Radchenko and Elmes (2010) - M. kotokui is one of the commonest Myrmica species in East Asia, living in various habitats. It prefers different kinds of forests (pine, oak, maple, birch, lime, spruce, fir, larch), it occurs also in shrublands and meadows, but avoids dry places. In Japan on Honshu Island we found it living at altitudes of 1200-2000 m, further north on Hokkaido Island it lived at lower altitudes from sea level to about 1000 m. It builds nests predominantly in the soil, very often under stones, but also constructs soil mounds or nests in decayed wood. In Japan nests were usually found under “Bamboo grass” or in open deciduous forest. In contrast to the closely related Myrmica ruginodis, colonies of M. kotokui are quite polygynous, with population of the nests reaching several thousand workers (Kikuchi et al. 1999). Nuptial night occurs in August to early October.
Mizutani (1981) stated that the populations of dry riverbeds near Sapporo, Japan, are polygynous, while those of mountainous regions are monogynous, and that reproductive methods and head width are different in these two areas. He recognized small-female "microgyna" and large-female "macrogyna" variants. Future study is clearly required (Japanese Ant Image Database).
|At a Glance||• Limited invasive|
Radchenko and Elmes (2010) - A member of the rubra group that is very difficult to distinguish from Myrmica ruginodis. Female castes differ from M. ruginodis mainly by the shape and sculpture of the petiole: the petiolar node dorsum (seen in profile) is slightly more rounded without a distinct dorsal plate, and the sides of the petiolar node are smoothly sculptured whereas M. ruginodis has coarse longitudinal rugosity (in these respects it more resembles M. rubra). In males of M. kotokui the clypeus is distinctly longitudinally striated while in males of M. ruginodis it is smooth.
Keys including this Species
- Key to Myrmica of China
- Key to Myrmica of species of East Siberia, Russian Far East, Mongolia, Korean Peninsula, northern China, and Japan
Russian Far East, Korean Peninsula, NE China and Japan.
Latitudinal Distribution Pattern
Latitudinal Range: 38.28055556° to 30.359°.
- Source: AntMaps
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
Check data from AntWeb
|Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.|
|Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.|
Association with Other Organisms
- Explore: Show all Associate data or Search these data. See also a list of all data tables or learn how data is managed.
- This species is a host for the ichneumonid wasp Sp. nov. (a parasitoid) (Quevillon, 2018) (encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest).
- Check details at Worldwide Ant Nuptial Flights Data, AntNupTracker and AntKeeping.
- Explore: Show all Flight Month data or Search these data. See also a list of all data tables or learn how data is managed.
In M. kotokui, winged queens differ in wing size among populations; shorter-winged queens mate near their natal nest, leading to secondary polygyny (Kikuchi & al. 1999).
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.
- kotokui. Myrmica rubra subsp. kotokui Forel, 1911e: 267 (w.q.m.) JAPAN. Raised to species: Collingwood, 1976: 300. Senior synonym of orientalis: Radchenko, 2005b: 142. See also: Radchenko & Elmes, 2010: 170.
- orientalis. Myrmica ruginodis subsp. orientalis Karavaiev, 1926f: 65, fig. 1 (w.) RUSSIA. Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1928b: 37 (q.m.). Subspecies of rubra: Weber, 1947: 450. Raised to species: Kupyanskaya, 1990: 101. Junior synonym of ruginodis: Radchenko, 1994f: 73; of kotokui: Radchenko, 2005b: 142.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Radchenko and Elmes (2010) - Forel does not say to whom he dedicated this species. Most probably he had in mind Shusui Kotoku, a well known Japanese socialist, journalist and author, who was hanged six months earlier for treason, on 24th January 1911, and was considered by many to be a martyr for peace and freedom.
- Collingwood, C. A. 1976a. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from North Korea. Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 68: 295-309 (page 300, Raised to species)
- Dubovikoff, D.A., Yusupov, Z.M. 2017. Family Formicidae - Ants. In Belokobylskij S. A. and A. S. Lelej: Annotated catalogue of the Hymenoptera of Russia. Proceedingss of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences 6: 197-210.
- Forel, A. 1911h. Fourmis d'Afrique et d'Asie. I. Fourmis d'Afrique surtout du Musée du Congo Belge. Rev. Zool. Afr. (Bruss.) 1: 274-283 (page 267, worker, queen, male described)
- Jansen, G., Savolainen, R. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the ant tribe Myrmicini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 160(3), 482–495 (doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00604.x).
- KIKUCHI, T., HIGASHI, S. & MURAKAMI, T. 1999: A morphological comparison of alates between monogynous and polygynous colonies of Myrmica kotokui in northernmost Japan. Insectes Sociaux 46: 250-255.
- Kim, G., Lyu, D. 2012. Distribution of Ants (Insecta, Hymenoptera) in Chiaksan Mountain, Prov. Gangweon, Korea. Journal of Korean Nature 5, 127–129 (doi:10.7229/jkn.2012.5.2.127).
- Kwon, T.-S. 2015. Ant assemblages along the Baekdudaegan Mountain Range in South Korea: Human roads and temperature niche. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity 8, 152–157 (doi:10.1016/j.japb.2015.05.001).
- Lyu, D.-P. 2006. Review of the genus Myrmica in Korea (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 9: 189-202.
- Mizuno, R., Eguchi, K., Satria, R., Dang, A. V., Bui, V. T., Phung, L. T. H., Ito, F. 2023. Colony composition, phasic reproduction, caste dimorphism, and prey preferences of the oriental non-army doryline ant Yunodorylus eguchii (Borowiec, 2009) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dorylinae). Insectes Sociaux 70(1), 105–117 (doi:10.1007/s00040-023-00898-4).
- Radchenko, A.G. & Elmes, G.W. 2010. Myrmica ants of the Old World. Fauna Mundi 3: 1-789.
- Radchenko, A.G., Fisher, B.L., Esteves, F.A., Martynova, E.V., Bazhenova, T.N., Lasarenko, S.N. 2023. Ant type specimens (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the collection of Volodymyr Opanasovych Karawajew. Communication 1. Dorylinae, Poneromorpha and Pseudomyrmecinae. Zootaxa, 5244(1), 1–32 (doi:10.11646/zootaxa.5244.1.1).
References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
- Anonymous. A list of ants collected at Bandai, Fukushima Prefecture by the members of the Myrmecological Society of Japan in 1992. ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 18: 31
- Choi B.M., K. Ogata, and M. Terayama. 1993. Comparative studies of ant faunas of Korea and Japan. 1. Faunal comparison among islands of Southern Korean and northern Kyushu, Japan. Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan 48(1): 37-49.
- Choi B.M., Kim, C.H., Bang, J.R. 1993. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (13). A checklist of ants from each province (Do), with taxonomic notes. Cheongju Sabom Taehakkyo Nonmunjip (Journal of Cheongju National University of Education) 30: 331-380.
- Collingwood C. A. 1976. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from North Korea. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 68:
- Guénard B., and R. R. Dunn. 2012. A checklist of the ants of China. Zootaxa 3558: 1-77.
- Harada Y., K. Nishikubo, K. Matsumoto, M. Matsuda, Y. Inazawa, Y. Ozono, S. Koto, N. Kawaguchi, and S. Yamane. 2011. Ant fauna of Japanese beech (Fagus crenata) forests in southwestern Japan. Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan 66: 115-127.
- Harada Y., Yadori H., Takinami R., Nagahama K., Matsumoto Y., Oyama A., Maeda S. and Yamane S.K. 2013. Ants of the southernmost Fagus crenata forest in Japan. Nature of Kagoshima 39: 113-118
- Harada Y., Yadori H., Takinami R., Nagahama K., Matsumoto Y., Oyama A., Maeda S. and Yamane S.K. 2013. Ants of the southernmost Fagus crenata forest in Japan. Nature of Kagoshima 39: 113-118.
- Hosoishi S., M. Yoshimura, Y. Kuboki, and K. Ogata. 2007. Ants from Yakushima Island , Kagoshima Prefecture. Ari 30: 47-54.
- Kim B.J. 1996. Synonymic list and distribution of Formicidae (Hymenoptera) in Korea. Entomological Research Bulletin Supplement 169-196.
- Kim et al. 1993. Systematic study of ants from Chejudo Province. Koran Journal of Entomology 23(3): 117-141.
- Kondoh M. 1985. Ant community in Fagus japonica forest at Mt. Kirizumi, Gumma Prefecture. Ari 13: 2-3
- Kupianskaya A. N., Lelej, A.S., and Urbain, B. K. 2000. The Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Kuril Islands. Far Eastern Entomologist. 92:1-21.
- Kupianskaya A. N., and A. S. Lelej. 2000. The ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) collected in the Habomai and Shikotan (Kuril Islands) in 1998. Far Eastern entomologist 92: 22-24.
- Kupianskaya, A. N., Lelej, A.S., and Urbain, B. K. 2000. The Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Kuril Islands. Far Eastern Entomologist. 92:1-21.
- Kwon T. S. 2012. Korean ant atlas. Korea Forest Research Institute 162 pages.
- Kwon T. S. 2015. Ant assemblages along the Baekdudaegan Mountain Range in South Korea: Human roads and temperature niche. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity 8: 152-157.
- Lelej A. S. 2012. Annotated catalogue of the Insects of Russian Far East. Volume 1. Hymenoptera. Dalnauka: Vladivostok. 635 p.
- Lyu D.-P. 2006. Review of the genus Myrmica in Korea (Hymenptera: Formicidae). Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 9: 189-202
- Maeto K. and S. Sato. 2004. Impacts of forestry on ant species richness and composition in warm-temperate forests of Japan. Forest Ecology and Management 187: 213223.
- Ogata. K., Touyama, Y. and Choi, B. M. 1994. Ant fauna of Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 18: 18-25
- Paik W.H. 1984. A checklist of Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Korea. Korean J. Plant Prot. 23(3): 193-195.
- Park S.J., and B.J. Kim. 2002. Faunal comparison of ants among Cheongsando and other islands of South Sea in Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology 32(1): 7-12.
- Park, Seong, Joon and Byung, and Kim, Jin. 2002. Faunal Comparison of Ants among Cheongsando and Other Islands of South Sea in Korea. Korean Jornal of Entomology. 32(1):7-12.
- Radchenko, A. 2005. Monographic revision of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of North Korea. Annales Zoologici 55(2): 127-221.
- Sato T., N. Tsurusaki, K. Hamaguchi, and K. Kinomura. 2010. Ant fauna of Tottori prefecture, Honshu, Japan. Bulletin of the Tottori Prefectural Museum 47: 27-44.
- Terayama M. 1992. Structure of ant communities in East Asia. A. Regional differences and species richness. Bulletin of the Bio-geographical Society of Japan 47: 1-31.
- Terayama M. 1994. Ants of Okushiri-to Island, Hokkaido. Ari 18: 28-29.
- Terayama M., K. Ogata, and B.M. Choi. 1994. Distribution records of ants in 47 prefectures of Japan. Ari (report of the Myrmecologists Society of Japan) 18: 5-17.
- Terayama M., and R. Sonobe. 2002. Ants from the Nasu Imperial Villa, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. Flora and fauna of the Tochigi Prefectural Museum research report Nasu Imperial Villa 157-161.
- Terayama. M. 1994. Ants of Okushiri-to Island, Hokkaido. ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 18: 28-29
- Terayama. M. 2004. Geological and ecological distribution of Japanese ants communities. (translated from Japanese) Reports of the Saitama Prefecture Animal Research Association. 48:23
- Terayama. M. 2004. Geological and ecological distribution of Japanese ants communities. (translated from Japanese) Reports of the Saitama Prefecture Animal Research Association. 48:32
- Touyama Y., T. Yamamoto, and N. Nakagoshi. 2001. Myrmecofauna at gap site in Beech forest, seven years after typhoon disturbance. Adapholgia 67: 15-22.
- Ueda S., T. Nozawa, T. Matsuzuki, R. Seki, S. Shimamoto, and T. Itino. 2013. Phylogeny and phylogeography of Myrmica rubra complex (Myrmicinae) in the Japanese Alps. Psyche (in press)
- Weber N. A. 1947. A revision of the North American ants of the genus Myrmica Latreille with a synopsis of the Palearctic species. I. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 40: 437-474.
- Wheeler W. M. 1928. Ants collected by Professor F. Silvestri in Japan and Korea. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria della Reale Scuola Superiore d'Agricoltura. Portici 22: 96-125.
- Yamane S., S. Ikudome, and M. Terayama. 1999. Identification guide to the Aculeata of the Nansei Islands, Japan. Sapporo: Hokkaido University Press, xii + 831 pp. pp, 138-317.
- Yamane S., Y. Harada, and K. Eguchi. 2013. Classification and ecology of ants. Natural history of ants in Southern Kyushu. 200 pages
- Yamane S.; Ikudome, S.; Terayama, M. 1999. Identification guide to the Aculeata of the Nansei Islands, Japan. Sapporo: Hokkaido University Press, xii + 831 pp. pp138-317.
- Yoshimura M. 1998. Ants from Islands in Hokkaido, Northern Japan (No. 1, Risiri Island). Rishiri Studies 17:33-38.
- Yoshimura M. 1999. Ants in the island of Hokkaido (Part 2, Part Rebun) Ants from Islands in Hokkaido, Northern Japan (No. 2, Rebun-Island). Rishiri Studies 18: 49-54.
- Yoshimura M. 2000. Ants in the island of Hokkaido (Part 3, Part ???) Ants from Islands in Hokkaido, Northern Japan (No. 3, Teuri Island). Rishiri Studies 19: 27-35.
- Yoshimura M., T. Hirata, A. Nakajima, and K. Onoyama. 2003. Ants found in scats and pellets taken from the nests of the Japanese Wryneck Jynx torquilla japonica. Ornithol. Sci. 2: 127-131.