a: 7; Menozzi, 1926b: 181; Karavaiev, 1926b: 101; Karavaiev, 1927a: 286; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1927a: 92 (in key); Karavaiev, 1927c: 261 (in key); Kutter, 1927: 99; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1929d: 12; Finzi, 1929: 90; Karavaiev, 1929b: 209; Finzi, 1930d: 312; Cori & Finzi, 1931: 238; Santschi, 1931a: 4; Soudek, 1931: 8; Arnol'di, 1933b: 600 (in key); Karavaiev, 1934: 108; Grandi, 1935: 100; Zimmermann, 1935: 14; Finzi, 1936: 160; Finzi, 1939c: 155; Donisthorpe, 1950e: 1059; Consani & Zangheri, 1952: 40; Bernard, 1955a: 361 (in key); Bernard, 1956b: 258; Baroni Urbani, 1964a: 2; Baroni Urbani, 1964b: 41; Baroni Urbani, 1964c: 150; Bernard, 1967: 144 (redescription); Baroni Urbani, 1968b: 436; Collingwood & Yarrow, 1969: 64; Baroni Urbani, 1971c: 66; Baroni Urbani, 1974: 232; Collingwood, 1978: 81 (in key); Schembri & Collingwood, 1981: 427; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 54; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b: 271 (in key); Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 224; Casevitz-Weulersse, 1990b: 156 (in key); Le Moli & Rosi, 1991: 30; Arakelian, 1994: 38; Bolton, 1995b: 257; Mei, 1995: 762; Espadaler, 1997b: 30; Cagniant & Espadaler, 1998: 423; Gallé, et al. 1998: 214; Czechowski, et al. 2002: 37; Markó & Csösz, 2002: 116; Karaman, M.G. & Karaman, 2003: 43; Bračko, 2006: 137; Cagnaint, 2006a: 197; Markó, Sipos, et al. 2006: 69; Petrov, 2006: 92 (in key); Schultz, R. et al. 2006: 203; Bračko, 2007: 17; Seifert, 2007: 214; Werner & Wiezik, 2007: 140, 147; Zryanin & Zryanina, 2007: 231; Wetterer, et al. 2007: 14; Gratiashvili & Barjadze, 2008: 139; Paknia, et al. 2008: 155; Borowiec, M.L. et al. 2009: 378; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 489; Vonshak, et al. 2009: 43; Boer, 2010: 61; Lapeva-Gjonova, et al. 2010: 15; Csösz, et al. 2011: 56; Karaman, M.G. 2011b: 38; Legakis, 2011: 11; Borowiec, L. & Salata, 2012: 515; Czechowski, et al. 2012: 119; Guénard & Dunn, 2012: 45; Kiran & Karaman, 2012: 20; Borowiec, L. 2014: 112; Lebas, et al. 2016: 298; Radchenko, 2016: 171; Salata & Borowiec, 2018c: 46; Seifert, 2018: 177; Steiner, Csösz, et al. 2018: 399 (redescription); Werner, et al. 2018: 7; Salata & Borowiec, 2019a: 64; Barech, et al. 2020: 17.
    • Senior synonym of aedificator: Mayr, 1855: 464; Smith, F. 1858b: 162; Mayr, 1863: 397; Roger, 1863b: 29; André, 1874: 203 (in list); Forel, 1874: 101 (in list); Emery & Forel, 1879: 462; Dalla Torre, 1893: 105; Emery, 1921f: 73; Bolton, 1995b: 257; Czechowski, et al. 2002: 37; Czechowski, et al. 2012: 120; Radchenko, 2016: 171; Steiner, Csösz, et al. 2018: supplementary material, 6.
    • Senior synonym of darianus: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 224; Bolton, 1995b: 257; Radchenko, 2016: 171.
    • Senior synonym of jakowlevi: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 224; Bolton, 1995b: 257; Radchenko, 2016: 171.
    • Senior synonym of lapidum: Nylander, 1856b: 85; Smith, F. 1858b: 162; Smith, F. 1861a: 35; Mayr, 1863: 397; Roger, 1863b: 29; Forel, 1874: 100 (in list); Emery & Forel, 1879: 462; Dalla Torre, 1893: 105; Ruzsky, 1905b: 728; Emery, 1921f: 73; Bolton, 1995b: 257; Radchenko, 2016: 171; Steiner, Csösz, et al. 2018: 399.
    • Senior synonym of romanus: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 224; Bolton, 1995b: 257.
    • Senior synonym of rufitarsis Fabricius: Nylander, 1856b: 85; Smith, F. 1858b: 162; Mayr, 1863: 397; Roger, 1863b: 29; Forel, 1874: 101 (in list); Emery & Forel, 1879: 462; Nasonov, 1889: 37; Dalla Torre, 1893: 105; Ruzsky, 1905b: 728; Emery, 1921f: 73; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 54; Casevitz-Weulersse, 1990b: 154; Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 224; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 115; Arakelian, 1994: 39; Bolton, 1995b: 257; Gallé, et al. 1998: 214; Czechowski, et al. 2002: 37; Gratiashvili & Barjadze, 2008: 139; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 489; Csösz, et al. 2011: 56; Legakis, 2011: 11; Czechowski, et al. 2012: 120; Kiran & Karaman, 2012: 20; Radchenko, 2016: 171; Steiner, Csösz, et al. 2018: 399.
    • Senior synonym of subpolitus: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 224; Bolton, 1995b: 257; Radchenko, 2016: 171.
    • Senior synonym of turanicus: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 224; Bolton, 1995b: 257; Radchenko, 2016: 171.
    • Current subspecies: nominal plus tyrrhenus.
  • aedificator. Formica aedificator Schilling, 1839: 56 (w.) POLAND.
    • [Misspelled as aedificans by Mayr, 1855: 464, Smith, F. 1858b: 162.]
    • Combination in Aphaenogaster: Roger, 1863b: 29.
    • Junior synonym of rufitarsis Fabricius: Emery, 1921b: 211; Pisarski, 1975: 16.
    • Junior synonym of structor: Mayr, 1855: 464; Smith, F. 1858b: 162; Mayr, 1863: 397; Roger, 1863b: 29; André, 1874: 203 (in list); Forel, 1874: 101 (in list); Emery & Forel, 1879: 462; Dalla Torre, 1893: 105; Emery, 1921f: 73; Bolton, 1995b: 252; Czechowski, et al. 2002: 37; Czechowski, et al. 2012: 120; Radchenko, 2016: 171; Steiner, Csösz, et al. 2018: supplementary material, 6.
  • darianus. Messor rufitarsis subsp. darianus Pisarski, 1967: 383.
    • [First available use of Messor structor st. rufitarsis var. darianus Santschi, 1926f: 291 (w.) UZBEKISTAN; unavailable (infrasubspecific) name.]
    • [Misspelled as dariagus by He & Song, 2009: 724.]
    • As unavailable (infrasubspecific) name: Santschi, 1927d: 247; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1929d: 22.
    • Material referred to structor by Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1927a: 92 (in key).
    • Subspecies of rufitarsis Fabricius: Tarbinsky, 1976: 54; Dlussky, 1981a: 17; He & Song, 2009: 724.
    • Status as species: Schultz, R. et al. 2006: 203.
    • Synonym of turanicus: Santschi, 1927d: 247; Pisarski, 1967: 383; Pisarski, 1970: 306; Tarbinsky, 1976: 54; Arnol'di, 1977b: 1644 (in key).
    • [Note: Santschi, Pisarski, Tarbinsky, and Arnol’di, all give darianus as senior synonym, but turanicus has priority (Bolton, 1995b: 253).]
    • Junior synonym of structor: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 224; Radchenko, 2016: 171.
  • jakowlevi. Messor rufitarsis subsp. jakowlevi Arnol'di, 1977b: 1643 (in key).
    • [First available use of Aphaenogaster (Messor) barbarus subsp. capitatus var. jakowlevi Ruzsky, 1905b: 750 (w.) UKRAINE; unavailable (infrasubspecific) name.]
    • [Misspelled as jakovlevi by Arnol’di & Dlussky, 1978: 537 (in key).]
    • As unavailable (infrasubspecific) name: Emery, 1908e: 450; Emery, 1921f: 72; Emery, 1922c: 96; Karavaiev, 1927a: 287.
    • Subspecies of rufitarsis Fabricius: Arnol’di & Dlussky, 1978: 537 (in key); Steiner, Csösz, et al. 2018: supplementary material, 8 (nomen dubium).
    • [Note: because Steiner, Csösz, et al. 2018: 399, establish rufitarsis Fabricius as a junior synonym of structor, the synonymy of jakowlevi under structor still stands.]
    • Junior synonym of structor: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 224; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 114; Bolton, 1995b: 254.
    • Material of the unavailable name salina referred here by Arnol'di, 1977b: 1643 (in key).
  • lapidum. Formica lapidum Fabricius, 1804: 407 (w.) AUSTRIA.
    • Combination in Aphaenogaster: Roger, 1863b: 29.
    • Junior synonym of rufitarsis Fabricius: Emery, 1921b: 211.
    • Junior synonym of structor: Nylander, 1856b: 85; Smith, F. 1858b: 162; Smith, F. 1861a: 35; Mayr, 1863: 397; Roger, 1863b: 29; Forel, 1874: 100 (in list); Emery & Forel, 1879: 462; Dalla Torre, 1893: 105; Ruzsky, 1905b: 728; Emery, 1921f: 73; Bolton, 1995b: 255; Radchenko, 2016: 171; Steiner, Csösz, et al. 2018: 399.
  • romanus. Messor structor var. romanus Santschi, 1926f: 286 (in list).
    • [First available use of Messor barbarus st. structor var. romana Santschi, 1917e: 91 (w.q.) ROMANIA; unavailable (infrasubspecific) name (Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 61).]
    • As unavailable (infrasubspecific) name: Emery, 1921b: 211; Emery, 1921f: 73; Santschi, 1926f: 291 (in text); Arnol’di & Dlussky, 1978: 537 (in key); Legakis, 2011: 11 (error).
    • Junior synonym of structor: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 224; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 114; Bolton, 1995b: 256.
  • rufitarsis. Formica rufitarsis Fabricius, 1804: 406 (w.) AUSTRIA.
    • Combination in Aphaenogaster: Roger, 1863b: 29;
    • combination in Messor: Emery, 1921b: 211.
    • Subspecies of barbarus: Emery, 1921b: 211.
    • Subspecies of structor: Santschi, 1926f: 290; Santschi, 1927d: 247; Menozzi, 1933b: 54; Santschi, 1934d: 275; Santschi, 1939c: 6; Pisarski, 1975: 16.
    • Status as species: Röszler, 1942a: 51; Röszler, 1942b: 32; Röszler, 1951: 88; Bernard, 1955a: 361 (in key); Bernard, 1956b: 258; Baroni Urbani, 1964b: 41; Pisarski, 1967: 383; Bernard, 1967: 144 (redescription); Kutter, 1968a: 59; Pisarski, 1970: 306; Arnol’di, 1970a: 79; Tarbinsky, 1976: 54; van Boven, 1977: 88; Baroni Urbani, 1971c: 63; Kutter, 1977c: 82; Arnol'di, 1977b: 1643 (in key); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 537 (in key); Bernard, 1981b: 143.
    • Junior synonym of structor: Nylander, 1856b: 85; Smith, F. 1858b: 162; Smith, F. 1861a: 35; Mayr, 1863: 397; Roger, 1863b: 29; Forel, 1874: 101 (in list); Emery & Forel, 1879: 462; Nasonov, 1889: 37; Dalla Torre, 1893: 105; Ruzsky, 1905b: 728; Emery, 1921f: 73; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 54; Casevitz-Weulersse, 1990b: 154; Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 224; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 115; Arakelian, 1994: 39; Bolton, 1995b: 256; Gallé, et al. 1998: 214; Czechowski, et al. 2002: 37; Gratiashvili & Barjadze, 2008: 139; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 489; Csösz, et al. 2011: 56; Legakis, 2011: 11; Czechowski, et al. 2012: 120; Kiran & Karaman, 2012: 20; Radchenko, 2016: 171; Steiner, Csösz, et al. 2018: 399.
  • subpolitus. Messor structor var. subpolitus Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1927a: 92 (in key) (w.) KYRGYZSTAN, UZBEKISTAN.
    • Subspecies of structor: Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1929d: 15.
    • Junior synonym of clivorum: Tarbinsky, 1976: 56; Bolton, 1995b: 257.
    • Junior synonym of structor: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 224; Radchenko, 2016: 171.
  • turanicus. Messor structor subsp. turanicus Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1927a: 91 (in key) (w.) UZBEKISTAN, KAZAKHSTAN.
    • Subspecies of structor: Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1929d: 14.
    • Synonym of darianus: Santschi, 1927d: 247; Pisarski, 1967: 383; Pisarski, 1970: 306; Tarbinsky, 1976: 54; Arnol'di, 1977b: 1644.
    • [Note: Santschi, Pisarski, Tarbinsky, and Arnol’di all give darianus as senior synonym, but turanicus has priority (Bolton, 1995b: 258).]
    • Junior synonym of structor: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 224; Bolton, 1995b: 258; Radchenko, 2016: 171.

Taxonomic Notes

Salata & Borowiec (2019) (misidentification):

  • As Messor cf. clivorum: Borowiec and Salata, 2018a: 7.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Steiner et al. (2018) - Worker and queen. Colour: Head and mesosoma brown to brownish red, gaster brown; major workers sometimes entirely dark brown. Size: Medium. Head: Mostly costate entirely. Parallel costae below eye level. Especially in major and medium worker, vertex or even entire surface above eye level with irregular costae and costulae with microreticulation amongst. In minor and sometimes in media worker, costae reduced in postocular region; head almost smooth and frequently shining, with only fine costulae and microreticulate. Erect setae abundant on side of head from occiput to mandibular insertion. Scape: Base with rounded, laterally-downward directed lobe, very distinct in minor worker; can be reduced in major worker. 1st funicular segment long and flattened, almost as long as 2nd and 3rd segment together. Clypeus: Median notch well defined; can be shallow in minor worker. Pronotum: Middle mostly coarsely and irregularly costate throughout. Mesonotum: Coarsely and irregularly costate throughout. Mesopleuron: Coarsely sculptured with irregular transverse costae, with shallow punctuation among costae. Minor workers less costate with almost no punctuation. Propodeum: Mostly smoothly rounded; often obliquely rounded or rarely angled in major workers. Surface of 1st gaster tergite: Basis imbricate, middle with isolated snow-flakes-like structure. Covered with yellowish, thin, sparse hairs, some of which decumbent and subdecumbent in some individuals.

Queen: Metanotum: coarsely costate. Anepisternum and katepisternum: Middle shining and smooth, side with longitudinal costulae.

Male: Anepisternum: Shining, but often microreticulate. Katepisternum: Microreticulate, side with few costulae.

Type Material

Steiner et al. (2018) - 9 additional workers from the same nest series and labelled as the neotype are deposited in NHMW (5 workers) and in Hungarian Natural History Museum (4 workers). If neotype is destroyed or lost, a replacement neotype can be designated from these 9 workers.

References

  • Agosti, D.; Collingwood, C. A. 1987a. A provisional list of the Balkan ants (Hym. Formicidae) and a key to the worker caste. I. Synonymic list. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 60: 51-62 (page 54, Senior synonym of rufitarsis)
  • Arakelian, G. R. 1994. Fauna of the Republic of Armenia. Hymenopterous insects. Ants (Formicidae). Erevan: Gitutium, 153 pp. (page 39, Senior synonym of sevani)
  • Atanassov, N.; Dlussky, G. M. 1992. Fauna of Bulgaria. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Fauna Bûlg. 22: 1-310 (page 115, Senior synonym of rufitarsis, page 114, Senior synonym of mutica, novaki and varrialei)
  • Barech, G., Khaldi, M., Espadaler, X., Cagniant, H. 2020. Révision taxonomique du genre Messor (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) au Maghreb et description de Messor hodnii sp. n., une nouvelle espèce de fourmi trouvée en Algérie. Revue suisse de Zoologie 127(1) : 9-19 (doi:10.35929/RSZ.0002).
  • Baroni Urbani, C. 1971c. Catalogo delle specie di Formicidae d'Italia (Studi sulla mirmecofauna d'Italia X). Mem. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 50: 5-287 (page 66, Status as species)
  • Bernard, F. 1967a [1968]. Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp. (page 144, Status as species)
  • Bondroit, J. 1918. Les fourmis de France et de Belgique. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 87: 1-174 (page 150, Status as species)
  • Casevitz-Weulersse, J. 1990b. Étude systématique de la myrmécofaune corse (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) (Première partie). Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Sect. A Zool. Biol. Écol. Anim. (4) 12: 135-163 (page 154, Senior synonym of rufitarsis)
  • Depa, L. 2006. Weather conditions during nuptial flight of Manica rubida (LATREILLE, 1802) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in southern Poland. Myrmecological News 9: 27-32.
  • Dlussky, G. M.; Soyunov, O. S.; Zabelin, S. I. 1990 [1989]. Ants of Turkmenistan. Ashkhabad: Ylym Press, 273 pp. (page 224, Senior synonym of clivorum (and its junior synonyms rubella, and subpolitus), jakowlevi, tataricus, turanicus (and its junior synonym darianus), and material of the unavailable name romana referred here.)
  • Emery, C. 1897g. Anhang. Verzeichniss der auf der zweiten Reise nach Kleinasien (1897) gesammelten Ameisen, mit einer Neubeschreibung. P. 239 in: Escherich, K. Zur Kenntniss der Myrmecophilen Kleinasiens. I. Coleoptera. Wien. Entomol. Ztg. 16:229-239. (page 238, Combination in Messor)
  • Emery, C. 1898c. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der palaearktischen Ameisen. Öfvers. Fin. Vetensk.-Soc. Förh. 20: 124-151 (page 126, Combination in Stenamma (Messor))
  • Emery, C. 1908f. Beiträge zur Monographie der Formiciden des paläarktischen Faunengebietes. (Hym.) Teil III. Dtsch. Entomol. Z. 1908: 437-465 (page 455, Subspecies of barbarus)
  • Emery, C. 1914c. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Bearbeitung von O. Leonhard's Sammlungen. 5. Südeuropäische Ameisen (Hym.). Entomol. Mitt. 3: 156-159 (page 156, Subspecies of barbarus)
  • Emery, C. 1921b. Formiche raccolte a Budrum (Anatolia) da Raffaele Varriale, Cap. medico nella R. Marina. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. "Giacomo Doria" 49[=(3)(9): 208-218 (page 210, Senior synonym of tyrrhena)
  • Emery, C. 1921c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174A:1-94 94: 1-94 + 7 (page 73, Senior synonym of rufitarsis)
  • Emery, C. 1924b. Alcune formiche di Malta. Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 56: 11-12 (page 12, Subspecies of barbarus)
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