Radchenko and Elmes (2010) - M. kotokui is one of the commonest Myrmica species in East Asia, living in various habitats. It prefers different kinds of forests (pine, oak, maple, birch, lime, spruce, fir, larch), it occurs also in shrublands and meadows, but avoids dry places. In Japan on Honshu Island we found it living at altitudes of 1200-2000 m, further north on Hokkaido Island it lived at lower altitudes from sea level to about 1000 m. It builds nests predominantly in the soil, very often under stones, but also constructs soil mounds or nests in decayed wood. In Japan nests were usually found under “Bamboo grass” or in open deciduous forest. In contrast to the closely related Myrmica ruginodis, colonies of M. kotokui are quite polygynous, with population of the nests reaching several thousand workers (Kikuchi et al. 1999). Nuptial night occurs in August to early October.
Mizutani (1981) stated that the populations of dry riverbeds near Sapporo, Japan, are polygynous, while those of mountainous regions are monogynous, and that reproductive methods and head width are different in these two areas. He recognized small-female "microgyna" and large-female "macrogyna" variants. Future study is clearly required (Japanese Ant Image Database).
- 1 Identification
- 2 Distribution
- 3 Biology
- 4 Castes
- 5 Nomenclature
- 6 References
- 7 References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
Radchenko and Elmes (2010) - A member of the rubra group that is very difficult to distinguish from Myrmica ruginodis. Female castes differ from M. ruginodis mainly by the shape and sculpture of the petiole: the petiolar node dorsum (seen in profile) is slightly more rounded without a distinct dorsal plate, and the sides of the petiolar node are smoothly sculptured whereas M. ruginodis has coarse longitudinal rugosity (in these respects it more resembles M. rubra). In males of M. kotokui the clypeus is distinctly longitudinally striated while in males of M. ruginodis it is smooth.
Keys including this Species
- Key to Myrmica of China
- Key to Myrmica of species of East Siberia, Russian Far East, Mongolia, Korean Peninsula, northern China, and Japan
Russian Far East, Korean Peninsula, NE China and Japan.
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
Check data from AntWeb
In M. kotokui, winged queens differ in wing size among populations; shorter-winged queens mate near their natal nest, leading to secondary polygyny (Kikuchi & al. 1999).
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.
- kotokui. Myrmica rubra subsp. kotokui Forel, 1911e: 267 (w.q.m.) JAPAN. Raised to species: Collingwood, 1976: 300. Senior synonym of orientalis: Radchenko, 2005b: 142. See also: Radchenko & Elmes, 2010: 170.
- orientalis. Myrmica ruginodis subsp. orientalis Karavaiev, 1926f: 65, fig. 1 (w.) RUSSIA. Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1928b: 37 (q.m.). Subspecies of rubra: Weber, 1947: 450. Raised to species: Kupyanskaya, 1990: 101. Junior synonym of ruginodis: Radchenko, 1994f: 73; of kotokui: Radchenko, 2005b: 142.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Radchenko and Elmes (2010) - Forel does not say to whom he dedicated this species. Most probably he had in mind Shusui Kotoku, a well known Japanese socialist, journalist and author, who was hanged six months earlier for treason, on 24th January 1911, and was considered by many to be a martyr for peace and freedom.
- Collingwood, C. A. 1976a. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from North Korea. Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 68: 295-309 (page 300, Raised to species)
- Forel, A. 1911h. Fourmis d'Afrique et d'Asie. I. Fourmis d'Afrique surtout du Musée du Congo Belge. Rev. Zool. Afr. (Bruss.) 1: 274-283 (page 267, worker, queen, male described)
- KIKUCHI, T., HIGASHI, S. & MURAKAMI, T. 1999: A morphological comparison of alates between monogynous and polygynous colonies of Myrmica kotokui in northernmost Japan. Insectes Sociaux 46: 250-255.
- Kim, G., Lyu, D. 2012. Distribution of Ants (Insecta, Hymenoptera) in Chiaksan Mountain, Prov. Gangweon, Korea. Journal of Korean Nature 5, 127–129 (doi:10.7229/jkn.2012.5.2.127).
- Kwon, T.-S. 2015. Ant assemblages along the Baekdudaegan Mountain Range in South Korea: Human roads and temperature niche. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity 8, 152–157 (doi:10.1016/j.japb.2015.05.001).
- Lyu, D.-P. 2006. Review of the genus Myrmica in Korea (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 9: 189-202.
- Radchenko, A.G. & Elmes, G.W. 2010. Myrmica ants of the Old World. Fauna Mundi 3: 1-789.
References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
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